Udi Tarwotjo, Udi
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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PENGARUH PERBEDAAN APLIKASI PESTISIDA PADA STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS MIKROARTHROPODA TANAH DALAM SKALA LAPANGAN DAN LABORATORIUM Niswah, Rofiatun; Rahadian, Rully; Tarwotjo, Udi
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 21, No 2, Tahun 2019
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (310.069 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.21.2.146-153

Abstract

The choice of using pesticides with natural ingredients or synthetic chemicals is a differentiator between organic farming systems and inorganic farming systems. Pesticides are additives in agriculture to control pests or weeds. Abamectin is one of the active ingredients that can be found in pesticides. Ground microarthropods are members of the soil mesofauna, which are soil animals that have a body size ranging from 0.2-2 mm. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of differences in the application of pesticides on a field or laboratory scale on the structure of soil microarthropod communities. Soil samples were taken from three agricultural lands, namely Bandungan inorganic agricultural land, Kopeng inorganic agricultural land and Kopeng organic agricultural land. The study was conducted in August to December 2018 in the Ecology and Biosystematic Laboratory of the Department of Biology, FSM Undip. Found a total of 60 species species richness originating from 13 orders. The application of pesticides which include the concentration and frequency of pesticide spraying has a negative influence on the structure of soil microarthopod communities. Application of abamectin pesticides on a laboratory scale proves that the administration of abamectin pesticides that exceeds the recommended concentration will adversely affect the structure of the soil microathropod community. Based on statistical tests of soil microarthropod species diversity from the results of the application of pesticides on a field and laboratory scale is significantly different.
IDENTIFIKASI KANDUNGAN SENYAWA KIMIA CUKA KAYU DARI SEKAM PADI Nugrahaini, Dian Laila; Kusdiyantini, Endang; Tarwotjo, Udi; Prianto, A. Heru
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 1, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (99.69 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.19.1.30-37

Abstract

Wood vinegar rice husk contains a chemical compound that can be used as a biopesticides. Wood vinegar contained compounds which estimated potential as repellent, antifeedant, antimicrobials, antioxidants, disinfectants and as preservatives. The content of chemical compounds in the wood vinegar must be identified. Identification were done by calculating the concentration of acid, phenol and an infrared spectrophotometer. Production of wood vinegar made by the pyrolysis process used pirolisator. Most of the wood vinegar obtained is evaporated using a rotary evaporator and partly extracted using the method of separating funnel. Compound of acid and phenol in wood vinegar evaporation were higher than the extraction of wood vinegar. These results were confirmed by an infrared spectrophotometer spectrum showed the functional groups of acid and phenolic compounds. Keywords: wood vinegar rice husk, acid, phenol, pyrolysis, infrared spetrofotometer
STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS ODONATA DI KAWASAN WANA WISATA CURUG SEMIRANG KECAMATAN UNGARAN BARAT, SEMARANG Irawan, Frendi; Hadi, Mochamad; Tarwotjo, Udi
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 1, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (116.087 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.19.1.69-75

Abstract

Dragonflies role as a predator in an ecosystem and become a healthy aquatic bio-indicators related to the life cycle. The diversity of habitat, food and predators affect community structure dragonfly. This study aims to determine the composition and community structure dragonfly morning and afternoon as well as the relationship with the physical environmental factors on four habitat in Semirang waterfall. Research using transect Point Count method. Statistically, the biodiversity of odonata in each habitat is significantly different. The results shows there are 15 species from 10 Family in morning observations and 12 species of 6 Family in afternoon observations, with a total of 17 species of 10 family of odonata. Biodiversity in each station is low to moderately with high evenness. The highest abundance found in river habitat without the canopy during the afternoon that Vestalis luctuosa (61.29%), while the lowest abundance found in the the canopied river habitat when afternoon that is Drepanosticta spatulifera (1.33%). Common species at area of Semirang waterfall are Euphaea variegata, Orthetrum sabina and Vestalis luctuosa. Endemic species at area of Semirang waterfall are Heliocypha fenestrata, Drepanosticta spatulifera and D. sundana. Key words : Community structure, Odonata, Semirang waterfall
KERAGAMAN SERANGGA OPT DAN MUSUH ALAMI DI LAHAN KACANG HIJAU SEBELUM DAN PASCA PANEN Martitik, Dwiyani Anjar; Hadi, Mochamad; Tarwotjo, Udi
Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 7 No.2 April 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

Serangga dapat berperan sebagai OPT ataupun musuh alami di suatu ekosistem pertanian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis serangga OPT dan musuh alami dominan, keragaman serta pengaruh faktor fisik lingkungan terhadap keragaman serangga OPT dan musuh alami. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dua kali yaitu pada masa sebelum dan pasca panen. Setiap pengambilan sampel menggunakan dua metode, yaitu jaring ayun dan metode light trap. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jumlah individu dan jumlah jenis yang didapatkan sebelum panen lebih tinggi dibandingkan pasca panen. OPT yang dominan, yaitu famili Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Sciaridae, Pentatomidae, Cicadellidae, dan Pyralidae. Sedangkan musuh alami yang dominan yaitu famili Staphylinidae, Coccinelidae, Carabidae, Miridae, Aelothripidae, Tachinidae, Formicidae, Salticidae dan Thomisidae. Keragaman jenis OPT dan musuh alami termasuk dalam kategori sedang. Indeks kemerataan OPT sebelum dan pasca panen serta musuh alami sebelum panen termasuk dalam kategori merata sedangkan musuh alami pasca panen termasuk dalam kategori tidak merata. Indeks kesamaan antara kedua musim pengambilan sampel menunjukkan tingkat kesamaan yang bervariasi. Faktor fisik lingkungan kelembaban udara, suhu udara, kecepatan angin dan intensitas cahaya matahari berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas OPT maupun musuh alami di lahan penelitian.
The Effectiveness of Plastic Mulch for Maintaining the Potato Farmland in Dieng Plateau Using Soil Biological Quality Index Agustina, Dian; Tarwotjo, Udi; Rahadian, Rully
Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 11, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v11i1.17804

Abstract

Dieng farmers apply plastic mulch to reduce erosion and to prevent the loss of nutrients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of plastic mulch in maintaining the quality of potato farmland using the Soil Biological Quality Index (QBS-ar) based on the existence of microarthropods. Soil sampling was conducted in six different locations, i.e., flat area with mulch, sloped area with mulch, the flat area without mulch, sloped area without mulch, flat forest area, and sloped forest area. Microarthropods were obtained from soil samples using a Berlese Funnel method. Soil quality was analyzed using QBS-ar index which was calculated based on Eco-morphological Index (EMI). The results showed that the value of QBS-ar index in potato farmland with the use of plastic mulch was much higher than in farmland without plastic mulch in bothflat and sloped area. Compared to the soil in the forest area, the value of QBS-ar index in farmland with the use of plastic mulch, especially in the flat area, was relatively similar. Hence, the use of plastic mulch for potato cultivation in the hilly area is effective in maintaining soil quality. This finding would be beneficial for developing a soil conservation strategy to achieve sustainable agriculture in Dieng agricultural area.
METODE MONITORING RESISTENSI POPULASI AEDES AEGYPTI DENGAN PENETAPAN KONSENTRASI DIAGNOSTIK Sari, Vicka Kusuma; Tarwotjo, Udi; Hadi, Mochamad
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (73.446 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.20.2.105-112

Abstract

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue fever disease. The most effective way to prevent dengue fever is cutting the spreading chain of dengue fever by controlling the vector with using conventional chemical insecticides. The used of insecticide intensively has became the main factor of resistance in Tembalang, then monitoring is needed to determine the change of A. aegypti susceptibility status against the insecticide. The aim of this research is to determine the sensitivity of A. aegypti population from five locations in Tembalang against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide, and to determine the validity of the diagnostic concentration as a method of monitoring resistance A. aegypti population in Tembalang. This research was conducted in Laboratory of Ecology and Biosystematics Department of Biology Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University Semarang. The procedure of this research were: larvae collection (A. aegypti), insect breeding test, sensitivity test including bioassay, determination of diagnostic concentration and validation. The result showed that the susceptibility level of five population was not significantly different since all populations are still susceptible, with the LC50 range between 0,0031-0,0043% and FR range between 1-1,39 (<4). The result of validation test of diagnostic concentration was 0,0038%, valid as a monitoring method of the resistance of A. aegypti population against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide in Tembalang because c2 value of the five population was lower than the c2 table (df = 1; ? = 0,05) = 3,84. Keywords : A. aegypti, monitoring resistance, LC50, diagnostic concentration..
MONITORING RESISTENSI POPULASI Plutella xylostella, L TERHADAP RESIDU EMAMEKTIN BENZOAT DI SENTRA PRODUKSI TANAMAN KUBIS PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH Tarwotjo, Udi; Situmorang, Jesmandt; Soesilohadi, Hidayat R.C.; Martono, Edhi
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1.84 KB)

Abstract

 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kepekaan populasi lapangan Plutella xylostella terhadap residu dari insektisida emamektin benzoat, menetapkan konsentrasi diagnostik untuk memonitor perkembangan resistensi populasi P. xylostella terhadap insektisida emamektin benzoat, dan untuk menentukan mekanisme resistensi P. xylostella terhadap insektisida tersebut. P. xylostella dikoleksi dari sepuluh Kecamatan Provinsi Jawa Tengah sejak Agustus 2010 sampai September 2012. Data dari uji bioassay dianalisis dengan probit analisis untuk mendapatkan nilai LC50. Hasil uji kepekaan menunjukkan, bahwapopulasi Puasan (Ngablak) nilai Faktor resistensi (FR) 3,97 kali merupakan populasi dengan nilai FR paling tinggi, dan nilai FR yang paling rendah adalah populasi Selo (Boyolali) dan merupakan populasi yang paling peka. Hasil pengujian validasi konsentrasi diagnostik menunjukkan, bahwa nilai c2 hitung semua populasi yang diuji lebih kecil dari nilai c2 tabel, maka konsentrasi diagnostik yang ditetapkan (2443,99 ppb) sesuai untuk monitoring kepekaan populasi P. xylostella. Resistensi P. xylostella terhadap insektisida emamektin benzoat disebabkan oleh laju peningkatan detoksifikasi di dalam tubuh serangga oleh enzim MFO, tetapi aktivitas enzim esterase non spesifik tidak mencerminkan aktitas esterase.
EFEKTIVITAS TEMEPHOS SEBAGAI LARVASIDA PADA STADIUM PUPA AEDES AEGYPTI Pambudi, Bhakti Chrisna; Martini, Martini; Tarwotjo, Udi; Hestiningsih, Retno
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 6, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (E-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

The countermeasures of DHF disease is caused by several factors which is interacted one another. Application of insecticide as larvacide is the most common way to used by society to control vector growth and insecticides are often used in Indonesia is Abate with temephos active ingredient. This research aimed to asses the effect of application larvacide with active ingredient temephos to mortality of Aedes aegypti pupae stadium and survivality imago stadium. The type of this research was an experimental research using post only control group design approach. The population used in this research was Ae. aegypti pupae which was breed in the laboratory. The number of tested pupae used in this research were 25 for every tested medium and conducted for 5 times repeatedly. Therefore, the total of pupa used were 750 larva. The data analysis using the Kruskal wallistest and followed by Mann whitney test.The analysis result showed that there were significant differences between the number of pupae which become imago (p=0.001) and the number of imago which survived until the second week (p=0.001). Death occurs because temephos belongs to organophosphate compounds that have anticholinesterase action.Inhibits cholinesterase enzyme, causing disruption to nerve activity because acetylcholine accumulates on the nerve endings an causes death.
KEANEKARAGAMAN DAN KELIMPAHAN JENIS BURUNG PADA TAMAN KOTA SEMARANG, JAWA TENGAH Ghifari, Bimo; Hadi, Mochamad; Tarwotjo, Udi
Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 5 No. 4 Oktober 2016
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

The City Park is conceived as a space that contains the elements of nature and landscape which is caused by vegetation diversity, activity and artificial elements that are provided as a social and recreational facilities, as well as a breathing space in the city. The Semarang State Park is one of the green open area that are also used by birds. On the other hand the city park has a problem that threatens the existence of birds especially the uncontrolled development. The diversity of the species of birds can be used as indicators of environmental quality, because their life is influenced by the physical, chemical, and biological cchanges in the environment. The research objective was to determine the diversity and abundance of the bird species, determine the composition of the guild of bird species, and to determine the status of the scarcity of birds in the city garden of Semarang. The research was conducted in July-August 2016, where observation was carried out in six state parks in Semarang using the point count method. The analysis of the index used are the abundance of species, species diversity index, evenness index, similarity index, chi square test and hucthinson method.Where795 individuals of birds were observed, covering 27 species and 17 families. The diversity of bird species index categorized moderately were 2.19 to 2.33, except on Park Madukoro which had the lowest category. The birds were categorized evenly with the index 0.74-0.83, except in the Madukoro Wildlife where the categories were fairly even. The composition of the most abundant guild is a group of insectivorous which is 41%. There are 27 species of birds in all six State Parks in Semarang which however have the status of Least Concern by the IUCN. Based on Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999, there are four species of birds included into the category which are protected.Keywords:  State Parks, bird, diversity, abundance, composition guild
STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS CAPUNG DI KAWASAN WISATA CURUG LAWE BENOWO UNGARAN BARAT Herlambang, Alamsyah Elang Nusa; Hadi, Mochamad; Tarwotjo, Udi
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (82.749 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.18.2.70-78

Abstract

Dragonflies have an important role for the stability of the ecosystem that is as predator and prey at the same time. The availability of food resources and optimal environmental conditions affect the species richness of dragonflies in the habitats. Reasearch on dragonfly comunity structure aims to find out the differences of community structure in each habitat type in the region of Curug Lawe Benowo. The research was conductet in 4 different stations which focus on species of dragonfly, amount of an individual species, habitats, environmental conditions, and the corellation between the variables. The method used is point count. The results showed that there are 19 dragonfly species which came from 7 different Family. The total number of individuals encountered from 4 stations is 205. The common species that can be found in all of the stations is Euphaea variegata. The level of diversity are medium, the level of evenness is fairly even. Similarity of species in any habitat types indicate that the habitats has a three kind of similarity levels that is fairly equal, less equal and not equal. Data analysis shows that there is a corellations between environmental conditions, and dragonfly species, affecting abundance and distributions of a dragonfly in the habitats, and can be used to describe dragonflies community structure in the region. Key words: Community structure, dragonfly, Curug Lawe-Benowo