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CIRI LEKSIKAL ANTARA PENGIKLAN PEREMPUAN DAN LAKI-LAKI DALAM PEMILIHAN KATA DAN UNGKAPAN PADA KOLOM IKLAN KONTAK JODOH Prayitno, Harun Joko
Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra Vol 17, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/kls.v17i1.4492

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Abstrak
POWER, ORIENTATION, AND STRATEGY OF POSITIVE POLITENESS USED BY CHILDREN AT THE AGE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WITH JAVANESE CULTURAL BACKGROUND Prayitno, Harun Joko; Ngalim, Abdul; Sutopo, Anam; Rohmadi, Muhammad; Yuniawan, Tommi
HUMANUS Vol 17, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Pusat Kajian Humaniora FBS Universitas Negeri Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (263.218 KB) | DOI: 10.24036/humanus.v17i2.101371

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Politeness strategies in primary school is the foundation of character building. This study aims to identify the power and orientation of positive politeness strategies used by the children at the age of elementary school as the character of Indonesian. This study applies qualitative research with single-case study strategy. The data source consists of all elementary school teachers and students in Surakarta and Yogyakarta. The data were collected by using active observation and focus group discussion.  The data are in the forms of  teaching materials. The data were analyzed using heuristic model proposed by Grice & Leech by applying the principles of reconciliation, cultural and social harmony. The result shows that the elementary school teachers and students having the Javanese cultural background indicated by (a) building the nature of psychological as the core of positive politeness and nation character by improving the empathy feeling, looking for the agreement, giving respect,  appreciating the achievement, and giving the profit to another; (b) prioritizing the duty instead of the rights; (c) creating the wise of directive act strategyby positioning the listener ; (d) respecting others to show the suavity and politeness. Therefore, the Javanese society in line with directive politeness action always put the environment society to keep its social-societal relationship. Keywords: directive politeness, harmony principle, javanese cultural,positive politeness, socio-societal AbstrakStrategi kesantunan di sekolah dasar adalah fondasi pembentukan karakter. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kekuatan dan orientasi strategi kesantunan positif anak-anak di usia sekolah dasar sebagai karakter bangsa Indonesia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis studi kasus tunggal. Sumber data terdiri dari semua guru sekolah dasar dan anak-anak usia SD di Surakarta dan Yogyakarta. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan observasi aktif dan diskusi kelompok fokus. Data tersebut berupa bahan ajar. Data dianalisis menggunakan model heuristik yang diajukan oleh Grice & Leech dengan menerapkan prinsip rekonsiliasi, budaya dan keharmonisan sosial. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa guru sekolah dasar dan anak-anak usia SD yang memiliki latar belakang budaya Jawa ditunjukkan dengan (a) membangun sifat psikologis sebagai inti dari kesantunan positif dan karakter bangsa dengan meningkatkan perasaan empati, mencari kesepakatan, memberikan rasa hormat, menghargai pencapaian, dan memberikan keuntungan kepada yang lain; (b) memprioritaskan tugas dan bukan hak; (c) menciptakan strategi tindakan yang efektif dengan memposisikan pendengar; (D) menghormati orang lain untuk menunjukkan kesantunan. Oleh karena itu, masyarakat Jawa sejalan dengan tindakan kesopanan direktif selalu menempatkan masyarakat lingkungan untuk menjaga hubungan sosial-kemasyarakatannya.Kata Kunci: kesantunan direktif, prinsip harmoni, budaya jawa, kesantunan positif, sosio-sosietal.
PEMETAAN PELANGGARAN PESERTA PENGENALAN PROGRAM AKADEMIK (PPA) DI UMS TAHUN 2014 DAN VARIASI PENANGANANNYA Wahyudi, Agus Budi; Prayitno, Harun Joko; Nasucha, Yakub; Arifin, Zainal; Sabardila, Atiqa; Riyanto, Sugeng; Faizah, Naimul
Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora Vol 15, No 1: Februari, 2014
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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The study aims to describe the violations by the students of the 2014 initiation at UMS and identify their solutions by the activity coordinators and line coordinators. The primary data included the verbal abuse by the coordinators, committees, and students’ responses to the 2014 Academic Program Activity of Teacher and Training Education Faculty - UMS. The secondary data included the non-verbal (physical) abuse obtained from observation and interview. The data were collected through observation, inter-view and written documentation which include the results of the verbal and non-verbal strictness observation, summary of the initiation program and its regulation, and photos. The data validity used was data and data source triangulation. The data were analyzed using case study technique. The results of the study showed that there were some violations by the students during the initiation program as follows: (1) smoking a cigarette, (2) wearing a short skirt for the female, (3) wearing a transparent and tight cloth for the female, (4) not wearing a complete attribute, (5) speaking unethically or using four lette-words, (6) having a long hair beyond the ears, and (7) coming late. The solutions to the violations seemed that the line coordinators tended to permit them and they did not give any punishment so that the students kept on behaving badly. Some students thought that the team of the line coordinators were linient, particularly in giving punishment to the students who violated the regulations of the initiation program.
PENGEMBANGAN KEMITRAAN KA WASAN MATEMATIKA(MATH MASTER ZONE) DI KECAMATAN SA WAHAN KABUP ATEN NGANJUK Muhtadi, Muhtadi; Sutama, Sutama; Anif, Sofyan; Prayitno, Harun Joko
WARTA WARTA Volume 18, Nomor 1, Maret 2015
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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PEMITRA service activities in the kecamatan Sawahan kabupaten Nganjuk, had conducted educational activities, training, and mentoring for elementary school teachers, principals, supervisors and the person in charge of Math Masters Zone program to improve the basic concepts of mathematics and its teaching method. In this Pemitra conducted training activities learning methods of Math Masters, so that teachers had  an understanding  and basic  mathematical concepts  were true,  and instructed it so easy and fun to their students. In the implementation of this Pemitra service activities, had given results and achievements were very enjoyable because math test scores elementary school students in the kecamatan Sawahan on the 2013/2014  school  year  had  average  to  8.5  and  the  highest  value  reached  10.0.  Math Olympiad  activities  also quite  lively, as  students becomed  more enthusiastic  andexcited. Based on indicators of progress and this proves that the method Math Master who had been introduced by the Executive Team Pemitra, had helped to solve problems Numeric  Phobia  for  elementary  school  students  in  the  kecamatan  Sawahan. Mathematics was considered subjects which so easy and very fun by the students.Constraints and problems still be faced today is the support and consistency of Nganjuk government has not been consistent in developing subdistrict Sawahan as Math Master Zone.
PERILAKU TINDAK TUTUR USTAD DALAM PENGAJIAN: KAJIAN SOSIOPRAGMATIK DENGAN PENDEKATAN BILINGUAL Sulistyowati, Rini Indah; Prayitno, Harun Joko; Nasucha, Yakub
Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora Vol 14, No 1: Februari, 2013
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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In general, the purpose of this study is to describe the illocutionary speech act of chap- lain using bilingual approach. This is a qualitative research. The data are in the form of speech collected from recordings of cleric K.H. Anwar Zahid from Bojonegoro, East Java as the informant. Data collection techniques used are observation and recording. Data analysis used is equivalent intralingual method aith comparative technique. The results of this study indicate as follows: (a) Assertive modes are expressed in the form of Javanese-Arabic and Arabic-Indonesian; complain mode are in Arabic-Javanese and Arabic-Indonesian); (b) Directive modes are in Arabic-Javanese and Arabic-Indone- sian) and advising modes are in Arabic-Javanese and Arabic-Indonesian); (c) there are commissive mode of offers in Arabic-Javanese and Javanese-Indonesian), (d) Expres- sive congratulation mode in Arabic-Javanese); (e) Declaration form naming mode is in Javanese-Arabic and Arabic-Indonesian. Speech acts used in the teachings are direct speech act, such as to govern, inform or do something directly. The direct speech is used in the form of questions in Arabic-Javaneseand commands Arabic-Javanese and Indo- nesian-Arabic.
TINDAK TUTUR ILOKUSI GURU BERLATAR BELAKANG BUDAYA JAWA: PERSPEKTIF GENDER Kentary, Ardina; Ngalim, Abdul; Prayitno, Harun Joko
Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora Vol 16, No 1: Februari, 2015
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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This study aims at describing the shape of illocutionary speech acts Javanese cultural background of teachers in school, describing the strategies and techniques politeness Javanese cultural background of teachers in school, describing the use of illocutionary speech acts teachers’ Javanese cultural backgrund based on gender perspective. Attention method is used by writer to collect the data by providing several techniques, namely: involved refer-free conversation techniques, recording techniques, and notes technique. The analysis of data by using a padan method. Based on the analysis of data can be retrieved 3 conclusions. First, all categories of illocutionary speech acts by Searle are found in formal activities in this study. Meanwhile, in a non-formal activity found three categories. Second, in the formal and non-formal activities, the strategy used by teachers to speak are direct strategy and indirect strategy. The technique used are literal and non literal. In addition, there is a combination between speech strategies and speech techniques. Third, based on a gender perspective, there are three things that discused in this study. (a) in general, directive speech act is the dominant used in this research. The use of sub-utterances instructing, requesting, giving guidance, and advising in a formal activities are dominant by nGP than nGL. However, the sub-TTD to order the use of nGL is higher than nGP. In the non-formal activities, sub-utterances instructing is dominant used by nGL than nGP. (c) teacher’s Javanese cultural background prefer to choose literal technique in their speech. (d) the most dominant combination of strategies and techniques used is direct speech act strategie and literal speech act technique.
PERILAKU TINDAK TUTUR BERBAHASA PEMIMPIN DALAM WACANA RAPAT DINAS: KAJIAN PRAGMATIK DENGAN PENDEKATAN JENDER Prayitno, Harun Joko
Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra Vol 21, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/kls.v21i2.4382

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Secara umum, tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memaparkan perbedaankarakteristik pemggunaan bahasa secara pragmatik dengan menggunakan metodejender. Penelitian ini secara khusus untuk memaparkan perbedaan penggunaan bentuk ujaran bahasa antara pimpinan laki-laki dan dan perempuan dalam pertemuan resmi Pemerintah Kota Madya Surakarta. Penelitiian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dan merupakan penelitian studi kasus. Sumber data meliputi semua individu yang memimpin institusi degan jabatan eselon IV-II, kantor dan kantor cabang di Pemerintah Kota Madya Surakarta berdasarkan purposive sampling dan criterion based selection. Data penelitian berupa ujaran yang diucapkan oleh pimpinan laki-laki dan perempuan dalam pertemuan resmi. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik perekaman, catat, observasi, dan kerjasama dengan informan. Analisis data menggunakan analisis eksistensi dengan mengacu pada analisis pragmatik yang menekankan analisis means-end dan heuristik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ujaran yang diucapkan oleh pimpinan perempuan dalam pertemuan-pertemuan resmi cenderung bersifat ekspresif, simpatik dan rogative (bersifat nyanyian) sedangkan ujaran pimpinan laki-laki cenderung bersifat direktif. Ujaran ekspresif dan simpatik yang diucapkan oleh papa pimpinan perempuan dimaksudkan untuk menyenangkan orang lain dan mereka kurang kompetitif sebab mereka tidak mengarah pada kebutuhan penutur melainkan pada kebutuhan pendengar. Ujaran direktif pimpinan laki-laki cenderung bersifat konfrontatif dan kompetitif serta lebih mengarah pada kebutuhan penutur daripada pendengar. Ujaran rogative yang diucapkan oleh para pimpinan perempuan cenderung dalam bentuk pertanyaan karena mereka merasa tidak yakin apakah pilihan kata yang mereka gunakan keliru ata kurang diterima pada pendengar dengan menggunakan teknik non-literal tak langsung. Akan tetapi, ujaran rogative para pimpinan laki-laki cenderung dalam bentuk menanyakan sesuatu yang bersifat literal, rasional dan langsung pada inti permasalahannya.Kata Kunci: jender, pragmatik, ungkapan, ilokusi, asertif, direktif, rogatif
REALISASI BENTUK TINDAK TUTUR DIREKTIF DALAM PERISTIWA RAPAT DINAS DI LINGKUNGAN PEMERINTAHAN KOTA BERBUDAYA JAWA Prayitno, Harun Joko; Laila, Malikatul; Sumarlam, .
Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra Vol 19, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/kls.v19i2.4428

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The study is about the use of directive speech act or Tindak Tutur Direktif (TTD) in the official meeting events held in the vicinage of Javanese culture civic government by using a gender approach. The data were collected by using the basic techniques of recording and was continued to open listening for participant-interview. The collected data were analyzed by using the techniques of intra-lingual and extra-lingual comparison together with the analysis method of means-end. The result shows that, first, the forms of TTD can be classified into 9 categories: (1) to request, (2) to advise, (3) to lead, (4) to support, (5) to interfere, (6) tooffer, (7) to offend, (8) to hinder, and (9) to counter. Second, based on the technique of speaking, female speakers or penutur Pejabat Perempuan (nPP) use the technique of literal speaking (37,65%) and the non-literal one (62,35%). Based on the technique of sending meaning, male speakers or penutur Pejabat Lelaki (nPL) use the technique of literal speaking (39,68%) and the non-literal one (60,32%). Both nPP and nPL use non-literal techniques more than literal ones. Third, based on the speaking strategy, nPP chooses direct strategy (38,82%) and indirect one (61,18%). Meanwile, the speaking strategy chosen by nPL, is (40,48%) for direct strategy and (58,73%) for indirect one. Therefore, the officialsprefer using indirect strategies in speaking. Finally, factors influencing the forms of the officials’s TTD are: (1) who the second persons are, (2) what the social relation is between nPP/nPL and the meeting audience, (3) what the social-societal status of nPP/ nPL is; and (4) the topic being discussed.
STRATEGI DAN SKALA KESANTUNAN TINDAK DIREKTIF MAHASISWA RIAU DI LINGKUNGAN MASYARAKAT BERLATAR BELAKANG BUDAYA JAWA Lestari, Puji; Prayitno, Harun Joko
Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora Vol 17, No 2: Agustus, 2016
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/humaniora.v17i2.2533

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This research aims to expose strategy and scale of politeness in Riau students directive speech surrounded by Javanese culture, also its implications on languagelearning in manners in high school. This is a qualitative descriptive research. The data are in the form of directive speech either in formal or informal. The data source includes the activities of 15 Riau students of UMS, UNS, and IAIN. The data gathering techniques includes refering, recording, and taking notes. Data analysis methods in this research includes pragmatics comparison wether intralingual andextralingual. The interpretation of directive speech form is done by reffering to Prayitno’s work, while the analysis of politeness scale is based on Lakoff’s model.The results showed that (1) Riau students are much prefer to use indirect strategy when they are communicating with Javanese society (66,70% : 33,30%). (2) Theanalysis of politeness scale refers to the results of the politeness strategy category in terms of politeness levels low, medium, and fine. The combination of politenessstrategy of Riau students has a low level of politeness with comparison 47%: 23%: 30%. Total data on the scale of politeness in directive speech is low for as many as14 data, while the level of politeness are as many as 7 data, and the level of good politeness is as much as 9 data. (3) The implications of this research on languagelearning with manners in high school can be used as learning materials. In the 2013 curriculum, it is stated that the core competencies-2 (KI-2) of social attitude of classX, XI, and XII demands students to able to use the Indonesian language with manners while KTSP curriculum focused at speaking skills. Language learning can be fun ifstudents and teachers are able to use the language more politely.
TEKNIK DAN STRATEGI TINDAK KESANTUNAN DIREKTIF DI KALANGAN ANDIK SD BERLATAR BELAKANG BUDAYA JAWA Prayitno, Harun Joko
Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra Vol 23, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/kls.v23i2.4314

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Studi ini bertujuan untuk merumuskan taksonomi tindak kesantunan direktif dikalangan andik SD yang berlatar belakang budaya Jawa. Tujuan spesifik studi iniadalah untuk merumuskan taksonomi dan pola semestaan realisasi tindakkesantunan direktif andik SD dalam hubungannya dengan prinsip dasar berbahasa PKS dan PSS; prinsip harmoni sosial PI dan PK. Objek penelitian ini adalah skala kelangsungan dan peringkat tindak kesantunandirektif dalam kaitannya PKS, PSS, prinsip harmoni sosial PI, PK, dn prinsip kultural budaya Jawa. Sumber data penelitian meliputi keseluruhan aktivitas berbahasa andik SD yang direfleksikan oleh guru kelas SD melalui FGD, baik dalam suasana formal maupun nonformal. Data penelitian berupa skala kelangsungan dan peringkat kesantunan pertuturan menurut PKS, PSS, PI, PK, dan Pk. Interpretasi perwujudan tindak kesantunan direktif dilakukan dengan kerja analisis pragmatik yang mengacu pada analisis heuristik model Grice, skala kelangsungan dan peringkat kesantunan model BrownLevinson. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa (1) perwujudan tindak kesantunan direktif (TKD) di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa berkecenderungan diwujudkan melaui tipe menyuruh pada kategori memerintah dan tipe meminta pada kategori memohon. Temuan ini menggambarkah bahwa sesuai dengan kodratnya sebagai anak pada dasarnya masih memerlukan suri tauladan dari orang tuanya di rumah, gurunya di sekolah, dan panutannya sebagai yang difigurkan atau ditokohkan di lingkungan masyarakatnya masing-masing. (2) realisasi TKD di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa berkecenderungan dinyatakan dengan cara-cara tak langsung dan modus-modus nonliteral daripada dengan cara-cara langsung atau modus literal. Realisasi ini menggambarkan bahwa andik SD pada hakikatnya masih dalam masa perkembangan mental lingual sehingga masih memerlukan bimbingan yang bernilai positif, santun, dan berkarakter dari orang tua, guru, dan lingkungan masyarakatnya masing-masing dalam hal berbahasa serta bertindak tutur. (3) Skala tindak kesntunan direktif di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa lebih dibangun dengan skala untung-rugi dan langsung-tak langsung sehingga kurang menjangkau pada hal-hal yang bernilai skala pilihan atau opsional. Temuan ini berarti andik SD saat ini memiliki ketergantungan yang tinggi terhadap orang tua, guru, dan lingkungan sekolah sehingga keberanian di dalam menentukan pilihan dan keputusan menjadi modal yang sangat minim dimiliki bagi andik SD. (4) Prinsip harmoni sosial dan rukun sebagai prinsip kultural yang digunakan oleh andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa memiliki keterbtasan berinterelasi pada bidal-bidal kesantunan masyarakat Jawa, yaitu kurmat ’hormat’, andhap asor ’rendah hati’, empan papan ’sadar akan tempat’ atau ’introspektif’, tepa slira ’tenggang rasa’. Realisasi prinsip rukun sebagai modal dasar dan filosofi masyarakat Jawa belum sepenuhnya menyatu ke dalam perilaku berbahasa, khususnya bertindak kesantunan direktif, di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa.Kata Kunci: tindak kesantunan direktif, maksim, skala kesantunan direktif.