Using two chloroplast universal primers, haplotipic within and among populations of Pinus merkusii had been evaluated, in order to access paternal variation of this species. The aim of this study was to investigate variation of chloroplast microsatellite in P. merkusii. Using two universal chloroplast microsatelites, a total of 18 chloroplast haplotypes were found among 730 individuals surveyed in 10populations in Java. Private haplotypes mostly found at eastern Java populations. The number ofdetected haplotypes (Na) within populations ranged between 5 and 14. Variation of haplotypes (h) was relatively hight; it ranged between 0.727 and 0.858. Neiâs genetic distance among populations was very low (Da=0.030). Moreover, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed genetic variation originated from within population but the value was insignificant.It was concluded that private haplotypes found in eastern Java might show gene pool of P. merkusii in Java. These detected haplotypes are of important information for genetic resources conservation anf breeding strategy of P. merkusii.
Calliandra calothyrsus was introduced to Indonesia from Guatemala in 1930s and had been planted widely throughout Indonesia for fuel wood. Genetic diversity within and among population is an important factor for initiating breeding program. Aim in this study was to evaluate genetic structure of C. calothyrsus in Indonesia, to obtain a better understanding of the history of the distribution and efficiency of breeding strategy of this species. Leaf samples were collected in a seedling seed orchard plot from 10 populations. Six RAPD markers consisted of 34 loci were used to analyze genetic diversity and genetic structure. The results showed that genetic diversity was in low to moderate level (mean HE= 0.321). The AMOVA analysis showed that genetic differentiation among geographical sources was significant, also among populations within geographical sources and among individual within populations as well. It was revealed that the 10 populations originated from only two ancestors. The limited number of ancestors resulted low to moderate genetic distances among populations (mean Da=0.070). In conclusion, C. calothyrsus has moderate genetic diversity within population and weak genetic structure among populations. Genetic diversity in population/individual level should be considered as a selection unit in the breeding strategies.
Calophyllum inophyllum atau nyamplung tersebar secara alami dan luas di hampir seluruh pantai di Indonesia. Keragaman genetik merupakan pertimbangan penting dalam mendukung keberhasilan strategi pemuliaan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keragaman genetik di dalam populasi dan kedekatan genetik antar populasi nyamplung. Contoh daun digunakan sebagai cetakan DNA; dikumpulkan dari 10 populasi alam dan 1 populasi hutan tanaman. Lima penanda RAPD (random Â amplified Â polymorphism Â DNA) Â yangÂ terdiri Â dariÂ 30 Â lokus Â polimorfik Â digunakan Â untuk analisis Â genetik. Â Hasil Â penelitian Â menunjukkan Â bahwa Â keragaman Â genetik Â di Â dalamÂ populasi nyamplung Â termasuk Â dalamÂ nilai Â rendah Â sampai Â sedang Â (rerata Â HE=0,186).Â Alel Â privat Â tidak ditemukan pada setiap populasi. Analisis AMOVA (analysis of molecular variance) menunjukkan perbedaan genetik antar pulau tidak memberikan nilai yang signifikan terhadap keragaman genetik; nilainya dipengaruhi oleh perbedaan antar populasi dan individu pohon. Jarak genetik antar populasi termasuk dalam nilai yang rendah sampai sedang (rerata Da=0,250). Analisis klaster membagi 11 populasi menjadi dua klaster; klaster I terdiri dari populasi Selayar, Lombok, Gunung Kidul dan Padang, klaster II terdiri dari populasi Way Kambas, Madura, Ketapang, Dompu, dan Yapen. Kedekatan genetik antar populasi tidak berhubungan dengan kedekatan posisi geografi. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa keragaman genetik di dalam populasi dan kedekatan genetik antar populasi nyamplung termasuk dalam nilai sedang. Satuan seleksi dalam strategi pemuliaan harus mempertimbangkan keragaman genetik dalam tingkat populasi atau individu pohon.
Screening primer is an effective method to develop microsatellite markers from related taxa. Aim of this studyÂ was to develop microsatellite markers of four Shorea producing tengkawang oil, i.e. Shorea gysbertiana, Shorea macrophylla, Shorea pinanga and Shorea stenoptera by screening microsatellite primers of Shorea curtisii. Leaf samples of the four Shorea were collected from nursery at Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research in Yogyakarta. Four microsatellite primers of S. curtisii i.e. Shc-1, Shc-2, Shc-7 and Shc-9 had been used to screen. Results showed that numerous alleles were shared among the Shorea. The expected heterozygosity (HE) for locus Shc-1 ranged between 0.594 and 0.722; locus Shc-2 ranged between 0.219 and 0.611; locus Shc-7 ranged between 0.594 and 0.778; and locus Shc-9 ranged between 0.594 and 0.844. Coefficient of inbreeding (FIS) value was low and it was insignificant deviated from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) atÂ almost all loci except Shc-1 of S.Â pinanga. A dendrogram showed two clusters; S. gysbertsiana and S. macrophylla represented in one cluster, while S. pinanga and S. stenoptera represented in another cluster. Therefore the developed microsatellite markers are possibleÂ to be applied for studying population genetics and mating system of these species.
When genetic base in a seed orchard is narrow, a startegy of genetic infusion should be applied to broaden and maintain its ganetic variation over several successive generations. For this purpose, genetic-infusion populations were established in tree improvement programs of Pinus merkusii located in jember. To be successful genetic variation of the infusion populations should be assessed. This study was aimed to determine genetic diversity of three infusion populations of P merkusii i.e. Takengon, janto and Blankejeren population using five microsatellite markersi. The resultsÂ showed that gene diversity of plus trees in the seed orchard wasÂ at a moderate level (HE=0.508).Significant inbreeding deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was detected (FIS = 0.073). Gene diversity of the infusion populations was comparatively high. It ranged between 0.498 (Janto) and 0.524 (Blankejeren). The FIS was low and insiqnificant deviation from HWE at any genetic infusion populations. The genetic differentiation among the populations (in both seed orchard and genetic infusion) was very low (FST=0.003) indicating that they were genetically related. It is recommended that the infusion populations have a potential to maintain to genetic diversity in the seed orchard.However, Since they are related, it is necessary to find other potential genetic infusion populations that could broaden genetic diversity more effectively in the seed ochard.
The study aimed to assess genetic diversity and genetic relationship of ulin wildlings randomly collected from a nursery and originated from Bukit Soeharto natural forest, East Kalimantan. DNA templates were extracted from leaf samples of 1.5 years old wildings. Five RAPD primers consisted 55 polymorphic loci were used for genetic studies. Genetic diversity and relationship were analyzed using GenAlex software. The results showed moderate mean value of genetic diversity (HE=0,345, SE 0,015) of the wildings. Forty eight wildings were clustered in only 3 groups; almost all wildings (65%) were clustered in one main cluster. Moreover, 4 wildlings were clones (8%). In conclusion, the 48 wildings of ulin consisted high genetic relationship and individual clones that reflects the low genetic diversity of this species.
Aims of this study were to develop and characterize microsatellite markers from three species of Pinus i.e P. densiflora, P. Pinaster and P. Taeda were screened to amplify microsatellite in P. merkusii. The results showed that 5 out of the 12 developed microsatellite markers by dual suppression amplified at a single polymorphic locus; otherwise there was no polymorphic locus of the 12 screened microsatellite markers. However, it is difficult to compare the efficiency of these two method because of the limited number of the screened primers used in this study.
Flowering are influenced by internal factors, such as genetic and phytohormone, and environment factors, such as sunlight and nutrition intake. The flowering characteristics influence fruiting and genetic diversity seedlings through mating systems. This study aims to assess flowering and fruiting characteristics and to determine pattern of mating system of a Calophyllum inophyllum plantation at Watusipat, Gunung Kidul. Flowering and fruiting were observed at 4 locations, 3 parts of crown, and 4 main directions to know the effects of sunlight, nutrition intake and phytohormone in the flowering process. Mating system was assessed by comparing genetic diversity values between parent trees and offsprings. The values of genetic diversity were analyzed using 5 RAPD primers with 17 polymorphic loci. Analysis of variant showed that the locations, crown parts, directions and interaction between a location and direction significantly affected to differences number of flowers and fruits. Values of genetic diversity (h) of parent trees ranged between 0.1471 and 0.3056. The values increased at almost overall offsprings; it ranged between 0.2864 and 0.3750. Values of genetic distance (Da) between parent trees were high and very high (0.197 â 0.364), but the values was decreased between parent trees and their offspring, even between offspring populations. A dendrogram showed two main clusters; first cluster consisted parent trees at up edge with rare trees and second cluster consisted sub cluster parent trees at up edge; sub cluster parent trees at down middle; and sub cluster parent trees at down edge and overall offsprings. Flowering/ fruiting characteristics and pattern of mating systems of C. inophyllum were briefly discussed. Key words : Flowering characteristic, genetic diversity, Calophyllum inophyllum, RAPD analysis
Genetic diversity value of offspring might indicate a reproductive success in a forest. Aim in this study was to access genetic diversity values of offspring of Shorea leprosula from different forest types. Leaf samples were collected from six population i.e. a plantation from Carita, and five natural forests from Gunung Bunga A and B, SBK, ITCI and Gunung Lumut. Using four microsatellite markers, the results showed that SBK population maintained high value of genetic diversity. Values of expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged between 0.717Â (Carita) and 0.836 (SBK). Values of coefficient inbreeding (F) were insignificant deviated from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, but the value was significant in SBK population. PCA analysis demonstrated a cluster among Gunung Bunga A, SBK, ITCI, and Gunung Lumut. Amova showed that different province significantly contributed 1% to the value of genetic diversity of S. leprosula.
The aims of this study were to assess genetic diversity within populations and genetic relationshipÂ among populations of C. inophyllum. Leaf samples as template DNA were collected from 10 naturalÂ populations and 1 plantation. Five random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) markers consistedÂ 30 loci were conducted to genetic analysis. Results showed genetic diversity within populations wereÂ in low to moderate level (mean HE=0.186). There is no private allele in any populations. The analysisÂ of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic differentiation among Islands was insignificant;Â but the differentiation was siginificant among populations and individual trees. Genetic distanceÂ among populations was in low to moderate level (mean Da=0.250). Cluster analysis clearly dividedÂ the 11 populations into 2 clusters; cluster I consisted Selayar, Lombok, Gunung Kidul and PadangÂ populations; cluster II consisted Way Kambas, Madura, Ketapang, Dompu, and Yapen populations.Â The genetic relationships did not associate with their geographical locations. In conclusion, geneticÂ diversity and genetic relationship among populations of C. inophyllum was in moderate level.