Articles

PERLAKUAN AIR PANAS PADA UMBI BAWANG MERAH (ALLIUM CEPA VAR. ASCALONICUM) UNTUK MENEKAN INFEKSI VIRUS DI LAPANGAN Harti, Heri; Sobir; Wiyono, Suryo; Hendrastuti Hidayat, Sri
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol. 9 No. 3 (2018): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (490.62 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jhi.9.3.149-157

Abstract

High infestation of viruses on shallot?s bulb has been reported, although little is known on the effect of virus infection on shallot productivity. The use of virus-free bulbs is assumed to be the key factor to improve productivity. Hot water treatment of bulbs before planting is one of methodologies to eliminate virus from shallot bulbs. Therefore, research was conducted to study the effectiveness of hot water treatment methods of shallots bulbs to reduce virus infections in the field. Field experiment was conducted using split plot randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was the use of netting, i.e. growing shallot in netting house and in open field. The second factor was hot water treatment of shallot bulb at 45 0C for 15, 30, and 45 min and without treatment. Observations were conducted on the incidence of virus infections, plant growth (number of tillers and plant height) and shallots productivity. Virus infection was confirmed using specific antibodies. Observation of disease symptom indicated that the use of netting house did not significantly suppress the incidence of virus diseases, while hot water treatment significantly reduced the incidence of virus diseases. Hot water treatment for 15, 30 and 45 minutes at 45 0C was able to suppress virus incidence in the field up to 54.98%, 56.77% and 64.35%, respectively. Key words: netting house, soaking time, viruses elimination, virus incidence
KEANEKARAGAMAN DAN PATOGENISITAS FUSARIUM SPP. ASAL BEBERAPA KULTIVAR PISANG Sari, Widya; Wiyono, Suryo; Nurmansyah, Ali; Munif, Abdul; Poerwanto, Roedhy
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 6 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1079.575 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.6.216

Abstract

Fusarium wilt disease caused by pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense is an important disease in banana plants. This research was aimed to identifiy Fusarium spp. collected from banana plants showing wilt disease based on morphology and molecular characters.  The fungi isolates obtained was further examined for its pathogenicity and distribution in various parts of banana plants.  Based on morphological characters, i.e. growth rate, total conidia, colony color, macroconidium, microconidium, and chlamydospores, F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense can be differentiated from other species of Fusarium, but not the strain. Molecular analysis using specific primers VCG 01213/16 and Foc1/Foc 2 successfully identified 13 and 7 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense TR4 and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense non TR4, respectively.  Analysis using universal primer ITS4/ITS5 identified 7 isolates of F. solani, 1 isolate of F. verticillioides, and 2 isolates non Fusarium.  Infection of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense TR4 and non-TR4 were found mostly in pseudo stems, whereas F. solani and F. verticillioides dominantly colonized banana corm. Pathogenicity test showed that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense TR4 and non-TR4 caused necrosis on corm of cv. Ambon Kuning.  Similar necrosis symptom was also observed on infection of F. solani but with less severity.
INFEKSI PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS PADA TANAMAN PEPAYA DI PROVINSI NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti; Nurulita, Sari; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8 No 6 (2012)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (482.156 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.8.6.184

Abstract

Severe mosaic symptoms was observed on papaya plants in Meusa village, Kutablang sub district, Bireun district and Lambaro Teunom village, Lembah Seulawah sub district, Aceh Besar district. Systemic mosaic was found in leaves, stem, twig, and fruit. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was conducted to detect the virus causing mosaic symptoms using universal primer for Potyvirus. Amplification of 320 bp DNA fragment was successfully obtained from leaves and fruits bearing severe mosaic symptoms. Nucleotide sequencing was proceeded using the DNA amplicon as the template. Further sequence analysis indicated that Potyvirus isolates from papaya in Aceh show the highest homology (92.7% to 94.7%) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. This is the first report on PRSV infection on papaya in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam province.   Key words: Potyvirus, RT-PCR, sequencing 
PENAMBAHAN BERBAGAI JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK DAN PUPUK HAYATI TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS DAN MUTU BENIH KEDELAI (GLYCINE MAX.L.) Rifka, .; Surahman, Memen; Wiyono, Suryo
Buletin Agrohorti Vol. 7 No. 3 (2019): Buletin Agrohorti
Publisher : Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29244/agrob.v7i3.30474

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan jenis pupuk organik untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan mutubenih tanaman kedelai (Glycine max L.). Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Leuwikopo, InstitutPertanian Bogor, Dramaga, Bogor pada bulan Desember 2017-April 2018. Jenis tanah Kebun PercobaanLeuwikopo yaitu latosol. Rancangan perlakuan yang digunakan adalah faktorial satu faktor dalam rancanganlingkungan kelompok lengkap teracak dengan empat ulangan. Faktor yang diamati adalah jenis pupuk yangterdiri atas enam taraf yaitu perlakuan P0 (tanpa pupuk anorganik dan pupuk organik), P1 (Pupukanorganik), P2 (Abu sekam bakar), P3 (Bio organik), P4 (Pupuk organik cair) dan P5 (Plant growthPromoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)). Pengujian mutu benih hasil produksi dilaksanakan di LaboratoriumPengujian dan Penyimpanan Benih pada bulan April 2018. Pengujian tersebut terdiri atas pengujian dayaberkecambah, indeks vigor benih, potensi tumbuh maksimum, berat kering kecambah normal dan bobot 100butir benih. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa perlakuan pupuk organik tidak berpengaruh terhadapkomponen pertumbuhan vegetatif seperti tinggi tanaman, jumlah cabang per tanaman, dan jumlah daunterkecuali daya tumbuh dan jumlah bintil akar. Perlakuan pupuk memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadapproduksi kedelai dan bobot 100 butir benih tetapi tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap jumlah polong pertanaman, jumlah polong isi, bobot polong isi, bobot biji tanpa polong, jumlah butir per tanaman, jumlahcabang produktif, dan bobot akar. Perlakuan pupuk tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada komponenpengujian mutu benih yakni variabel daya berkecambah, indeks vigor, potensi tumbuh maksimum dan bobotkering kecambah normal. Penambahan pupuk organik yang menghasilkan produksi terbaik yaitu perlakuanPGPR dengan dosis 10 g kg-1 benih. Semua perlakuan pupuk organik tidak berpengaruh terhadap mutufisiologis benih.
TEKNIK PEMBIBITAN DAN ORGANISME PENGGANGGU BIBIT DURIAN MENOREH KUNING DI KECAMATAN KALIBAWANG, KULON PROGO Triwidodo, Hermanu; Wiyono, Suryo; Ayuwati, Phor Bho
Agrovigor Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Maret
Publisher : University of Trunojoyo Madura

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21107/agrovigor.v13i1.6061

Abstract

Pengembangan durian secara intensif dimulai dengan upaya penyediaan bibit berkualitas. Salah satu kendala dalam penyediaan bibit durian berkualitas adalah serangan organisme pengganggu tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari teknik pembibitan dan menginventarisasi keberadaan organisme pengganggu bibit durian Menoreh Kuning di Kecamatan Kalibawang, Kulon Progo. Wawancara dilakukan untuk mengetahui teknik budidaya bibit durian Menoreh Kuning. Pengamatan hama dan penyakit dilakukan pada bibit durian dengan tujuh umur berbeda (3, 12, 24, 48, 96, 6 double rootstock dan 96 minggu double rootstock). Bibit diperbanyak dengan teknik okulasi menggunakan batang atas durian Menoreh Kuning dengan satu dan dua batang bawah. Hama yang ditemukan adalah Allocaridara sp., Xyleborus sp., Coptotermes sp., Tetranychus sp., Atractomorpha sp., dan Valanga sp., sedangkan penyakit yang ditemukan adalah bercak daun Corynespora sp., hawar daun Rhizoctonia sp., antraknosa Colletotrichum sp., alga Cephaleuros sp., embun hitam Meliola sp., mati pucuk Phytophthora sp. dan layu Phytophthora sp.. Informasi mengenai hama dan penyakit ini dapat digunakan sebagai langkah awal dalam mencegah timbulnya OPT di pembibitan durian.
CENDAWAN ENDOFIT NONPATOGEN ASAL TANAMAN CABAI DAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI AGENS PEMACU PERTUMBUHAN Ramdan, Evan P.; Widodo, Widodo; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9 No 5 (2013)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (339.983 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.9.5.139

Abstract

Endophytic fungi have been reported to have mutual symbiosis with their host. This research aimed to obtain nonpathogenic isolates of endophytic fungi from roots, stems, and branches of chili pepper. Endophytic fungi were isolated on 10% malt extract agar (MEA) after serial surface sterilization of plant parts. The effect of endophytic fungi on the development of chili pepper seeds were tested by growing seeds on media containing endophytic fungi isolate. As many as 138 isolates of endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from chili pepper plants from Garut and Bogor. Based on colony morphology the isolates can be differentiated into 9 morphotypes. Among the total isolates, 13.04% are nonpathogenic. Some of them (7,25%) do not effect seedling significantly compared to control and some isolates (5.79%) caused better seedling growth than control. Endophytic fungi having the potential to promote plant growth was identified as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., sterile hyphae 1, 2, and 3.
KHAMIR ANTAGONIS UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA PADA BUAH AVOKAD SELAMA PENYIMPANAN Fitriati, Yuli; Wiyono, Suryo; Sumarauw, Ivone Oley
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9 No 5 (2013)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (482.76 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.9.5.153

Abstract

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important disease in avocado fruit during storage. An effective, cheap, and safe control method is necessary as an alternative to subtitute the use of fungicides in postharvest disease control. This research aimed to identify yeast antagonist from avocados that are effective in controlling anthracnose disease on avocado fruit. Research was started with isolation of C. gloeosporioides and yeast from avocado fruit, followed by in vivo bioassay, antibiosis assay, and chitinolitic activity assay. In vivo bioassay was done by dipping avocado fruit on yeast cell suspension. As many as 23 yeasts isolates was obtained from avocado fruits. Eight yeast isolates (A28, A32, A33, A34, A35, A36, A37, A38) showed very effective for inhibiting anthracnose disease in avocado fruit at concentration of 106 mL-1 and 107 mL-1. However, only four isolates were chosen for further characterization based on morphological and molecular identification. Two species of yeast was identified as Pichia anomala, i.e. isolates A33 and A37 and Candida intermedia, i.e. isolates A35 and A36.
IDENTIFIKASI COLLETOTRICHUM SPP. ASAL TANAMAN PEPAYA Rangkuti, Eryna Elfasari; Wiyono, Suryo; Widodo, Widodo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 5 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (661.106 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.5.175

Abstract

Colletotrichum spp. is known as the causal agent of anthracnose and considered as an important limiting factors on papaya production. The objective of this study was to determine the species of Colletotrichum spp. from various plant parts of papaya (Carica papaya) showing anthracnose symptom. Twenty isolates of Colletotrichum spp. was isolated and were grouped into 3 morphological groups based on colony similarity, conidial morphology, and setae formation. A total of 12 isolates of group I and 3 isolates of group II were identified morphologically as C. gloeosporioides sensu lato based on cylindrical conidia with rounded on both ends and colony morphology.  Meanwhile, 1 isolate of group II was molecularly identified as C. magnum. Four isolates of group III with a curved and pointed-end conidia, and produced setae on artificial medium were identified molecularly as C. truncatum. C. gloeosporioides was obtained on stem, leaf petiole, and fruit. C. magnum and C. truncatum were only obtained on leaf petiole and fruit, respectively.  In addition to morphological and molecular characters, differences in colony growth responses to temperature can be used to distinguish the species of Colletotrichum. To our knowledge the existence of anthracnose symptom on the stems and leaf petioles of papaya in the fields and the discovery of C. magnum and C. truncatum isolated from papaya was the first report in Indonesia.
AKTIVITAS KITINASE DAN PEROKSIDASE DARI EKSTRAK PROTEIN DAUN, AKAR, KALUS DAN TUNAS IN VITRO TRICHOSANTHES TRICUSPIDATA LOUR. Sukma, Dewi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sudarsono, ,; Khumaida, Nurul; Wiyono, Suryo; Artika, I Made
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol. 36 No. 1 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy (PERAGI) and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.991 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v36i1.1347

Abstract

A number of Trichosanthes species has been reported as a source of bioactive protein associated with defense mechanisms such as chitinase. Chitinase and peroxidase of crude protein extracted from leaves, roots, in vitro calli and shoots of T. tricuspidata had been analysed. Calli were induced on MS medium containing combinations of 1 µM NAA + 1 µM BA  (K1), 2 µM NAA + 2 µM BA (K2), 3 µM NAA + 3 µM BA (K3), or 4 µM NAA + 4 µM BA (K4). Shoots were cultured in MS with 1 mg/l of BA, while leaves and roots were harvested from six-month old plants grown on the field. Results of the experiment suggested that K1-K4 medium could be used to induce calli although weight of calli from all medium composition  was not significantly different (0.19-0.31 g/explant/4 weeks). Calli from K1 medium had the highest of total crude protein content (3.24 mg/ml). The highest of chitinase activity was found in in vitro shoots (6.51 mM pNP/hour/mg protein) and the highest peroxidase activity was in the plant roots (0.25 ? 420/minute/mg protein).   Key words:  in vitro calli, shoots, crude protein, chitinase and peroxidase activities
PENGARUH SEED COATING DENGAN FUNGISIDA BENOMIL DAN TEPUNG CURCUMA TERHADAP PATOGEN ANTRAKNOSA TERBAWA BENIH DAN VIABILITAS BENIH CABAI BESAR (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) Setiyowati, Heny; Surahman, Memen; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol. 35 No. 3 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy (PERAGI) and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (52.737 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v35i3.1328

Abstract

The objective of this research was to study the effect of seed coating using Benomil and curcuma powder on seedborne diseases of  antrachnose and seed viability of Capsicum annuum L.. This research was conducted in Laboratory of Plant Mycology and Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology IPB, from June to July 2006. This research consisted of three experiments, i.e.: (1) the effectiveness of seed coating in decreasing infection level of antrachnose fungus in the seed of chilli, (2) the effect of seed coating on seed viability, (3) the effect of seed coating in reducing infection level of antracnose at hypocotyl of chilli.  The Experiment 1 and 3 used Randomized Complete Design and the experiment  2 used Randomized Complete  Block Design. The result of this research showed that seed coating with Benomil and curcuma powder significantly decreased the infection  level of antrachnose fungus on seed and hypocotyl (Benomil 2.5 g/l and curcuma powder 1 g/l). However, seed coating with curcuma 1 g/l had the lowest  vigour index, seedling growth rate and seed germination (3%, 2.26%, 23%). Seedcoating with Benomil 2.5 g/l and curcuma powder did not significantly affect the maximum growth potential, seed germination, and vigour index.  However, Benomil significantly decreased  the seedling growth rate.   Key wods : chilli, seed coating, antrachnose, curcuma, benomil, viability