Imam Megantara, Imam
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University Jalan Eijkman, No.38, Bandung 40161

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PATTERN OF BACTERIA, ANTIBIOTIC USES AND SENSITIVITY AMONG EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN OTOLARYNGOLOGY WARD IN TERTIARY HOSPITAL Agustina, Yolla Sri; Megantara, Imam; Dermawan, Arif
International Journal of Integrated Health Sciences Vol 7, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : International Journal of Integrated Health Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15850/ijihs.v7n1.1545

Abstract

Objective: To provide an overview of antibiotic use, bacterial patterns and sensitivity to antibiotics in the otolaryngology ward.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, with total sampling method from medical record data of otolaryngology inpatients that use antibiotics for the period of January 1, 2016?June 30, 2016. Exclusion criteria are incomplete patient medical records and chemotherapy or radiotherapy patients. The variables studied were antibiotic use, bacterial pattern and susceptibility.Results: Among 276 subjects included in the inclusion criteria, the most widely used are single antibiotics (98.9%), generally used for 2?3 days (73.9%), via intravenous lines (92%), and with indications as empirical+prophylaxis (77.5%). Commonly used antibiotics are cefazolin (42.51%), ceftriaxone (29.54%), and cefotaxime (20.76%). The most common bacteria were E. coli (36.36%) and the most sensitive types of antibiotics were meropenem, amikacin, and tigecyclin, while the most resistant antibiotics were ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone.Conclusions: The majority of antibiotics used in the otolaryngology treatment room are cefazolin as prophylaxis. E. coli were the most found culture results and the most sensitive types of antibiotics, namely meropenem, amikacin, and tigecyclin, while the most resistant antibiotics were ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone.Keywords: Antibiotics, antibiotic sensitivity, bacterial pattern, ears, nose, throat
Detection of Fungi in Hair-brushes in Beauty Salons at Jatinangor Edward, Susanna Mitchelle; Megantara, Imam; Dwiyana, Reiva Farah
Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (570.954 KB)

Abstract

Background: Various beauty tools are used in beauty salons, among those is the hair-brush. The hair-brush can conceal various human skin pathogens although under harsh environmental conditions, most pathogens are killed; nevertheless, few microorganisms, such as the fungi can adapt and survive. Moreover, the moist conditions of the hair-brush predisposes the growth of fungi however the ability of these fungi to instigate disease in an individual is dependent on the portal of entry and the host immunological status. This study was conducted to determine the fungus that is present in the beauty salon’s hair-brushes.Methods: This study was conducted in beauty salons located in Jatinangor area during September–October 2013 using the descriptive laboratory method. Fifteen beauty salons were included in this study based on sample size calculation for dichotomous variable. The specimens from all the hair-brushes were collected after the owner’s informed consent, then cultured onto 30 sabouraud agar, two for each beauty salon (dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte agar). The fungi were detected macroscopically and  microscopically.Results: Overall, 93% revealed to be culture positive, with 90% of them were found to be non-dermatophytes, most of which are saprophytic fungi. The remaining 3% were dermatophytes.Conclusions: Beauty salon’s hair-brushes contain a wide range of fungi distribution which may be a source of fungal colonization. However, most of the fungi found in the beauty salons are saprophytic fungi, therefore it is unnecessary to be anxious about a small amount of pathogenic fungi are found in humans. [AMJ.2015;2(4):516–20] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v2n4.636
Isolation of Methicillin Resistant - Staphylococcus aureus in Midwifery Students Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran September–December 2012 Panirchelvam, Robinee; Megantara, Imam; Sudiro, Melati
Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (699.217 KB)

Abstract

Background: Methicillin Resistant-Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant bacteria to certain types of beta-lactam antibiotics. Commonly, the MRSA infection is acquired in hospitals, long-term care facilities, or similar institutional settings. Mid-wives are one of the health professional that have a major risk to get MRSA infection and could lead the infection among patients. This research is aimed to identify MRSA among the midwifery studentsMethods: A descriptive study was conducted from September–December 2012 at the Microbiology laboratory to identify the proportion of MRSA among the mid-wife students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Twenty-five samples were chosen using simple random sampling based on their registration number. The inclusion criterias were healthy students, and 18 to 22 years old. Both nostrils were sampled with a sterile culture swab on both the subject’s nostrils. Gram staining was done in order to identify the gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. The samples were inaculated in Mannitol salt agar (MSA), incubated for 24 hours and at 37 ̊ C. After 24 hours, catalase and coagulase tests were done. Moreover, for the susceptibility testing, the chosen media for this study was Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) and with 30μg Cefoxitin disk. After incubation, the zone of inhibition of the colony less than ≤ 21mm was considered resistant to methicillin.Results: Colonization of MRSA was about 3 out from 25 samplesConclusions: The MRSA colonization in the anterior nasal does exist in midwife students, a further study with more samples should be conducted. [AMJ.2015;2(1):204–7]
Detection of Enteropathogenic Bacteria under Fingernails of Canteen Workers at Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor Nahenthran, Nalinie Nalammah; Megantara, Imam; Raksanagara, Ardini S
Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (171.365 KB)

Abstract

Background: Food poisoning is a major problem in Indonesia as most people do not clean under their fingernails to remove bacteria. This study was designed to detect enteropathogenic bacteria under the fingernails of canteen workers in Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October−November 2014 at the Faculty of Medicine’s Microbiology Laboratory to detect enteropathogenic bacteria under the fingernails of canteen workers in Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, 30 canteen workers were selected by random sampling from three canteens. Samples were collected from the fingernails of both the right and left hands by using a cotton swab. Sixty specimens were cultured for identification of the enteropathogenic bacteria by using gram staining method and biochemical tests.Results: The highest percentage of enteropathogenic bacteria found under the fingernails of canteen workers was Klebsiella pneumoniae with a percentage of 45% followed by Enterobacter aerogenes with a percentage of 25.7%, Salmonella paratyphii with a percentage of 9.7%, E. coli with a percentage of 6.4%, and Serratia sp, Proteus mirabillis, Klebsiella oxytoca and Shigella sp. with a percentage of 3.2%.Conclusions: The highest number of bacteria found under the fingernails of the canteen workers is Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella paratyphii and E. coli which has potential to cause gastroenteritis if cross-contamination occurs between the fingernails and the food.[AMJ.2016;3(2):309–13]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.798 
Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from Throat Swab in Acute Pharyngitis Patients Maulana, Ibnu Tsabit; Megantara, Imam; Husen, Ike Rostikawati
Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (543.878 KB)

Abstract

Background: Pharyngitis is an inflammation of throat that may be caused by viral and bacteria. Although Streptococcus pyogenes is only responsible for 5−15% of cases of pharyngitis in adults. Antibiotics are highly prescribed for this infection, thus it could lead to antibiotic resistance. The main reason for antibiotic overprescription is the difficulty to obtain a rapid and correct etiological diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the frequency of Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swab in patient with acute pharyngitis in Padjadjaran Clinic.Methods: This study was a descriptive study. Specimen was taken from the patients in Padjadjaran Clinic on September until October 2014. Thirty-five patients with acute pharyngitis that met the selection criteria were recruited for throat swab. Then, specimens obtained were performed an identification testing to determine whether there was a colonization of Streptococcus pyogenes. Results: Thirty five patients were found with acute pharyngitis consist of 14 male and 21 female, with age ranged between 16−34 years old. From the identification testing result, Streptococcus pyogenes was not found from throat swabs of patient with acute pharyngitis in Padjadjaran Clinic.Conclusions: This study found no colonization of Steptococcus pyogenes in throat swabs of acute pharyngitis patients in Padjadjaran Clinic, however Streptococcus pyogenes was not the causative fact of acute pharyngitis. [AMJ.2016;3(1):69–72] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n1.716
Salmonella Species Detection in Chicken Noodle Toppings Prepared by the Food Vendors around Jatinangor Campus of Universitas Padjadjaran Zia, Luk Lee; Megantara, Imam; Suryosutanto, Suryosutanto
Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Salmonellae is Gram negative Enterobacteriaceae which are commonly found in water. It can cause diseases in human through improper hygiene and sanitation practice, contamination of poultries, cross contamination from other food during storage, and also from Salmonella species carriers. Chicken noodle toppings are usually prepared early in the morning and not heated up upon serving. There are possibilities for bacterial contamination if the food vendors lack of hygienic practices. The risk of Salmonella species contamination is increased too as it can be spread through inappropriate hygiene and sanitation. Hence, the objective of the study was to detect the presence of Salmonella species in the chicken noodle toppings prepared by the food vendors around Jatinangor Campus of Universitas Padjadjaran.Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in September 2013. A total of 44 samples of chicken noodle toppings were collected from the food vendors in Jatinangor. The samples were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agars. Then, Gram staining and biochemical tests were performed.Results: The chicken noodle toppings were not contaminated by Salmonella species, but other bacteria species such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia, Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, and Shigella species were found.Conclusions: There is no Salmonella species found. However, there are some other bacteria found such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia, Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, and Shigella species. It means that the food vendors lack of hygienic and sanitation aspects. Thus, proper actions should be taken to educate and increase the awareness of food vendors on the importance of sanitation. [AMJ.2016;3(4):566–9] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n4.940
Susceptibility to Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus: A Preliminary Study Xian, Gan Ee; Megantara, Imam; Gondodiputro, Sharon
Althea Medical Journal Vol 5, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (587.316 KB)

Abstract

Background: The Staphylococcus aureus infection is a leading cause of infection around the world. Due to the introduction of antibiotics, a strain called Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged and occured in hospitalized patients worldwide. However around 1990, this infection had been detected among healthy people in the community without previous health care contact, known as community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). The objectives of this study was to identify the susceptibility to CA-MRSA among people who came to Puskesmas Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia.Methods: A descriptive study using purposive sampling was carried out from September to October 2014 with data obtained through anterior nasal swab of 65 patients from Puskesmas Jatinangor who fulfilled the exclusion and inclusion criteria. Samples were transported to the microbiology lab of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran and planted on blood agar for culturing, then identified through gram staining, catalase and coagulase tests. Lastly tested for antibiotic resistance and the zone of inhibition measuring ≤21mm were classified as positive MRSA. The collected data were presented using tables.Results: Out of 65 samples that were collected and tested, 17 samples (26%) were Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) carriers; 6 samples (9%) were positive with MRSA isolates; 6/17 of the S. aureus are MRSA.Conclusions: People who come to Puskesmas Jatinangor show a significantly high proportion of susceptibility to CA-MRS.
Poliovirus shedding after the first and second doses of trivalent polio vaccines in newborns Rusmil, Viramitha K.; Dhamayanti, Meita; Adi, Sunarjati Soedigdo; Megantara, Imam
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 4 (2015): July 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (320.861 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.4.2015.219-23

Abstract

Background The trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) produced by Bio Farma consists of three live, attenuated poliovirus serotypes (1, 2, and 3). The tOPV stimulates the formation of secretory IgA (sIgA) on the intestinal wall and lumen. The existence of sIgA is considered giving immunity in the intestines, it could prevent the spread of viral replication and thus inhibit the transmission of the polio virus.Objective To determine the differences in shedding after each of the first two tOPV immunizations in newborns.Methods This one-way repeated measure study was conducted in newborns from three primary health centers in Bandung, West Java. After administering tOPV to newborns, we assessed the shedding of poliovirus in their stool specimens at 30 days after the first dose and 7 days after the second dose. Data was analyzed using McNemar test with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to differentiate the shedding of poliovirus after the first and second doses.Results Of 150 children, 128 subjects completed the study. At 30 days after the first tOPV dose, 26 subjects (20.3%) were negative for shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens. Of the 102 subjects who had poliovirus isolated from their stools, the serotypes comprised of polio 1: 10.9%, polio 2: 14.8%, polio 3: 45.3%, polio 1 and 3: 3.1%, polio 2 and 3: 4.7%, and polio 1,2, and 3: 0.8%. At 7 days after the second tOPV dose, there was a significant increase in subjects negative for shedding of poliovirus (78 subjects; 60.9%). Statistical analysis revealed significantly decreased shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens between the first and second doses of tOPV (P<0.05 ).Conclusion There is a significantly decreased number of subjects with shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens 7 days after the second tOPV dose than at 30 days after the first tOPV dose.
Susceptibility to Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus: A Preliminary Study Xian, Gan Ee; Megantara, Imam; Gondodiputro, Sharon
Althea Medical Journal Vol 5, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (587.316 KB) | DOI: 10.15850/amj.v5n2.1415

Abstract

Background: The Staphylococcus aureus infection is a leading cause of infection around the world. Due to the introduction of antibiotics, a strain called Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged and occured in hospitalized patients worldwide. However around 1990, this infection had been detected among healthy people in the community without previous health care contact, known as community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). The objectives of this study was to identify the susceptibility to CA-MRSA among people who came to Puskesmas Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia.Methods: A descriptive study using purposive sampling was carried out from September to October 2014 with data obtained through anterior nasal swab of 65 patients from Puskesmas Jatinangor who fulfilled the exclusion and inclusion criteria. Samples were transported to the microbiology lab of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran and planted on blood agar for culturing, then identified through gram staining, catalase and coagulase tests. Lastly tested for antibiotic resistance and the zone of inhibition measuring ≤21mm were classified as positive MRSA. The collected data were presented using tables.Results: Out of 65 samples that were collected and tested, 17 samples (26%) were Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) carriers; 6 samples (9%) were positive with MRSA isolates; 6/17 of the S. aureus are MRSA.Conclusions: People who come to Puskesmas Jatinangor show a significantly high proportion of susceptibility to CA-MRS.
Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from Throat Swab in Acute Pharyngitis Patients Maulana, Ibnu Tsabit; Megantara, Imam; Husen, Ike Rostikawati
Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (543.878 KB)

Abstract

Background: Pharyngitis is an inflammation of throat that may be caused by viral and bacteria. Although Streptococcus pyogenes is only responsible for 5−15% of cases of pharyngitis in adults. Antibiotics are highly prescribed for this infection, thus it could lead to antibiotic resistance. The main reason for antibiotic overprescription is the difficulty to obtain a rapid and correct etiological diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the frequency of Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swab in patient with acute pharyngitis in Padjadjaran Clinic.Methods: This study was a descriptive study. Specimen was taken from the patients in Padjadjaran Clinic on September until October 2014. Thirty-five patients with acute pharyngitis that met the selection criteria were recruited for throat swab. Then, specimens obtained were performed an identification testing to determine whether there was a colonization of Streptococcus pyogenes. Results: Thirty five patients were found with acute pharyngitis consist of 14 male and 21 female, with age ranged between 16−34 years old. From the identification testing result, Streptococcus pyogenes was not found from throat swabs of patient with acute pharyngitis in Padjadjaran Clinic.Conclusions: This study found no colonization of Steptococcus pyogenes in throat swabs of acute pharyngitis patients in Padjadjaran Clinic, however Streptococcus pyogenes was not the causative fact of acute pharyngitis. [AMJ.2016;3(1):69–72] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n1.716