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PRODUKSI SELULOSA BAKTERIAL DARI AIR BUAH KELAPA DALAM BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI SUKROSA DAN UREA (PRODUCTION OF BACTERIAL CELLULOSE FROM COCONUT FRUIT WATER Suharjono, Suharjono; Ardyati, Tri; Zubaidah, Elok; Munawaroh, Munawaroh; P, Citra Pradani
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 8, No 1 (2011): Seminar Nasional VIII Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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ABSTRACT Cellulose is a nature biopolymer that mainly derived from plant and it has been application broadly in textile and paper industries. Usage of forest plants to cellulose fiber production continually caused negative impact to environment. Waste of coconut fruit water can be metabolism by some species of Gluconacetobacter (Acetobacter) to produce bacterial cellulose as alternative of plant cellulose. The objective of the research is to study effect of increasing of sucrose and urea concentration to bacterial cellulose productivity in coconut fruit water medium. Starter of microbial culture 10% with 2.2 x 107 cell/mL (90% of bacteria and 10 % of yeast) was inoculated into coconut fruit water medium with variation of sucrose and urea concentration. It was incubated seven days in static culture at room temperature. Productivity of cellulose bacterial highest was 10.849 gram in the medium with 5.0 % sucrose and 0.25 % urea concentration. Key words: Acetobacter, cellulose, sucrose, urea ABSTRAK Selulosa adalah biopolimer alamiah yang sebagian besar diperoleh dari tanaman dan telah diaplikasikan secara luas terutama di industri kertas dan tekstil. Penggunaan tanaman hutan untuk produksi serat selulosa secara kontinyu mengakibatkan dampak negatif pada lingkungan. Limbah air buah kelapa dapat dimetabolisme oleh bakteri anggota Genus Gluconacetobacter (Acetobacter) menghasilkan selulosa bakterial sebagai alternatif bagi selulosa tanaman. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh peningkatan konsentrasi sukrosa dan urea pada produktivitas selulosa bakterial dalam medium air buah kelapa. Starter suspensi mikrobia 10% dengan densitas 2,2 x 107 sel/ml (90% bakteri dan 10 % khamir) diinokulasikan ke medium air buah kelapa 150 mL dengan variasi konsentrasi sukrosa dan urea yang dibiakkan secara statis selama tujuh hari pada suhu ruang. Produktivitas selulosa tertinggi 10,849 gram pada formula medium dengan konsentrasi sukrosa 5 % dan urea 0,25 %. Kata kunci: Acetobacter, selulosa, sukrosa, urea
Ekstraksi Pewarna Alami Daun Suji, Kajian Pengaruh Blanching dan Jenis Bahan Pengekstrak Putri, Widya Dwi Rukmi; Zubaidah, Elok; Sholahudin, N.
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 4, No 1 (2003)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Natural pigment involved in suji leaves (Pleomele angustifolia) is chlorophyll. Extraction of this pigment needs specific solvent. This research studies the effect of blanching and the kind of solvent i.e water, alcohol 85 % and acetone 85 %. The result showed there is no significant interaction to chlorophyll total, pH, chlorophyll total cause of heating in temp. 100oC and pH 4,5.  The highest chlorophyll total can reach by extraction with acetone 85 % and without blanching i.e 12,03 mg/l and 10,84 mg/l.   Keyword: natural pigment, Pleomele angustifolia, extraction, and chlorophyll
Studi Kualitas Fisik-Kimiawi dan Organoleptik Sosis Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias Gariepinus) Akibat Pengaruh Perebusan, Pengukusan dan Kombinasinya dengan Pengasapan Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Zubaidah, Elok; Kusuma, Aan Muzaky
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 4, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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This paper reported the quality of cat fish sausages effected by methods of cookings. The aims of the experiment is to study the effect of cooking by means of broiling, steaming and combining broiling and smoking as wells as steaming and smoking. Randomized Block Design Non Factorial had been used in this experiment, each treatments replicated 3 times. Results showed that, the best treatment on the basis of sensory test was steaming sausages at 100 0 C for 15 minutes without smoking processes. Sausages had moisture content 66,46%, protein content 60,35% b.k. (20,81% b.b.), total fat content 6,29%, Aw 0,903, flesh texture 0,017 mm/g.sec, a taste score 5,2 (moderate like), flavour score 4,75 (moderate like), colour score 4,50 (moderate like), teeth texture 4,75 (moderate like). Methods of cooking also significantly effects quality of cat fish sausages.   Keyword: cat fish, cooking methods, and cooking effect
Development Probiotic Food Based on Rice Brand Zubaidah, Elok
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 7, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Rice bran is one of the sources of bioactive components and is therefore a good raw material for functional food. It contains inositol, ferulat acid, fitosterol, orizanol, tocotrienol, cholin, and fibre and considered as nutraceutical food. A rice bran-based functional food may be developed by fermenting it in combination with milk using probiotic, such as L. casei. A randomized block design research was performed to determine the best ratio of skim milk to rice bran in the making of rice bran-based fermented drink. The ratios of the skim milk to rice bran evaluated were 12:0, 8:4, 4:8, and 0:12 respectively. The experiment was made in   a triplicate. The results showed that the ratio of skim milk to rice bran significantly affect on the viability and antimicrobial activity of L.casei during fermentation process. The highest viability and antimicrobial activity was found on the fermentation medium which contained rice bran only. The fermented product contained L. casei  at  a level of 2,9x109 cfu/ml,  a total acidity of  1,003% and   pH 4,267. It was found that the antimicrobial activity was 0.245, measured as a turbidity value. Key word: Rice bran, Fermented milk, Lactobacillus casei
Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Cabbage and Their Potensial Inhibition to Pathogenic Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, dan Salmonella thypimurium) Purwohadisantoso, Kristian; Zubaidah, Elok; Zubaidah, Elok; Saparianti, Ella; Saparianti, Ella
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 10, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Today, the growth of food industries has encouraged significant role of lactic acid bacteria for food processing such as for producing antibacterial agent. Cabbage is one of lactic acid bacteria sources.  However, the pathogenic bacterial inhibition capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cabbage is still unknown.  Also its ability to produce bacteriocin has not been elucidated.  This research is aimed to isolate and to confirm lactic acid bacteria from cabbage, as well as to study their ability to inhibit certain pathogenic bacteria.  The results showed that there were 8 lactic acid bacteria isolates wuth characteristics as follow: the morphology was round, white color, and classified as positive gram bacteria, negative catalase test, not capable to produce gas.  They were supposed as homofermentatitive lactic acid bacteria. All of isolates could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium. K512 isolate had the highest capability to inhibit the growth of Eschericia coli (inhibition diameter of 11.53 mm) and Salmonella typhimurium  (inhibition diameter of 11.60 mm).  K45 isolate had the highest ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus  (inhibition diameter of 10.53 mm). K41 isolate had the growth inhibition capability to Listeria monocytogenes  (inhibition diameter of 11.67 mm). Bacteriocin producing test showed that all of the isolates had no growth inhibition to four tested pathogenic bacteria.Keywords: isolation, lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial activity, bacteriocin
Study on Different Fermentation Condition and Inoculum Concentration in Snake Fruit Vinegar (Salacca zalacca) Production Zubaidah, Elok
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 11, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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The objective of producing snake fruit vinegar was to obtain high quality vinegar and improve the effectiveness of first material. This research was aimed to know the effect of alcohol fermentation condition (aerobic and anaerobic) and the effect of inoculation concentration with the Backslop method to the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of snake fruit vinegar.This research use Factorial Randomized Block Design with 2 factors, snake fruit vinegar concentration (10%; 15%; 20% b/v) and different fermentation condition (aerobic and anaerobic) with 3 replications. The result of this research showed that fermentation condition during alcohol fermentation and different inoculum concentration gave the significant effect on total acid content and the other parameters.  Meanwhile the interaction of both factors did not give significant effect.  Anaerobic condition during alcohol fermentation gave the best resultKeywords: snake fruit vinegar, aerobic, anaerobic, Backslop method, alcohol fermentation
In Vivo Evaluation on Synbiotic Effect of Fermented Rice Bran by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum B2 and Lactobacillus casei) Nurcholis, Mochamad; Zubaidah, Elok
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 12, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Rice bran contains dietary fiber such as hemicellulose, arabinogalactan, arabinoxylan, xylogycan, proteoglycan, arabinofuranoside, and raffinose. Those dietary fibers have a potency as prebiotic and to be fermented by probiotic in colon to produce lactic acid and short chain fatty acid (SCFA). Synbiotic effect of fermented rice bran by Lactobacillus plantarum B2 and Lactobacillus casei on Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) was investigated.  A two month old Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) consisted of four groups (F0, F1, F2, F3) with five rats of each group were adapted for ten days by giving standard diet (AIN-93). There were four diet formulas: standard diet of AIN 93 M (F0), standard diet with formulated rice bran media (F1), standard diet with fermented rice bran media by L. casei (F2) and standard diet with L. plantarum B2 (F3). The weight, LAB viability, pH, and total acid of rat faecal were measured in 20 days. SCFA production was measured after 20 days experiment. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=5%) and least significant difference (α=5%). The best treatment was obtained using ranking method.  F3 was the best treatment with fecal LAB viability of 5.8x107 CFU/g, faecal pH of 6.47 on 20th day experiment, caecum LAB viability of 6.77x108 CFU/g, caecum total acid of 0.20% lactic acid, caecum pH of 6,34, and SCFA total of 11.49 mg/g (acetic acid of 7.11 mg/g, propionic acid of 3.03 mg/g and butyric acid of 1.35 mg/g).Keywords: synbiotic, rice bran, probiotic, SCFA, wistar rat
The Influence of Apple and Snakefruit Vinegar on Blood Glucose Levels of Male Wistar Rats Fed with High-Sugar Diet Zubaidah, Elok
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 12, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Vinegar is a liquid that produced from starch and sugar-contained material by alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Usually, vinegar is made from fruits including apple and snakefruit. Apple and snakefruit vinegar contains natural antioxidants that able to neutralize free radicals from oxidation reactions therefore prevents degenerative deseases. This study was objected to know the effect of apple and snakefruit vinegar to reduce blood glucose levels on male Wistar rats fed a high-sugar diet, and to compare the effectivity of apple vinegar and snakefruit vinegar on blood glucose decline.  This study is a laboratory experimental with Post Test Only Control Group Design. Rats were divided into four groups (normal diet, high-sugar diet, high-sugar diet + apple vinegar, and high-sugar diet + snakefruit vinegar.  The result showed that apple vinegar and snakefruit vinegar lowered blood glucose levels near to normal. High sugar-diet group (211.0 mg/dl) revealed a significant glucose level difference compared to normal diet (156.3 mg/dL), high sugar-diet + apple vinegar (146.3 mg/dL), and high sugar-diet + snakefruit vinegar group (132.7 mg/dL). Keywords: apple vinegar, snakefruit vinegar, high sugar-diet
FORMULASI LARU ANGKAK (PENGARUH JENIS BAHAN PENGISI TERHADAP VIABILITAS MONASCUS PURPUREUS DAN KADAR LOVASTATIN ANGKAK HASIL FERMENTASI) Zubaidah, Elok; Nadzira, Nadzira; Sriherfyna, Feronika Heppy
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 16, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Angkak merupakan produk fermentasi beras menggunakan kapang Monascus purpureus. Proses pembuatan angkak membutuhkan waktu yang cukup lama. Penambahan kultur jamur dalam bentuk laru diduga mampu mempercepat proses fermentasi angkak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis dan konsentrasi bahan pengisi terhadap viabilitas Monascus purpureus dan lovastatin angkak hasil fermentasi laru. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu jenis bahan pengisi (tepung beras, tepung maizena, dan tepung tapioka) dan konsentrasi bahan pengisi (0%, 10%, 20%, dan 30%). Data dianalisa secara statistik menggunakan ANOVA dengan selang kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahan pengisi berupa tepung beras konsentrasi 10% merupakan perlakuan terbaik, jumlah Monascus purpureus 6.22 LOG CFU/g dan kadar air laru 7.34%. Angkak hasil fermentasi laru dengan kombinasi perlakuan tesebut memiliki intensitas pigmen merah 1.73 AU, kadar lovastatin 29.75 mg/100 g, derajat kecerahan 45.96, derajat kemerahan 19.53 dan kadar air 7.35%.
Studi Keamanan Susu Pasteurisasi yang Beredar di Kotamadya Malang (Kajian dari Mutu Mikrobiologis dan Nilai Gizi) Zubaidah, Elok; Kusnadi, Joni; Setiawan, Pendik
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 3, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Seiring dengan meningkatnya konsumsi susu masyarakat, khususnya anak-anak, akhir-akhir ini semakin banyak pula susu pasteurisasi yang beredar di masyarakat dengan harga yang terjangkau oleh masyarakat menengah kebawah. Pada umumnya susu pasteurisasi in diproduksi oleh industri rumah tangga,  dikemas dengan kemasan plastik dan  dijajakan di sekolah-sekolah dengan sasaran anak-anak TK dan SD. Selama ini belum diketahui apakah susu tersebut telah memenuhi standar keamanan mikrobiologis maupun mutu gizi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui mutu mikrobiologis dan nilai gizi dari susu pasteurisasi yang beredar di Kotamadya malang. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 6 merk susu pasteurisasi yaitu KUD Batu, BLPP Batu, KUD Dau, Tani Malang, Dwita Melati dan Tanpa merk. Sebagai pembanding digunakan standar susu pasteurisasi berdasarkan SNI tahun 1993. Analisa meliputi kondisi produk, uji mikrobiologis meliputi angka lempeng total, E. coli, uji reduktase, Uji kimia meliputi kadar  protein, lemak, Bahan Kering Tanpa Lemak.  Percobaan dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dan diulang 3 kali. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata total mikroba antara 150.000-2.400.000 koloni/ml, Rerata total Escherichia coli antara 91 – 263 koloni/ml, Rerata uji reduktase antara 4,3 – 6 jam, Rerata derajat keasaman (pH) antara 5,46 – 5,58  Rerata kadar protein antara 3,06 – 3,5, Rerata kadar lemak antara 1,95 – 3,15, Rerata bahan kering tanpa lemak antara 10,32 – 12,79. Berdasarkan SNI 1993 untuk susu pasteurisasi, total mikroba maksimal sebesar 30.000 koloni/ml, E.coli sebesar 10 koloni/ml., uji reduktase sebesar 8 jam. kadar protein minimal 2,5%, kadar lemak minimal 2,8%, BKTL minimal 7,5. Berdasarkan data hasil penelitian dapat diketahui bahwa semua jenis susu pasteurisasi yang diteliti jika ditinjau dari aspek mikrobiologis tidak satupun yang memenuhi standar susu pasteurisasi berdasarkan SNI Tahun 1993. Sedangkan ditinjau dari mutu gizi sudah memenuhi persyaratan SNI 1993.   Kata kunci: susu pasteurisasi, mutu mikrobiologis, dan Escherichia coli