I Gede Putu Wirawan
Central Laboratory for Genetic Resources and Molecular Biology, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia

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IDENTIFICATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF SEVERAL GRASS SPECIES AND CACAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) BASED ON ITS SPORE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS Sintya Dewi, Ni Kadek; Susrama, I Gede Ketut; Sritamin, Made; Adnyana, Made; Wirawan, I Gede Putu
International Journal of Biosciences and Biotechnology Vol 2 No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University in cooperation with Asia-Oceania Bioscience and Biotechnology Consortium (AOBBC)

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi live in a symbiotic mutualism with plant roots and helps plant absorbnutrients and also able to live in various places. The study aimed to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungiin rizhosphere of several grass and cacao through microscopic method based on morphologicalcharacteristics and was conducted from December 2013 to March 2014. The methods used in this studywere spore isolation using wet sieving and root staining techniques. The results showed that arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi spores found in Imperata cylindrica L. were spores of Glomus (Glomales: Glomeaceae)with its vesicular and hyphae structure. The presence of spores and structures in Paspalum notatum wereAcaulospora (Glomales: Acaulosporaceae) and Gigaspora with its arbuscules, vesicules and hyphae structure.Spores and structures found in the Pennisetum purpureum were belong to genus of Glomus with hyphaeand arbuscular structure. Spores and structures of mycorrhizal fungi in Cyperus rotundus are spores of thegenus of Gigaspora (Glomales: Gigasporineae) and spores of Glomus with internal hyphae structure. Whilespores and mycorrhizal structures in Cacao were found two types of spore belong to genus of Glomus withhyphae and vesicular structures.
DISTRIBUTION OF CVPDR GENE AMONG SOME CITRUS PLANTS IN BALI Wirawan, I Gede Putu
International Journal of Biosciences and Biotechnology Vol 3 No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University in cooperation with Asia-Oceania Bioscience and Biotechnology Consortium (AOBBC)

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Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD) is the main disease of citrus plant caused by a Gram negativebacteria, Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticus. The disease is also called citrus greening disease or recentlycalled citrus huanglongbing. The CVPDr gene was firstly found in Triphacia trifoliata a citrus relativeplant which considered to be resistant to CVPD disease. The distribution of the gene among the citrusrelative plants in Bali were studied. The result of this study so far, CVPDr gene were found in theseedless lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and Triphacia trifoliata which are known as a resistant or tolerant toCVPD disease, however, Citrus maxima, Citrus nobilis, Citrus reticulate, and Citrus amblycarpa are allsensitive plants but their harboring the CVPDr gene. This result indicated that CVPDr gene was not givea resistant to the disease in these plants. This results suggested that other/s gene is needed to give aresistant or tolerant in these plants.
POTENTIAL EFFECT OF MACRO ALGA CAULERPA SP. AND GRACILARIA SP. EXTRACT LOWERING MALONDIALDEHYDE LEVEL OF WISTAR RATS FED HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET Julyasih, Ketut Srie Marhaeni; Wirawan, I Gede Putu
International Journal of Biosciences and Biotechnology Vol 5 No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University in cooperation with Asia-Oceania Bioscience and Biotechnology Consortium (AOBBC)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/IJBB.2017.v05.i01.p06

Abstract

Seaweed has potential nutrient content such as carotenoids, vitamins, fatty acids, carbohydrates, minerals, and other essential substances. Carotenoids have important biological functions as an antioxidant, and immunostimulatory which can prevent the disease, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, anti-aging, and protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Seaweed generally consumed as a vegetable by people in Bali, known as the local name Bulung Boni (Caulerpa spp.) and Bulung Sangu (Gracilaria spp.).. So far there has been no report or results of research on the effects of extract ethanol of Bulung Boni (Caulerpa sp.) and Bulung Sangu (Gracilaria sp.) as an antioxidant that can prevent lipid peroxidation which can be seen in decreased level of MDA in liver tissue or blood plasma. Therefore it is necessary to determine of plasmaMDA level of Wistar rat after fed high cholesterol diet treated with extract ethanol of Caulerpa sp. and Gracillaria sp. This experimental study used completely randomized design. Research using total of 24 Wistar rats divided into six sample groups of equal size, all fed with a diet high in cholesterol especially in negative control. The study consisted of negative control group (standard diet), positive control group (high cholesterol diet), high-cholesterol diet with Caulerpa sp. extract dose of 20 mg and 60 mg/100 g, high cholesterol diet with Gracilaria sp. extract dose of 20 mg and 60 mg/100 g body weight rat per day.The study resulted that rats fed high cholesterol diet with treated extract ethanol Caulerpa sp. and Gracilaria sp. with a dose of 20 mg and 60 mg per 100 g body weight rat / day had plasma MDA level significantly lower (p <0.05) compared with rats fed high cholesterol diet without treated with extract of Caulerpa sp. and Gracilaria sp.
PERBANYAKAN TANAMAN JERUK SIAM (CITRUS NOBILIS L.) DENGAN TEKNIK KULTUR IN VITRO MENGGUNAKAN BIJI TANAMAN TERINFEKSI PENYAKIT CITRUS VEIN PHLOEM DEGENERATION (CVPD) BAGASKARA, BAYU ARYA; WIRAWAN, I GEDE PUTU; SRITAMIN, MADE; YUNITI, I GUSTI AYU DIAH
Agrotrop: Journal on Agriculture Science Vol 8 No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Udayana

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Citrus (Citrus nobilis L.) Propagation Through Culture In Vitro Using Seed From Infected Plants Of Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD) Disease. The sample was taken in Belancan Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, and invitro culture was conducted in UPT. Genetics Resource and Molecular Biology Laboratory in February to June 2018. This research purposes were to get the new citrus plant from citrus seed infected of CVPD disease explants with culture in vitro and found the presence of the bacterium Liberobacter asiaticus in results of citrus plants culture in vitro. The sampling method is using plants appearance. Obtained sample 1 is a plant that shows severe symptoms of CVPD disease and sample 2 plants that show no symptoms of CVPD disease. Seed Sample is cultured with MS0 medium for 8 WAP then proceed to acclimatization. The results of this research showed that the seed explants from both samples were able to grow well and did not have the characteristic of CVPD disease, but explant seed sample 2 in vitro culture result showed that the bacterial DNA bacterium Liberobacter asiaticus pathogen CVPD disease does exist in length 1160bp, so it cannot be expected to produce CVPD-free crops.
ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF FRANGIPANI (PLUMERIA ALBA) POWDER EXTRACT Wrasiati, Luh Putu; Wirawan, I Gede Putu; Agus Bagiada, Nyoman; Mantik Astawa, I Nyoman
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 5, No. 2 Mei 2011
Publisher : Udayana University

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This research aimed to identify the antioxidant capacity, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and total phenolic compounds of frangipani flower powder. The powder was extracted using ethanol, methanol, acetic acid, and water (aquadest). Antioxidant capacity of each extract were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method, vitamin C were determined using 2,4 Dinitrophenylhydrazine, and total phenolic compounds were determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent. All of parameters were measured by spectrofotometer. The result shows that the highest value of antioxidant capacity was ethanolic extract (18.19%) and the lowest value was acetic acid extract (12.74%). The highest value of vitamin C was aqueous extract (3.49 mg/100g) and the lowest value was acetic acid extract (3.02 mg/100g). The highest value of total phenolic content was aqueous extract (25.49 mg GAE/g) and the lowest value was acetic acid extract (22.74 mg GAE/g). In conclusion, the higher antioxidant capacity was not always followed by the higher of vitamin C and total phenolic compounds.
CROP IMPROVEMENT THROUGH INDUCING MUTAGENESIS IN VIVO USING COLCHICINE ON COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L. WALP) Susrama, I Gede Ketut; Wirawan, I Gede Putu
International Journal of Biosciences and Biotechnology Vol 4 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University in cooperation with Asia-Oceania Bioscience and Biotechnology Consortium (AOBBC)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/IJBB.2017.v04.i02.p02

Abstract

Colchicine treatments of 0.005% and 0.01% either in distilled water or in hydrogen peroxide 3% were caused temporary leaf shape changes on cowpea. Treatment of colchicine in hydrogen peroxide 3% resulted in green pod color change to purple however treatment of just hydrogen peroxide 3% and colchicine in hydrogen peroxide 3% caused 8.8-10.7% dwarf cowpea. As a preliminary data, we also observed that cowpea crops grown from seeds treated with colchicine in distillate water attacked by bean leaf beetle much earlier compare to the treatment with colchicine in hydrogen peroxide 3%.
IDENTIFIKASI MIKORIZA ABUSKULA SECARA MIKROSKOPIS PADA RHIZOSFER BEBERAPA JENIS RUMPUT-RUMPUTAN DAN TANAMAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) DEWI, NI KADEK SINTYA; WIRAWAN, I GEDE PUTU; SRITAMIN, MADE
Jurnal Agroekoteknologi Tropika (Journal of Tropical Agroecotechnology) Vol.3, No.4, Oktober 2014
Publisher : Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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ABSTRACT Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza through Microscopis Methode in Rhizosfer of Several Grass and Cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi that live in a symbiotic mutualism with plant roots and helps the absorption of plant nutrients, and also able to live in various places. The study aimed to identifiy arbuscular mycorrhiza through microscopic methode in rhizosfer of several grass and cacao was conducted from December 2013 to March 2014. The method used in this study were spore isolation by wet sieving and root staining techniques. The results showed that arbuscular mycorrhiza spores and structures found in Imperata cylindrica L. are 2 types spores of genus Glomus (Glomales: Glomeaceae) with vesicular and hyphae structures. The presence of spores and structures in Paspalum notatum are Acaulospora (Glomales: Acaulosporaceae) and genus Gigaspora (Glomales: Gigasporineae) with arbuscular, vesicular and hyphae structure. Spores and structures of mycorrhiza found in the Pennisetum purpureum are 3 types of the genus Glomus with hyphae and arbuscular structure. Spores and structures mycorrhiza in the Cyperus rotundus are 1 type spore of the genus Gigaspora and 2 types of spores Glomus with internal hyphae structure. While spores and mycorrhiza structures in the cacao are 2 types spore of the genus Glomus with hyphae and vesicular structures.   Keywords: Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Structure
IDENTIFIKASI MIKORIZA VESIKULAR ARBUSKULAR (MVA) DARI RHIZOSFER BAWANG MERAH (ALLIUM CEPA L.) DAN TALAS (COLOCASEAN ESCULENTA (L.) SCHOTT) SERTA PERBANYAKANNYA MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA ZEOLIT ARMINI, NI WAYAN; WIRAWAN, I GEDE PUTU; WIJAYA, I NYOMAN
Jurnal Agroekoteknologi Tropika (Journal of Tropical Agroecotechnology) Vol.4, No.4, Oktober 2015
Publisher : Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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ABSTRACT Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) Identification of Red Onion (Allium cepa L.) and Taro (Colocasean esculenta (L.)Schott) Rhizosphere and Its Spore Multiplication in Zeolite Media Efforts to increase agricultural production can be done with a variety of technologies. Technology is widely applied to farmers in the cultivation process is the use of inorganic fertilizers with high doses exceeding the dose of balanced fertilizer. In the production of onion crops in the field, also using inorganic fertilizer application on an ongoing basis which may result in damage to the ground both in terms of texture and structure. Red onions and taro roots are shallow causing both of these plants are unable to absorb nutrients to the maximum if exercised enough chemical fertilizer. This study was aimed to determine genus and species of VAM in red onion and taro rhizosphere, its colonization in root tissue, and to examine zeolite media compatibility with corn as a symbiont. Based on the results of the study, it was found three species of VAM spores of red red onion plant rhizosphere, namely: Acaulospora denticulata, A. laevis, Glomus ambisporum, and five species of VAM spores recovered from the rhizosphere of taro plants namely: Acaulospora foveata, A. koskei, A. capsicula, Scutellospora calospora and Glomus ambisporum. Infections were found in plants onion, taro and corn plants form symbiotic arbuscular, vesicles and inner spore. VAM from the rhizosphere of plants onion and taro can be reproduced using zeolite media and symbionts plant corn. Keywords: MVA, rhizosphere, Acaulospora, zeolite, inner spore
DETEKSI PENYAKIT TANAMAN CABAI RAWIT (CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) YANG TUMBUH DISEKITAR TANAMAN JERUK BERGEJALA CITRUS VEIN PHLOEM DEGENERATION (CVPD) MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) PASARI, NI KADEK DWI; WIRAWAN, I GEDE PUTU; SRITAMIN, MADE
Jurnal Agroekoteknologi Tropika (Journal of Tropical Agroecotechnology) Vol.7, No.1, Januari 2018
Publisher : Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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Detection of Chilli plant (Capsicum frutescens L.) which Grow in the Area of Citrus Cultivation that had symptoms of Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD) Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technique Liberibacter bacteria live and thrive inside the phloem tissue CVPD affected plants, the bacteria exhibit a progressive degeneration of the phloem tissue that inhibit phloem nutrient transport through the entire plan.. As the attack of Liberibacterasiaticus cause Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD) disease in citrus plant, it is necessary to do research on the chilli plant around citrus plant area to know whether bacteria of Liberibacter also attack the chilli plant by using PCR.The results of this study indicate that the chilli plants with CVPD symptoms which are suspected to be caused by the bacterium Liberibacter by usingLiberibacter asiaticus primer and Liberibacter solanaceae which is them specific primer of 16S rDNA are not proven. The result showed chilli plants with similar symptom to CVPD in Mangguh village, Kintamani sub-district were not to be caused by Liberibacter asiaticus and Liberibactersolanaceae.
ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI CENDAWAN MIKORIZA ARBUSKULAR PADA TANAH DAN AKAR TANAMAN JAGUNG DI DESA SANUR KAJA DIASTAMA, I WAYAN PRASTITA; SUSRAMA, I GEDE KETUT; WIRAWAN, I GEDE PUTU
Jurnal Agroekoteknologi Tropika (Journal of Tropical Agroecotechnology) Vol.4, No.1, Januari 2015
Publisher : Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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ABSTRACT Isolation and Characterization of Mycorrhizae Arbuskular Fungi in the Soil and Roots of Corn (Zea Mays L.) in the Sanur Kaja Village Mycorrhiza is an organism that is derived from the fungus that describes a form of symbiotic relationship between mutualisme functions with a high degree of plant roots. Benefits of mycorrhiza for plant growth and development as its host is to increase the absorption of nutrient elements of soils, as biological barrier against infection of root pathogen, enhancing the resilience of crops to drought and increasing hormone boosters grows.This research aims to identify a Arbuskular Mycorrhiza fungi isolated from corn plants rhizosphere in the village of Sanur Kaja. The results of this research show that the isolation and characterization of spores that develop on the roots of corn in the village of Sanur Kaja indicates a growing spores there is the genus Glomus sp. type of Spore that successfully identified a species of Glomus sp-1, Glomus sp-2, Glomus sp-3. Key words:Glomus sp, rhizosphere, symbiotic mutualisme