Bambang Nuryanto, Bambang
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The Potential Biological Agent Bacteria Against for Controling Important Pathogens on Rice Dewi, Ratna Sari; Giyanto, Giyanto; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Dadang, Dadang; Nuryanto, Bambang
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 16 No 1 (2020)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (608.052 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.16.1.37-48

Abstract

The Potential Biological Agent Bacteria Against for Controling Important Pathogens on Rice At present, biological control technology for the main diseases of rice continues to grow. In the development of biological control technology, inhibition mechanism of pathogens in the development of disease in a plant population in a certain area becomes important. The aim of this study was to obtain potential biological agent bacteria for controlling important rice diseases based on antagonistic mechanism, ability to induce plant resistance and support plant fitness, and their compatibility. The results showed that Ralstonia pickettii TT47, Pseudomonas fluorescens P12, Chromobacterium sp. T51118, Bacillus subtilis 451 and 154, and Streptomyces sp. T51105 have an antibiosis mechanism by producing secondary metabolites and volatile compounds. Additionaly, Chromobacterium sp. and Streptomyces sp. also have a lysis mechanism on the basis of the chitinolityc enzyme production test. The antibiotic activity of R. pickettii and P. fluorescens were strong to P. oryzae on dual culture test with the highest inhibition up to 79.68% and 77.59% respectively. Inhibition growth of P. oryzae and R. solani mycelium on volatile tests up to 100% by Chromobacterium sp. T51118. Generally, all of biological agents were able to induce plant resistance and support to plant fitness. Compatibility test obtained R. pickettii, P. fluorescens, and Chromobacterium sp. were compatible. Based on the results, three biocontrol agent bacteria, namely P. fluorescens P12, R. pickettii TT47, and Chromobacterium sp. T51118 were excellent. They were able to suppress the growth of pathogens, were able to induce plant resistance and support plant fitness, as well as they have more diverse target pathogens, and compatible.
Hubungan Antara Inokulum Awal Patogen dengan Perkembangan Penyakit Hawar Upih pada Padi Varietas Ciherang Nuryanto, Bambang; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 16, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11724

Abstract

Study on the role of initial inoculums on disease development of rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn was conducted in glass house at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Gadjah Mada from December of 2009 to July of 2010. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of sclerotia and mycelium in plant debris as primary inoculum form of R. solani. Results indicated that both sclerotia and mycelium in plant debris significantly affect the development of rice sheath blight. Disease severity was closely related to the number of sclerotia on rice plant. The highest disease severity was observed in plant inoculated with 10 sclerotia per hills. Treatments of 6 sclerotia and 5 g plant debris per hills had comparable effect on disease severity and area under disease progress curve of rice sheath blight. The results suggested that sclerotia and mycelia in plant debris might play a major role as primary inocula of the disease in rice growing field.Kajian tentang peranan inokulum awal dalam perkembangan penyakit hawar upih padi (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) telah dilakukan di rumah kaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada dari bulan Desember 2009 sampai Juli 2010. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi arti penting sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami sebagai bentuk inokulum utama dari R. solani. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami berpengaruh nyata terhadap perkembangan penyakit hawar upih. Keparahan penyakit berhubungan erat dengan jumlah sklerotium yang menempel pada tanaman. Keparahan tertinggi terjadi pada tanaman dalam pot yang diinokulasi 10 sklerotium per rumpun. Perlakuan dengan 6 sklerotium dan 5 g serasah jerami mempunyai pengaruh yang sebanding terhadap keparahan dan luas area di bawah kurva perkembangan penyakit. Sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami mempunyai peran penting sebagai inokulum awal penyakit hawar upih di persawahan.
Penyakit Hawar Pelepah (Rhizoctonia solani) pada Padi dan Taktik Pengelolaannya Nuryanto, Bambang
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 21, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.22494

Abstract

Rice sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (AG-1), is one of diseases currently growing and widespread in rice-producing areas in Indonesia. Widely planting of short-type and many tillers rice varieties with high doses fertilized, especially urea, can increase the severity of sheath blight disease. Sheath blight disease is becoming increasingly important role in the rice production system, especially in intensive rice farming. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze epidemic components affecting sheath blight development to determine their management strategies. The sheath blight disease is observed to develop more severe in low areas (0−200 m above sea levels) than in the moderate and high areas, severity of disease is seen to increase in short-type many tillers rice varieties. Initial inoculum are sclerotia and the mycelia in plant debris that have an important role in the rice sheath blight development. However, sclerotia may fail to germinate due colonized by various kinds of antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Bacteria that are antagonistic to R. solani can be isolated from paddy soil containing compost. Mature compost can suppress germination of sclerotia of R. solani by 14%, while in the mature compost enriched with antagonistic bacteria can suppress the germination of sclerotia by 28%. Relative humidity and temperature around the plant affect the development of rice sheath blight disease. Relative humidity decreased 2.8% when watering is only done by flooding the trench around, and decreased by 4.4% when flooding of land only 1 time per week. Sheath blight control by implementing some components in an integrated epidemic have higher chances of success in suppressing the disease development. IntisariPenyakit hawar pelepah padi yang disebabkan oleh jamur Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (AG-1), merupakan salah satu penyakit yang saat ini berkembang dan tersebar luas di daerah-daerah penghasil padi di Indonesia. Penanaman secara luas padi varietas unggul tipe pendek beranakan banyak dan dipupuk dengan dosis tinggi terutama urea, dapat meningkatkan keparahan penyakit hawar pelepah. Penyakit hawar pelepah menjadi semakin penting peranannya di dalam sistem produksi padi sawah, terutama di daerah pertanian padi yang intensif. Oleh karena itu, perlu analisis komponen epidemi yang memengaruhi perkembangan hawar pelepah untuk menentukan strategi pengelolaannya. Pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa hawar pelepah berkembang lebih parah di daerah rendah (0−200 m dpl) daripada di daerah sedang dan tinggi, keparahan penyakit terlihat semakin meningkat pada varietas padi tipe pendek beranakan banyak. Inokulum awal berupa sklerosia dan miselium dalam serasah tanaman mempunyai peranan penting dalam perkembangan penyakit di pertanaman. Akan tetapi, sklerosia dapat gagal berkecambah karena dikoloni oleh berbagai spesies bakteri antagonis dalam tanah. Bakteri yang bersifat antagonis terhadap R. solani dapat diisolasi dari tanah sawah yang mengandung kompos. Kompos matang dapat menekan perkecambahan sklerosia sebesar 14%, sedangkan pada kompos matang yang diperkaya dengan bakteri antagonis dapat menekan perkecambahan sklerosia sebesar 28%. Kelembapan relatif dan suhu di sekitar tanaman padi memengaruhi perkembangan penyakit hawar pelepah. Kelembapan relatif menurun 2,8% ketika pengairan hanya dilakukan dengan cara penggenangan pada parit keliling, dan turun sebesar 4,4% ketika dilakukan penggenangan lahan 1 kali seminggu. Teknologi pengendalian hawar pelepah dengan menerapkan beberapa komponen epidemik secara terpadu mempunyai peluang keberhasilan tinggi dalam menekan perkembangan penyakit.