Articles

Found 26 Documents
Search

Current in vitro assay to determine bacterial biofilm formation of clinical isolates Nuryastuti, Titik
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 03 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (113.978 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004603201406

Abstract

Biofilm mode of growth is bacterial lifestyle widespread in microbial world and represents a concernin health care. Recently, serious problem concerning biofilm-related infection is increasing significantly.However complexity of biofilm makes it difficult to conduct proper analysis. Although biofilm representsa major challenge for microbiologist, methods aimed to determine biofilm formation and developmentare not standardized yet. The aim of the present review was to provide an overview of the advantagesand disadvantages of the difference in vitro methods for determining biofilm forming ability ofclinical isolates.
High Frequency Spontaneous Deletions within the IcaADBC Operon of Clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates. Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Kuijer, Roel; Aman, Abu Tholib; P. Krom, Bastiaan
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 17, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.791 KB)

Abstract

Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to undergo a phase variation correlating with expression of the icaADBC operon which contributes to biofilm formation. Biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis is related to heterogeneity in electrophoretic mobility. Here the relationship between phase variants of clinical isolates of S. epidermidis, icaADBC presence and electrophoretic mobility distributions is investigated. Of 105 S. epidermidis clinical isolates, 5 showed phase variation on Congo Red agar plate. Biofilm forming capability of the blackcolonies and inability of the red colonies were confirmed using a microtiter plate assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Upon analysis of electrophoretic mobility distributions, the black colonies displayed heterogeneity at pH 2 which was absent in the red colonies of the same strain. Surprisingly, it was shown that in all red colonies had lost the icaADBC genes. Determination of gene copy number using Real Time PCR targeting icaA showed reduction of gene copy within a culture with phase variation. In conclusion, using three fundamentally different approaches phase variation of the five clinical isolates was observed. Variants appeared through loss of icaA and icaC gens. To our knowledge this is the first report indicating S. epidermidis strains irreversible switching from biofilm + to biofilm – phenotype by deletion of ica genes. Key words: deletion, ica genes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, IcaADBC operon
Angka kuman di ruang rawat inap RSUD Dr. M. Haulussy Ambon Ningsih, Tina Amnah; Iravati, Susi; Nuryastuti, Titik
Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 32, No 6 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (384.3 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/bkm.8763

Abstract

The number of bacteria in the inpatient rooms of RSUD Dr. M. Haulussy Ambon HospitalPurpose The purpose of this study was to determine the total number of germs and identify factors related to the number of germs in the inpatient wards of RSUD dr. M. Haulussy Ambon Hospital.MethodsThis observational study used a cross-sectional design. The space objects used for samples were internal wards, surgical wards, and neurological wards of RSUD. Dr. M. Haulussy Ambon.ResultsThe temperature had a significant relationship with the number of morning air germs. Lighting had a significant relationship with the numbers of germs in the afternoon air and on the afternoon floor.ConclusionsThis study showed that the number of germs in the air, on the walls, and floors in the hospital wards of Dr. M. Haulussy Ambon did not fulfil the requirements according to Kepmenkes no. 1204/Menkes/SK/X/2004. It is necessary to improve the quality of temperature and lighting in order to reduce the number of germs in hospital wards.
Antituberculosis Activity of Brotowali (Tinospora crispa) Extract and Fractions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay Method Wahyuningrum, Retno; Ritmaleni, Ritmaleni; Irianti, Tatang; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kaneko, Takushi; Nuryastuti, Titik
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 22, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (343.582 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tradmedj.27925

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB), in which caused by pathogenic bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has become the major causes of death among all of infectious diseases. The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has created a need to discover a new antituberculosis drug candidate. The aim of this study was to screen extract and fractions of Tinospora crispa for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) method. T. crispa extract was prepared by maceration in ethanol (96%) and antituberculosis activity was carried out using MABA method. The result of this study showed that ethanolic extract of T. crispa exhibit antituberculosis activity with minimum inhibition concentration of 12.5 mg/ml.
Analisis laik sehat dan kualitas mikrobiologi air minum isi ulang di Majalengka Iman, Iman; Nuryastuti, Titik; Herawati, Lucky
Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 32, No 5 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (138.683 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/bkm.7606

Abstract

Feasibility analysis of health and quality of microbiology refill drinking water in Ligung District, MajalengkaPurposeThe purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of feasibility analysis of health indicators with the microbiological quality of refill drinking water.MethodThe study used a descriptive design with a cross-sectional analytic approach. The dependent variable was the microbiological quality of refill drinking water. The independent variables were the following health indicators: raw water quality, equipment and processing method, operator behavior, and sanitation of depot building. ResultsThere were significant correlations between variables of health indicator, equipment and processing method with E.coli microbiological quality. There was no significant correlation between quality of raw water, behavior of the operator, and sanitation buildings with microbiological quality.ConclusionAlmost fifty percent of DAMIU refill drinking water is not qualified for microbiological quality of coliform and microbiological quality of Escheria coli. The most dominant factors affecting microbiological quality of drinking water refills are equipment and processing.
High Frequency Spontaneous Deletions within the IcaADBC Operon of Clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates. Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Kuijer, Roel; Aman, Abu Tholib; P. Krom, Bastian
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 17, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.791 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijbiotech.7856

Abstract

Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to undergo a phase variation correlating with expression of the icaADBC operon which contributes to biofilm formation. Biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis is related to heterogeneity in electrophoretic mobility. Here the relationship between phase variants of clinical isolates of S. epidermidis, icaADBC presence and electrophoretic mobility distributions is investigated. Of 105 S. epidermidis clinical isolates, 5 showed phase variation on Congo Red agar plate. Biofilm forming capability of the blackcolonies and inability of the red colonies were confirmed using a microtiter plate assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Upon analysis of electrophoretic mobility distributions, the black colonies displayed heterogeneity at pH 2 which was absent in the red colonies of the same strain. Surprisingly, it was shown that in all red colonies had lost the icaADBC genes. Determination of gene copy number using Real Time PCR targeting icaA showed reduction of gene copy within a culture with phase variation. In conclusion, using three fundamentally different approaches phase variation of the five clinical isolates was observed. Variants appeared through loss of icaA and icaC gens. To our knowledge this is the first report indicating S. epidermidis strains irreversible switching from biofilm + to biofilm – phenotype by deletion of ica genes. Key words: deletion, ica genes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, IcaADBC operon
Antimicrobial activity of bioactive compounds isolated from Swietenia mahagoni (L) Jacq. against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Darussalam,, Handry; Nuryastuti, Titik; Mursiti, .; Mustofa, .
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 04 (2014)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (107.331 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004604201402

Abstract

Widespread bacterial resistance has led to more difficult to treat infectious diseases with availableantibiotics. Therefore, new antibiotics are needed face of the growing antibiotic resistance. Swieteniamahagoni (L.) Jacq. is one of potential medicinal plants as a source new antibiotics. Five compoundshave been isolated from an ethanolic extract of S. mahagoni (L.) Jacq., however its antimicrobialactivity has not been investigated, yet. This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobialactivity of these compounds. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal BactericidalConcentration (MBC) were determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosastrains. Among five compounds tested, compound 3 (3,4,5,6,7-pentaethyl-1-methoxy-1H-indazole)and compound 4 (5-ethyl-6-methoxymethyl-2-methyl-1,2-dihydropyridine) were found to be activeagainst the bactrial strains tested with the MICs and MBCs values ranged from 50 to 100 μg/mL. Inconclusion, among five compounds isolated from S. mahagoni (L.) Jacq., compound 3 and 4showed moderate antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.
IDENTIFIKASI INFEKSI MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT ORGANISMS (MDRO) PADA PASIEN YANG DIRAWAT DI BANGSAL NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (NICU) RUMAH SAKIT Estiningsih, Daru; Puspitasari, Ika; Nuryastuti, Titik
JURNAL MANAJEMEN DAN PELAYANAN FARMASI (Journal of Management and Pharmacy Practice) Vol 6, No 3
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jmpf.351

Abstract

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) adalah suatu keadaan dimana bakteri resisten terhadap minimal satu  jenis antibiotik dari ≥3 golongan antibiotik. MDR ini dapat disebabkan karena beberapa hal antara lain pemakaian antibiotik yang tidak tepat dosis, tidak tepat diagnostik dan tidak tepat bakteri penyebab. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) adalah mikroorganisme, terutama bakteri yang mengalami MDR. Saat ini resistensi antibiotik merupakan masalah global, data pada tahun 2009, Indonesia menduduki peringkat ke 8 dari 27 negara dengan predikat multidrug-resistant tertinggi di dunia . Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi pola MDRO dan infeksi MDRO pada pasien yang dirawat di bangsal NICU RSUP dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Klaten selama periode Desember 2013 sampai dengan Desember 2014. Desain penelitian ini adalah deskriftif dengan data yang dikumpulkan secara retrospektif. Empat puluh enam pasien yang menjadi subyek penelitian karakteristiknya homogen dalam hal usia, lama perawatan dan luaran kliniknya, Semua pasien dilakukan kultur dan tes sensitivitas terhadap antibiotik.   Hasil : bakteri yang menginfeksi pasien NICU RSUP dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro adalah Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Serratia sp, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter dan Edwardsiella sp (diurutkan dari proporsi tertinggi ke terendah). Ditemukan bahwa 98% dari keseluruhan isolat bakteri tersebut termasuk kategori MDRO. Jenis infeksi bakterial yang ditemukan adalah sepsis, pneumonia dan komplikasi sepsis dengan pneumonia. Antibiotik yang masih poten untuk semua bakteri ini adalah cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxasin, chloramphenicol, levofloxasin, amikasin and meropenem (diurutkan dari antibiotik dengan sensitivitas terendah).
Pattern of Antibiotic in Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Comparison in Type A and B Hospital Sari, Ika Puspita; Nuryastuti, Titik; Asdie, Rizka Humardewayanti; Pratama, Anton; Estriningsih, Endang
JURNAL MANAJEMEN DAN PELAYANAN FARMASI (Journal of Management and Pharmacy Practice) Vol 7, No 4
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jmpf.33261

Abstract

Pneumonia is a threat to all States. CAP treatment in hospitals typically uses empirical antibiotic therapy with IDSA/ATS guidelines. This research aimed to compare empirical antibiotic therapy of CAP patients in types A and B hospital and to analyze the variations that occur and compare the outcome of the therapy. The research was conducted retrospectively by collecting data from the medical records of patients diagnosed with CAP. The inclusion criteria in this research were male and female adult patients aged ≥18 years who had complete medical record data. Patients who underwent inpatient care in the in-patient wards (non ICU) of type A and B hospital received empirical antibiotic therapy. Data from type A hospital (RS A) were taken within the period of January 2014-December 2016, while data from type B hospital (RS B) were taken in January 2013-December 2016. The number of patients with CAP in hospital A is 72, whereas in hospital B, it is 34. Patients with malignancy and immunocompromise were excluded from this research. In this research, germs found in hospital A were mapped, while no gynecologic examination/culture was performed in hospital B. The outcome of the treatment was an improvement in response 5-7 days after empirical antibiotics was given, as reported by a physician and/or by an improvement in the x-ray thorax results. Patient demographic data and antibiotic therapy pattern were analyzed descriptively. Outcome of patient therapy was analyzed using Chi square statistics with 95% confidence level.The results showed that empirical antibiotic therapy in CAP patients in type A hospital were largely based on IDSA/ATS guidelines, whereas in it is the opposite for type B hospital. Outcomes of patient therapy in A and B hospitals showed patient improvement of about 76%. In type A hospital, the cause of CAP is largely negativeGram bacteria which are still sensitive to cephalosporin/carbapenem (cefpirom, ceftasidim, cefepim, and imipenem) and aminogicosida (amikacin, netilmisin, and tobramisin).
IDENTIFIKASI INFEKSI MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT ORGANISMS (MDRO) PADA PASIEN YANG DIRAWAT DI BANGSAL NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (NICU) RUMAH SAKIT Estiningsih, Daru; Puspitasari, Ika; Nuryastuti, Titik
JURNAL MANAJEMEN DAN PELAYANAN FARMASI (Journal of Management and Pharmacy Practice) Vol 6, No 3
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (724.598 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jmpf.351

Abstract

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) adalah suatu keadaan dimana bakteri resisten terhadap minimal satu  jenis antibiotik dari ≥3 golongan antibiotik. MDR ini dapat disebabkan karena beberapa hal antara lain pemakaian antibiotik yang tidak tepat dosis, tidak tepat diagnostik dan tidak tepat bakteri penyebab. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) adalah mikroorganisme, terutama bakteri yang mengalami MDR. Saat ini resistensi antibiotik merupakan masalah global, data pada tahun 2009, Indonesia menduduki peringkat ke 8 dari 27 negara dengan predikat multidrug-resistant tertinggi di dunia . Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi pola MDRO dan infeksi MDRO pada pasien yang dirawat di bangsal NICU RSUP dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Klaten selama periode Desember 2013 sampai dengan Desember 2014. Desain penelitian ini adalah deskriftif dengan data yang dikumpulkan secara retrospektif. Empat puluh enam pasien yang menjadi subyek penelitian karakteristiknya homogen dalam hal usia, lama perawatan dan luaran kliniknya, Semua pasien dilakukan kultur dan tes sensitivitas terhadap antibiotik.   Hasil : bakteri yang menginfeksi pasien NICU RSUP dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro adalah Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Serratia sp, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter dan Edwardsiella sp (diurutkan dari proporsi tertinggi ke terendah). Ditemukan bahwa 98% dari keseluruhan isolat bakteri tersebut termasuk kategori MDRO. Jenis infeksi bakterial yang ditemukan adalah sepsis, pneumonia dan komplikasi sepsis dengan pneumonia. Antibiotik yang masih poten untuk semua bakteri ini adalah cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxasin, chloramphenicol, levofloxasin, amikasin and meropenem (diurutkan dari antibiotik dengan sensitivitas terendah).