Abdul Karim Zulkarnain
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta

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STABILITAS FISIK SEDIAAN LOTION O/W dan W/O EKSTRAK BUAH MAHKOTA DEWA SEBAGAI TABIR SURYA DAN UJI IRITASI PRIMER PADA KELINCI Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim; Susanti, Meiroza; Lathifa, Aliva Nur
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 18, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (351.974 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ18iss3pp141-150

Abstract

Ekstrak buah mahkota dewa mengandung phalerin dan memiliki aktivitas sebagai tabir surya. Formula optimum lotion o/w didapat berdasarkan metode Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) menggunakan software Design Expert® versi 8.0.7 dengan variasi  setil alkohol, asam stearat, dan trietanolamin sedangkan lotion w/o menggunakan cera alba, span 80 dan setil alkohol. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui stabilitas fisik kedua sediaan lotion hasil optimasi serta keamanannya secara in vivo pada kulit kelinci betina. Sediaan lotion o/w dan w/o dibuat dalam 10 formula lalu diuji sifat fisiknya. Data sifat fisik digunakan untuk penentuan formula optimum. Perbedaan sifat fisik formula optimum percobaan dengan prediksi yang ditetapkan dengan uji t, taraf kepercayaan 95 %. Lotion yang optimum dilakukan uji stabilitas fisik dan uji iritasi primer pada kulit kelinci. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula optimum lotion o/w adalah setil alkohol 2,690%; asam stearat 4,146%; dan trietanolamin 3,164%, sedangkan lotion w/o adalah sera alba 12,136%; span 80 7,181%; dan setil alkohol 3,683%. Hasil uji-t menunjukkan hasil yang tidak berbeda signifikan antara respon sifat fisik hasil percobaan dengan prediksi software. Viskositas lotion o/w kurang stabil, tetapi daya sebar, daya lekat, rasio volume pemisahan, relatif stabil sedangkan semua lotion kurang stabil selama penyimpanan pada suhu ekstrim. Lotion secara kualitatif tidak mengiritasi kulit kelinci.
Preparation and antibacterial activity of p-Anisyl ethyl fumarate and ethyl n-phenyl fumaramate ., Jumina; Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim; Mulyono, Panut
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 16 No 2, 2005
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (189.073 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp116-123

Abstract

In order to generate potent C-9154 antibiotic derivatives, it has been conducted the synthesis and antibacterial activity evaluation of p-anisyl ethyl fumarate and ethyl N-phenyl fumaramate. These target molecules were chosen as the former would be a para-methoxy substituted C-9154 derivative, whereas the latter would be an example of unsubstituted C-9154 derivative bearing an amido-ester fumaric side chain.p-Anisyl ethyl fumarate was synthesized from p-anisaldehyde by reduction with NaBH4, condensation of p-anisyl alcohol with maleic anhydride, and esterification of the resulting p-anisyl maleic acid with ethanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid as the catalyst. These reactions gave satisfactorily yields (55-81 %) in all steps involved. In the case of ethyl Nphenyl fumaramate, this molecule was synthesized in 84 % yield through condensation of aniline with maleic anhydride, followed by esterification with ethanol in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid.The antibacterial activity test showed that the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of p-anisyl ethyl fumarate and ethyl N-phenyl fumaramate towards Staphyllococcus aureus were 15 and 25 μg/mL. Interestingly, the MIC values of these two compounds towards Eschericia coliwere also 15 and 25 μg/mL respectively. Thus, the data showed that the two C-9154 derivatives obtained are sufficiently potent and possess antibacterial activities which are comparable to the antibacterial activity of C-9154 itself towards Staphyllococcus aureus (12.5 – 37.5 μg/mL) and Eschericia coli (25 – 50 μg/mL).Key words: synthesis, antibacterial activity, fumarate and fumaramate.
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF C-9154 ANTIBIOTIC DERIVATIVES FROM VANILLIN ., Jumina; Siswanta, Dwi; Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 12 No 2, 2001
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (68.404 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp85-91

Abstract

This research was conducted in order to synthesize two derivatives of C-9154 antibiotic from vanillin and to evaluate their biological activities. The synthesis of these C-9154 derivatives was performed through alkylation of vanillin, preparation of the corresponding benzaldoxim, reduction of this benzaldoxim, treatment of the resulting substituted benzilamine with maleic anhydride and esterification of this C-9154 antibiotic derivative. The alkylation of vanillin was carried out using diethylsulfate and NaOH as the base to give 89% yield of ethyl vanillin. The oxim synthesis from ethyl vanillin was performed using hydroxylamine hydrochloride under alkaline condition at 50oC for 2 hours to yield 89% 4-ethoxy-3-methoxybenzaldoxim. Reduction of this benzaldoxim with metallic Na in absolute ethanol afforded 82% yield of 4-ethoxy-3-methoxybenzylamine. This benzylamine derivative was then reacted with maleic anhydride in benzene to give the acid-form of C-9154 antibiotic derivative (6) in 74% yield. Esterification of this acid conducted Jumina using absolute ethanol in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid at reflux for 4 hours gave the ethyl ester-form of C-9154 antibiotic derivative (7) in 87% yield. Antimicrobial activity evaluation was conducted using Staphyllococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. Based on the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) data determined using aqueous methanol as the reference, it was observed that the acid-form (6) and the ethyl ester-form (7) of C-9154 antibiotic derivative obtained respectively gave MIC values of 2000-3000 g/ml and 500-1000 g/ml respectively either towards Staphyllococcus aureus or Eschericia coli.Key words: antibiotics, vanillin, oxim, benzylamine, C-9154 derivative, antimicrobe.
The influence of tween 80 and polyethylen glycol 400 on piroxicam absorption from rat intestinal lumen in situ Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim; Kusumawida, Arundita; Kurniawati, Triani
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 19 No 1, 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (191.007 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp25-31

Abstract

Oral drug absorption administered is highly influenced by dissolution rate, especially for poorly and insoluble drugs. Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as surfactant an increase drug solubility by means of a micelle forming mechanism. The aim of the study wasto know the influence of addition and variation of Tween 80 and PEG 400 on the absorption of piroxicam from rat intestinal lumen in situ. Piroxicam solution in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer was prepared with the same concentration in three kinds based on the addition concentration of Tween 80 and PEG 400, they were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % respectively. The male rats of 130-180 grams body weight fasted were for 24 hours before treatment. The rats were anaesthetized with 5x10-3 mL/g BW 40% urethan subcutaneously. Piroxicam unabsorbed fraction was measured in a spectrophotometer at 353 nm, and then calculate Papp (Appear Permeability). The data obtained were calculated according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov and one-way ANAVA then continued by a t-test (95% confidence level). Tween 80 at 10% and 1.5% increased piroxicam absorption from the phosphate buffer pH 7.5 but decreased with Tween 80 2.0%. According to Papp, thevalues were 0.3929 cm/minute (1.5% Tween 80), 0.3507 cm/minute (1.0% Tween 80) and 0.2593 cm/minute (2.0% Tween 80) respectively. PEG 400 at 2.0 % rised piroxicam absorption from the phosphate buffer pH 7.5 but no with influence PEG 400 1.5 % concentration one way ANAVA. Key words : Tween 80, Polyethylen glycol 400, piroxicam, in situ absorption
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF ETHYL SALICYL FUMARATE AND ETHYL FURFURYL FUMARATE ., Jumina; Tahir, Iqbal; Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 13 No 4, 2002
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (118.116 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp207-214

Abstract

This research was conducted in order to synthesize and investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethyl salicyl fumarate and ethyl furfuryl fumarate. These two target molecules were chosen as the former is the derivative of C-9154 antibiotic containing phenolic hydroxyl group, whereas the latter is an example of C-9154 antibiotic derivative bearing furan ring instead of benzene.Ethyl salicyl fumarate was synthesized from methyl salicylate through reduction with LiAlH4, condensation of salicyl alcohol with maleic anhydride, and esterification of salicyl maleic acid with ethanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid as the catalyst. These reactions gave satisfactory yields (76-92 %) in all steps involved. Similar to this procedure, ethyl furfuryl fumarate was prepared from furfural through reduction with NaBH4 followed by condensation of the resulted furfuryl alcohol with maleic anhydride and esterification of furfuryl maleic acid with ethanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid. Although the reduction of furfural and the condensation of furfuryl alcohol with maleic anhydride could be performed smoothly, the esterification of furfuryl maleic acid with ethanol only gave 38 % yield of ethyl furfuryl fumarate.The results of antimicrobial activity test showed that the value of minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of salicyl maleic acid and ethyl salicyl fumarate towards Staphyllococcus aureus were 500 and 100 μg/mL, whereas towards Eschericia coli were 2000 and 4000 μg/mL respectively. In contrast, the MIC values of furfuryl maleic acid and ethyl furfuryl fumarate towards Staphyllococcus aureus and Eschericia coli were 150 and 100 μg/mL respectively.Keywords: synthesis, activity, C-9154 antibiotic, fumarate
STABILITAS FISIK SEDIAAN LOTION O/W dan W/O EKSTRAK BUAH MAHKOTA DEWA SEBAGAI TABIR SURYA DAN UJI IRITASI PRIMER PADA KELINCI Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim; Susanti, Meiroza; Lathifa, Aliva Nur
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 18, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (351.974 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tradmedj.8216

Abstract

Ekstrak buah mahkota dewa mengandung phalerin dan memiliki aktivitas sebagai tabir surya. Formula optimum lotion o/w didapat berdasarkan metode Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) menggunakan software Design Expert® versi 8.0.7 dengan variasi  setil alkohol, asam stearat, dan trietanolamin sedangkan lotion w/o menggunakan cera alba, span 80 dan setil alkohol. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui stabilitas fisik kedua sediaan lotion hasil optimasi serta keamanannya secara in vivo pada kulit kelinci betina. Sediaan lotion o/w dan w/o dibuat dalam 10 formula lalu diuji sifat fisiknya. Data sifat fisik digunakan untuk penentuan formula optimum. Perbedaan sifat fisik formula optimum percobaan dengan prediksi yang ditetapkan dengan uji t, taraf kepercayaan 95 %. Lotion yang optimum dilakukan uji stabilitas fisik dan uji iritasi primer pada kulit kelinci. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula optimum lotion o/w adalah setil alkohol 2,690%; asam stearat 4,146%; dan trietanolamin 3,164%, sedangkan lotion w/o adalah sera alba 12,136%; span 80 7,181%; dan setil alkohol 3,683%. Hasil uji-t menunjukkan hasil yang tidak berbeda signifikan antara respon sifat fisik hasil percobaan dengan prediksi software. Viskositas lotion o/w kurang stabil, tetapi daya sebar, daya lekat, rasio volume pemisahan, relatif stabil sedangkan semua lotion kurang stabil selama penyimpanan pada suhu ekstrim. Lotion secara kualitatif tidak mengiritasi kulit kelinci.
DEVELOPMENT OF C-ARYLCALIX[4]RESORCINARENES AND C-ARYLCALIX[4]PYROGALLOLARENES AS ANTIOXIDANT AND UV-B PROTECTOR Jumina, Jumina; Siswanta, Dwi; Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim; Triono, Sugeng; Priatmoko, Priatmoko; Yuanita, Emmy; Fatmasari, Nela; Nursalim, Ikhsan
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 19, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (259.651 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26868

Abstract

Indonesia is rich with essential oils such as anise and clove leave oils. In respect to explore the potential utilization of these resources, it has been conducted the transformation of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde) respectively derived from anise oil and clove leaves oil to a series of C-arylcalix[4]resorcinarenes and C-arylcalix[4]pyrogallolarene macrocycles. Treatment of these aldehydes with resorcinol in the presence of HCl in absolute ethanol at reflux for 8 h afforded C-4-hydroxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene (3a) and C-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl-calix[4]resorcinarene (3b) in good yields. When the aldehydes were treated with pyrogallol under the similar condition, the products were C-4-hydroxyphenyl calix[4]pyrogallolarene (3c) and C-4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylcalix[4]pyrogallolarene (3d) which were also obtained in excellent yields. Treatment of these calix[4]resorcinarenes and calix[4]pyrogallolarenes with cinnamoyl chloride and benzoyl chloride in pyridine afforded the corresponding cinnamate esters and benzoate esters in high yields. The resulted C-arylcalix-[4]resorcinarenes and C-arylcalix[4]pyrogallol arenes were subjected to antioxidant activity test using DPPH method and showed strong activity with IC50 values of 15?80 ?g/mL. In terms of the synthesized calix cinnamates, the compounds showed UV-B absorption with SPF values of 15?30 at a concentration of 25 ppm which demonstrate their potential to be applied as a UV-B protector. Furthermore, these compounds were also tested for their photostability on the UV-B region and the results showed that the compounds were still unstable under irradiation for 30 min.
OPTIMASI FORMULA DAN UJI IRITASI PRIMER KUALITATIF PADA KELINCI PUTIH BETINA DENGAN KRIM W/O EKSTRAK ETANOLIK BUAH MAHKOTA DEWA [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.] Toding, Lusty Grace; Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim
Majalah Farmaseutik Vol 11, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (611.861 KB)

Abstract

Krim w/o ekstrak etanolik buah mahkota dewa [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.] sebesar 10% telah diuji mempunyai aktivitas sebagai tabir surya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui formula optimal, stabilitas fisik, dan aktivitas iritasi primer krim w/o ekstrak etanolik buah mahkota dewa. Optimasi formula menggunakan metode simplex lattice design dengan software Design Expert® versi 8.0.7.1 program mixture design melalui modifikasi komposisi cera alba, span 80, dan minyak mineral. Sebanyak 10 formula krim w/o dievaluasi sifat fisiknya yang meliputi uji viskositas, daya lekat, daya sebar, pH, rasio volume pemisahan, dan tipe emulsi. Area optimal diperoleh pada komposisi 18,504% cera alba, 5,231% span 80, dan 44,265% minyak mineral. Berdasarkan uji-t satu sampel, formula optimal krim w/o yang diperoleh mempunyai respon viskositas dan daya sebar yang berbeda tidak signifikan dengan nilai prediksi respon yang diberikan oleh software Design Expert® versi 8.0.7.1, sedangkan respon daya lekat berbeda signifikan dengan nilai prediksi software. Uji-t berpasangan digunakan untuk mengetahui stabilitas fisik krim w/o selama penyimpanan. Formula optimal krim w/o stabil selama 4 minggu penyimpanan berdasarkan respon rasio volume pemisahan dan pH serta krim tidak menimbulkan eritema ataupun edema pada hewan uji.
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI MAHKOTA DEWA TERHADAP STABILITAS LOTION – KRIM SERTA UJI TABIR SURYA SECARA SPEKTROFOTOMETRI Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim; Marchaban, Marchaban; Wahyuono, Subagus; Susidarti, Ratna Asmah
Majalah Farmaseutik Vol 11, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (972.362 KB)

Abstract

Ekstrak daun mahkota dewa mengandung senyawa turunan benzofenon yang memiliki aktivitas sebagai tabir surya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui stabilitas fisik dan kimia lotion dan krim o/w serta aktivitasnya sebagai tabir surya dengan spektrofotometer. Ekstrak diperoleh dengan metode maserasi metanol lalu diformulasi menjadi Lotion dan krim o/w serta diuji stabilitas fisik dan kimianya serta diuji SPF nya secara in vitro dengan spektrofotometer. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa formula lotion dan krim o/w ekstrak mahkota dewa stabil selama penyimpanan 6 minggu. Kenaikan konsentrasi mahkota dewa akan menaikkan viskositas Lotion dan krim o/w secara signifikan. Krim selama penyimpanan lebih stabil homogenitasnya dibanding dengan lotion yaitu pada minggu ke enam minyak dari sediaan lotion mulai terlihat warna coklat dipermukaannya sedangkan krim lebih viskes dibanding dengan lotion. Sediaan selama penyimpanan 6 minggu memiliki kandungan phalerin yang relatif stabil. Aktivitas sediaan secara in vitro menunjukkan bahwa nilai SPF pada kadar ekstrak mahkota dewa 6 %, 8 % dan 10 % berturut turut untuk krim adalah 8,60, 11,51, 16,04 sedangkan SPF untuk lotion adalah 7,45, 10,83 dan 15,01 %. Sediaan lotion dan krim mahkota dewa stabil selama penyimpanan dan memiliki aktivitas sebagai tabir surya.
Pola Penggunaan Obat pada Pasien Sirosis Hati di Instalasi Rawat Inap Bangsal Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta Virgonita, Septina; Zulkarnain, Abdul Karim
Majalah Farmaseutik Vol 8, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (450.722 KB)

Abstract

Sirosis hati merupakan penyakit yang sulit dikendalikan karena biasanya penderita sirosis hati mengalami malnutrisi akibat nutrisi yang tidak adekuat, dimana kemampuan pasien untuk menerima makanan berkurang serta pembatasan-pembatasan lain yang diberikan kepadanya, sehingga mempercepat memburuknya kondisi pasien sehingga timbul bermacam-macam komplikasi. Penelitian tentang Pola Penggunaan Obat pada Pasien Sirosis Hati telah dilakukan di Instalasi Rawat Inap Bangsal Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta Tahun 2004. Penelitian ini dikerjakan mengikuti rancangan diskriptif non analitik dengan pengumpulan data secara retrospektif. Bahan penelitian yang digunakan adalah catatan medik. Data yang diperoleh adalah jenis kelamin, umur, dan diagnosa. Dari penelusuran data diperoleh 248 kasus dengan diagnosis sirosis hati. Jumlah kasus yang diperoleh setelah dilakukan sampling adalah 69. Jumlah inilah yang kemudian didata untuk dilihat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan obat pada pasien sirosis hati di RS Dr. Sardjito selama tahun 2004 sebagai berikut, persentase hepatoprotektif sebesar 37,5 %, persentase suplemen sebesar 62,5 %, dan persentase diet hati sebesar 100 %