Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendapatkan kina klon QRC C. ledgeriana yang mempunyai daya kompatibilitas terbaik terhadap batang bawah (Cinchona succirubra). Percobaan dilaksanakan mulai dari Oktober 2006 hingga April 2007 di Kebun Percobaan Pusat Penelitian Teh dan Kina Gambung, Ciwidey, Bandung. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan menggunakan 21 klon QRC kina sebagai perlakuan dan diulang tiga kali. 21 klon QRC kina tersebut adalah : klon QRC 111, QRC 133, QRC 135, QRC 162, QRC 183, QRC 189, QRC 191, QRC 197, QRC 207, QRC 210, QRC 212, QRC 213, QRC 241, QRC 247, QRC 264, QRC 282, QRC 328, QRC 329, QRC 345, QRC 349, dan Cibeureum 5 sebagai tanaman kontrol. Karakter yang diamati meliputi karakter jumlah tanaman yang hidup (bibit), tinggi batang atas dan tinggi tunas yang dihasilkan (cm), diameter tunas (mm), dan jumlah daun tunas (helai). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa beberapa klon QRC memiliki daya kompatibilitas tinggi terhadap batang bawah dibandingkan dengan klon kontrol Cibeureum 5, yakni klon QRC 213 dan QRC 247 untuk karakter tinggi batang atas (cm) dan tinggi tunas (cm); QRC 212 dan QRC 213 untuk karakter diameter tunas (mm); QRC 133, QRC 135, QRC 247, dan QRC 264 untuk karakter jumlah daun pada tunas (helai). Untuk persentase karakter jumlah tanaman yang hidup didapatkan nilai sebesar 44.18%.
Catechin content in tea plant is a major character in tea breeding program for a healthy beverage. A tea breeding program for high catechin content maybe will performed by indirect selecting a trait or traits that signiÂficantly correlated with high catechin content. This research was performed to identify morÂphological traits which maybe significantly correlated with high catechin content in tea plant. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used in this experiment using 10 selected clones. The experiment was performed in Gambung Experimental Station ot the Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona, Gambung, West Java. Catechin content, triÂchoma density of young leaves, weight of p+2, size of mother leaves, chlorophyll content of mother leaf, stomatal density of mother leaf, mother leaf thickness, and mother leaf angle, were measured. The results indicated that stomatal density and mother leaf angle were significantly correlated. Based on path analysis indirect selection for high catechin content could be performed by selecting stomatal density considering to trichoma density, mother leaf angle and chlorophyll content. In addition, indirect selection for high catechin content could be performed by selecting other leaf angle independently without considering other morphological traits.
As an effort to conserve tea clone accessions of first generation from genetic erosion, arrangement germplasm in one particular block/area to be easily monitored and managed, is needed. Ideally, tea germplasm collection should consist of a few clone accession number but high genetic variability. To select representative clones that will be conserved in new germplasm collection, leaves morphology similarity has been analysed by cluster analysis using average method. The results showed that by using leaves morphology parameter, from 50 tea clone accession of first generation coming from several tea plantations, it could be reduced into 25 clone accessions from seven clusters, which each has high similarity. The first cluster with 60% similarity could reduced accession from 15 to 6 clone. The second with 74,8% similarity from 25 to 13 clones. The third with 74,8% similarity, from 4 to 2 clones. The fourth with 61,3% similarity, and seventh with 82,1% similarity, both could reduce from 2 clones to 1 clone. To design a tea germplasm collection with 50 accessions of genetic variability, it could represented by 25 clones with low similarity, i.e PG 3, KP 1, Skm 18, Cin 69, Cin 67 dan Cin 58 as the first cluster representatives, Mel 101, PG 4, Pam 15, PG 5,Â PG 11, GP 2, BD 13, SA 49, Cin 66, Mal 16, Bks 6 and Sin 5 the second cluster representatives;Â Â Mel 108 and Cin 13 as the third cluster representatives; and Cin 15, Cip 37, GH 5, as well as GP 4 as the fourth, the fifth, and the sixth representatives, respectively.
Assembling of new excellence high yielÂding and good quality tea clones was started from identification accession as gene sources, crossing design of parents, selection mother bushes and propagated vegetatively. Crossing beetwen two parent clones which near or remote genetic relationship in tea will failed. Assessment of genetic relationship clone accession was done using secondary datas from description of first and second tea clone geneÂration which cultivated in Indonesia. Data of yield potentials and main chemical comÂpound of quality among others catechine, gallat cateÂchine, catechine gallo and cafeine were anaÂlysed using biplot and cluster analysis. The results showed that no correllation beetwen main chemical compound of quality and yield potentials. Biplot with two dimensions could be explained 92,5% variation of five characters and showed that yield has the highest and catechine the smallest variances. The first geneÂration of tea clones was separated to second at the 46,79% similarity levels. At the 15,60% similarity levels, there were six clusters. GMB 1, GMB 2, GMB 6, GMB 9, and GMB 10 clones were in one cluster was caused of they had high of yield and catechine. GMB 4 and GMB 5 had similarity on medium yields, GMB 7 and GMB 11 had similarity on medium catechine and the highest yield, and GMB 3 and GMB 8 had similarity on low catechine. PS 1 with the lowest catechine gallo was separated to the others. The sixth cluster were SA 40, Kiara 8, SA 35, RB 3, and Cin 143 were characterized by low catechine and yields.Â
Efforts to improve the productivity of tea needed new high yielding clones were obtained from the cross and easily propagated vegetatively. Preliminary testing of the clonesÂ needs to be done to determine the growth of cuttings and rooting properties of tea clones from hybridization which are selected by potential production. This study used a Randomized Complate Block Design with three replications. The treatments consist of 14 clones from crosses and GMB 7 as clone comparison. The data is analyzed by using ANOVA and Scott Knott test with the level of 5%. The observations are intended to look at the growth of roots and shoots by dismantling seedling in polybag predetermined randomly at each observation. The results showed that the clones tested had good growth with a low mortality rate, and easily propagated vegetatively. The S / R ratio also showed shoot growth more faster than the growth of root. This character is advantageous because the most appropriate selection criteria for planting in the field.
Selection of superior assamica tea clones with high yielding potential and high catechine contents, was conducted using plant materials of selected mothers bushes from F1 polyclonal seed field with a clone composition of Kiara 8, TRI 777, TRI 2024, TRI 2025, and PS 1. The selected bushes had a minimum 100 g per bush. This research was conducted in Pasir Sarongge Experimental Garden, representing medium elevation and Gambung Experimental Garden, representing high elevation. Experimental design in each location was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Twenty five selected clones were used in this research with one high yielding GMB 7 as a check. Plot contained 15 bushes with plant distant of 120 x 80 cm. Shoot yield were observed in September to November 2010 on six years old plant of third prunning stages with plucking cycle seven days. Catechine content of clone were observed by extracting dry tea shoot in boilling water, followed by deluting in ethyl acetate and HPLC readings. The results showed that in medium elevation clone number of II.32.15 had similar yielding potential with GMB 7 clone with catechine content 16,44%, and at high elevation clones number of II.6.10, III.28.4, III.35.3, and III.36.15 had high yielding potential and catechine content of 15,35%; 16,13%; 16,03%; and 13,14% respectively
Developing of Indonesian green tea with international standards must be supported by availability of exellence sinensis tea plant materials with hight yielding and good quality. Selection mother bush using genetic plant materials of seedling sinensis tea plants at Pasir Sarongge were found 42 exellence mother bushes or 1,35 % from 31.104 bushes collection, but three clones were poor in rooting ability and 11 clones were succeptible to blister blight. We found 28 potential clones with hight yielding, good rooting ability, and resistance to blister blight. Testing material indicated that 15 clones with high yield, good quality, andÂ good taste. Multi-location tests in three years showed that I.2.167; II.1.1; II.1.46; II.2.157; and II.3.109 clones were high in yielding ability and with good stability in performance and broad adaptability. These clones were officialy release by The Evaluation and Variety Release Committee of the Department of Agriculture on its meeting on March 5, 2009 followed by minister decrees of release of these clones as follows: decree number 1979/Kpts/SR.120/4/2009 concernÂing release of GMBS 1 clones, 1980/Kpts/SR.120/4Â/2009 concerning release of GMBS 2 clones: 1981/Kpts/SR.120/4/Â2009 concerning release of GMBS 3, 1982/Kpts/SR.120/4/ 2009 concerning release of GMBS 4 clones, and 1983/Kpts/SR.120/4/2009 concerning release of GMBS 5.
The purpose of tea breeding is to develope new elite clones. Artificial crossings is the method for developing a new population with high genetic variability in respective traits followed by selection process. Genetic variability information is important in selection method. A hundred and five F1 plants were planted in 1991. These F1 plant were selected from F1 generations of several parental cross combinations between PS 1, PS 354, TRI 777, TRI 2024, TRI 2025, Kiara 8, KP 4, and Cin 143. The crosses were made in 1989. Observed variables were yield per bush, number of pekoe, number of dormant shoot (banji), weight of p+3 (pekoe with three leafs below), weight of p+2 (pekoe with two leafs below), and weight of banji. Phenotypic variance and standard deviation were made. The level of variability of all characters were evaluated. All plants with performance level greater than general mean plus one and a half standard deviation were selected for respective traits. Results showed that yield per bush, number of pekoe, and number of banji had wide variability. The variability of p+3, p+2, and banji had narrow variability. Eight bushes were selected with yield potential ranging from 4,290 kg/ha/year and 6,261 kg/ha/year.
Penyaringan ketahanan klon teh terhadap penyakit cacar sulit dilakukan dan memerlukan tenaga yang banyak. Tujuan dari penelitan ini adalah untuk mengembangkan pembeda RAPD yang dapat digunakan untuk penanda bantu dalam seleksi klon teh yang tahan terhadap penyakit cacar. Penelitian menggunakan genotip klon tetua rentan TRI 2024, klon tetua tahan PS 1, dan 45tanaman F1 dari persilangan TRI 2024xPS 1. Pengujian ketahanan genotip dilakukan di lapangan dan persemaian. Pengujian ketahanan di persemaian yang dilakukan menggunakan parameter pengamatan indeks intensitas penyakit. Pengujian ketahanan di lapangan menggunakan parameter persentase pucuk yang terserang penyakit setiap pohon. Analisis RAPD dimulai dengan seleksi praimer yang mampu membangkitkan fragmen RAPD polimorfik antara tanaman tahan dengan rentan sebagai pembeda penduga, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan melacak pembeda RAPD penduga pada populasi variasi tanaman F1 menggunakan praimer terpilih. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketahanan tanaman F1 dari persilangan antara klon rentan TRI 2024 dengan klon tahan PS 1 bervariasi mengikuti pola pewarisan hasil backcross antara tanaman heterosigot dengan homosigot dengan nisbah 1:1. Praimer OPB 01, OPB 07, OPB 18, OPC 18, OPC 13, OPC 16, OPH 12, SC-10 48, dan SC-10 56 mampu membangkitkan pembeda RAPD OPB 01800, OPB 011100, OPB 011400, OPB 011500, OPB 07500, OPB 071200, OPB 18600, OPB 181200, OPC 13500, OPC 131100, OPC 131400, OPC 16400, OPC 16400, OPC 16500, OPH 12500, OPH 12750, OPH 121000, SC-10 48750, SC-10 481300, SC-10 56600, SC-10 56850, dan SC-10 561200 yang muncul pada tetua tahan PS 1 tetapi tidak muncul pada tetua rentan TRI 2024. Pembeda RAPD OPB 18600 teridentifikasi sebagai pembeda RAPD yang berpautan sangat kuat, sedangkan pembeda OPB 01800, OPB 011500, OPB 07500, OPC 13500, OPC 131100, OPC 131400, SC-10 481300, dan SC-10 56600 berpautan kuat dengan gen ketahanan tanaman teh terhadap penyakit cacar. Seleksi ketahanan tanaman teh secara tidak langsung terhadap penyakit cacar teh dapat dilakukan menggunakan pembeda RAPD OPB 18600, OPB 01800, OPB 011500, OPB 07500, OPC 13500, OPC 131100, OPC 131400, SC-10 481300, dan SC-10 56600.
Seleksi pohon induk untuk hasil yang tinggi dan didukung oleh komponen hasil yang maksimal diharapkan akan lebih mantap dipertahankan pada keturunan vegetatifnya. Seleksi dilakukan di KP. Pasir Sarongge terhadap tanaman asal biji klon PS 1 dan TRI 2024 dari kebun biji poliklonal. Pengamatan produksi per perdu dilakukan sebelum dan sesudah pemangkasan yang pertama. Fungsi diskriminan disusun dengan menggunakan tiga komponen hasil, yaitu jumlah pucuk, bobot pucuk p+2, dan persentase pucuk peko per perdu setiap petikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah pucuk mempunyai koefisien indeks yang terbesar dalam menentukan nilai diskriminan, kemudian diikuti oleh bobot pucuk p+2 dan persentase pucuk peko. Dari hasil seleksi yang didasarkan atas teori fungsi diskriminan dan dipadukan dengan potensi hasil per perdu, telah terpilih 20 perdu yang mempunyai potensi hasil tinggi dan didukung oleh komponen hasil secara maksimal masing-masing yaitu 11 perdu dari biji klon TRI 2024 dan 9 perdu dari PS 1.