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ROLES OF VITAMIN C AND VITAMIN E ON DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED RENAL AND LIVER TOXICITY IN RATS Djabir, Yulia Yusrini; Usmar, Usmar; Wahyudin, Elly; Mamada, Sukamto S; Hamka, Ika Reskia N; S. Putri, Dila Pramitha; Amalia, Irma
Nusantara Medical Science Journal Volume 1 No. 2 April - Juni 2016
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Hasanuddin

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Introduction: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapy agent that has potent effects against various cancer types. However, DOX may elicit renal and liver toxicity. Objectives: To examine the role of vitamin C and vitamin E in reducing DOX renal and liver toxicity. Methods: Male rats (220-330 g) were assigned to one of the treatment groups. Group I was healthy controls. Group II was given DOX (20 mg/kg b.wt). Group III was given vitamin C (250 mg/kg b.wt) for 7 days prior to DOX injection. Group IV was given vitamin E (250 mg/kg b.wt) for 7 days prior to DOX injection. Group V was given oil vehicle for 7 days prior to DOX injection. Results: Vitamin C was effective to reduce both renal and liver dysfunction. However, vitamin E protective effects were only convincing in lowering DOX-induced renal toxicity but not liver toxicity. Both vitamins prevented elevated DOX-induced oxidative stress. Conclusion: Both vitamin C and vitamin E can help to reduce DOX toxicity in rat kidney, but only vitamin C that has clear benefits on improving liver toxicity after DOX injection. Keywords: Doxorubicin, renal toxicity, liver toxicity, vitamin E, vitamin C
The effect of kersen's skin infusion (Muntingia calabura L.) on blood uric acid levels of the rats (Rattus novergicus) Burhan, Asril; Usmar, Usmar; Zulham, Zulham; Andarwiyati, Ana
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia JKKI, Vol 9, No 3, (2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20885/JKKI.Vol9.Iss3.art7

Abstract

Background: Uric Acid or Gout is the results of purine metabolism, i.e. the enzymatic reshuffle of body cells from dinucleotide or ribonucleotide acids. High uric acid levels can be settled in the central joints and mesenchymal tissues such as the kidney.Objective: To determine an effect of administering the Kersen's (Muntingia calabura L.) ripe skin infusion against uric acid levels in the rats which have been induced with caffeine.Methods: Eighteen rats was divided into six groups, i.e. three as a control group (negative, positive and normal) and three as a treatment group (0,5%, 1%, and 2% doses). The measurements of blood uric acid levels were performed before induction, after induction and after treatment on 9th, 12nd, and 15th days. Results: There was a reduction of the uric acid levels in the rats which administered by ripe Kersen's fruit skin infusion at 1% with 3,43 mg/dL and 2% with 3.32 mg/dL doses. However, this reduction is not equivalent to the effect of allopurinol control decreased at 2.9 mg/dL. Statistical analysis results with Complete Randomized Design (RAL) revealed that positive control group, infusion in 1% and 2% dose did not have a significant difference with normal controls, that means allopurinol and both doses test give an effect to return the uric acid to normal conditions.Conclusion: The ripe Kersen's (Muntingia Calabura) fruit skin infusion provides a reduction effect on blood uric acid levels in the rats (Rattus Novergicus) that have been induced by caffeine. Concentration of infusion that reduced effect of blood uric acid levels in the rats are at 1% ( 1 g/ 200 gBW) and 2% (2 g/200 gBW). However, the reduction is not equivalent to the positive control of Allopurinol.
PENGARUH KETINGGIAN TEMPAT TUMBUH TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN SITOTOKSIK EKSTRAK RIMPANG LENGKUAS (ALPINIA GALANGA L.) Lallo, Subehan; Lewerissa, Ade Christie; Rafi'i, Akhmad; Usmar, Usmar; Ismail, Ismail; Tayeb, Rosany
Majalah Farmasi dan Farmakologi Vol 23, No 3 (2019): MFF
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/mff.v23i3.9406

Abstract

Rimpang Lengkuas (Alpinia galanga L.) merupakan tanaman yang telah banyak digunakan sebagai rempah dan obat tradisional dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Tanaman ini mengandung senyawa bioaktif flavonoid yang memiliki efek antioksidan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ketinggian tempat tumbuh terhadap aktivitas antiokasidan dan toksisitas dari ekstrak rimpang lengkuas (Alpinia galanga L.). Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan cara maserasi sedangkan kadar polifenol dan flavonoid total dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Folin-ciocalteu dan metode kolorimetri yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan alat spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Uji aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Pikrihidrazil) dan sitotoksisitas dengan menggunakan metode BSLT (Brine Shrimp Lethaly Test). Ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut etil asetat diperoleh rendemen sebesar 2,24% untuk dataran rendah,  3,51% dataran sedang dan dataran tinggi sebesar 3,77%. Analisis kadar fenolik dan flavanoid diperoleh berturut turut dari dataran rendah ke tinggi sebesar 6,08±0,26% dan 2,25±0,05%, 5,09±0,14% dan 1,09±0,08, 5,47±0,24% dan 1,16±0,3%. Aktifitas antioksidan yang tertinggi diperoleh pada dataran rendah diperoleh IC50 332,48 bpj, kemudian pada dataran tinggi dengan IC50 447,14 bpj dan pada dataran sedang diperoleh IC50 sebesar 518,57 bpj. Uji sitotoksik terhadap ketiga ekstrak menunjukkan hasil LC50 yang tidak terlalu berbeda antara ketiga lokasi tersebut.
Aktivitas Anti-inflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Beluntas (Pluchea indica L.) pada Model Inflamasi Terinduksi CFA (Complete Freund's Adjuvant) : Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Beluntas Leaves(Pluchea indica L.) on Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced Inflammatory Model Sudirman, Reza Setiawan; Usmar, Usmar; Rahim, Abdul; Bahar, Muh. Akbar
Jurnal Farmasi Galenika (Galenika Journal of Pharmacy) Vol. 3 No. 2 (2017): (October 2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (229.095 KB) | DOI: 10.22487/j24428744.0.v0.i0.8921

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A research about anti-inflammatory effect of Beluntas leaves extract on CFA (Complete Freund?s Adjuvant) induced inflammatory model has been conducted. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of Beluntas leaves extract in alleviating CFA-induced paw edema in mice (Mus musculus). The number of mice used was 15 and was divided into 5 groups. Group I was treated with NaCMC. Group II, III, and IV were given suspension of Beluntas leaves extract 100 mg/Kg, 300 mg/Kg, and 500 mg/Kg BW, respectively. Group V was a positive control treated with suspension of diclofenac sodium 0.1 ml/10 g orally. The determination of anti-inflammatory potency was based on the average time needed to ameliorate the edema volume. The shortest  time period of edema reduction was produced by diclofenac sodium (within 9.33 days), then followed by Beluntas leaves extract with the concentration of 300 mg/Kg (within 12 days), 500 mg/Kg (within 14.33 days), and 100 mg/Kg (within 17.67 days), consecutively. These results are significantly different compared to negative control group which did not reduce the edema volume during 18 days of observation. In conclusion, ethanol extract of Beluntas leaves has an effective anti-inflamatory effect.
Sensor Asam Nukleat Sebagai Aktivator Imunitas Intrinsik Terhadap Patogen Intraseluler: Nucleic Acid Sensors as Activators of Intrinsic Immunity Against Intracellular Pathogens Usmar, Usmar; Arfiansyah, Rudi; Nainu, Firzan
Jurnal Farmasi Galenika (Galenika Journal of Pharmacy) Vol. 3 No. 2 (2017): (October 2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (480.173 KB) | DOI: 10.22487/j24428744.0.v0.i0.8922

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Vertebrata, termasuk manusia, dilengkapi dengan sistem imun alamiah dan sistem imun adaptif yang saling bekerjasama untuk melindungi tubuh dari material berbahaya, termasuk berbagai patogen dan sel-sel kanker. Kedua sistem imun tersebut secara rutin melakukan pengecekan terhadap beragam material yang ada di dalam tubuh. Salah satu cara yang digunakan oleh sistem imun dalam melaksanakan tugasnya adalah melalui pengaktifan sensor asam nukleat yang berfungsi untuk memberikan informasi keberadaan DNA atau RNA asing maupun kemungkinan adanya salinan DNA inang di sitoplasma atau lokasi lain yang tidak semestinya. Ketika genom patogen terdeteksi oleh sensor-sensor tersebut, selanjutnya efektor sistem imun akan diaktivasi melalui serangkaian proses dan berakhir dengan eradikasi asam nukleat target atau bahkan induksi apoptosis sel yang bersangkutan. Beberapa sensor asam nukleat yang telah ditemukan antara lain adalah Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), dan interferon-?-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Namun, sejumlah patogen telah memiliki mekanisme untuk menghindari sensor-sensor tersebut sehingga infeksi tetap dapat terjadi. Dengan demikian, berbagai penelitian untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan tentang bagaimana sensor asam nukleat bekerja sebagai salah satu respon imun intraseluler serta mekanisme terbentuknya resistensi patogen terhadap deteksi sensor tersebut sangat penting untuk didorong. Hal ini akan memberikan wawasan baru dalam pengembangan berbagai sediaan farmasi terkait seperti vaksin dan antimikroba intraseluler.
Pengaruh Suplementasi Madu Trigona terhadap Parameter Fungsi Hati dan Ginjal Tikus Albino (Rattus norvegicus) yang Diberikan Simvastatin: Effect of Trigona Honey Supplementation on Liver and Kidney Function in SimvastatinAdministered Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Mamada, Sukamto Salang; Usmar, Usmar; Aliyah, Aliyah; Aminullah, Aminullah; Rahayu, Ayu Indah; Hidayat, Khaldun; Salampe, Mirnawati
Jurnal Farmasi Galenika (Galenika Journal of Pharmacy) Vol. 4 No. 1 (2018): (March 2018)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.222 KB) | DOI: 10.22487/j24428744.2018.v4.i1.9960

Abstract

Simvastatin is a drug acting on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase enzyme leading to decrease of lipid level in plasma. Simvastatin is associated with pleiotropic effects such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective effect. This study aimed to observe effect of supplementation of trigona honey on parameters of liver function (SGPT and SGOT) and kidney function (urea) in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) given 40 mg/kg simvastatin. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (n=4). Each group was administered different treatments for 15 days orally. Group I was put as health control without any treatment, group II was given sodium carboxymethylcellulose (1% b/v) as negative control, group III was given simvastatin at the dose of 40 mg/kg, group IV was administered simvastatin (40 mg/kg) and trigona honey (6.5% v/v), while group V and VI were administered simvastatin (40 mg/kg) and ubiquinone (1.43 mg/kg); and simvastatin (40 mg/kg), trigona honey (6.5% v/v), and ubiquinone (1.43 mg/kg), respectively. Upon the treatments, level of SGOT, SGPT, and ureum was determined. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference tests (p=0.05). According to the analysis, it was concluded that supplementation of trigona honey in rats administered simvastatin showed significantly lower level of all parameters than groups of simvastatin and controls.