Koichiro Watanabe, Koichiro
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Journal : Journal of Southeast Asian Applied Geology

THE USE OF FORAMINIFERA FOSSILS FOR RECONSTRUCTING THE YOGYAKARTA GRABEN, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA Barianto, Didit Hadi; Kuncoro, Pentatok; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 2
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (395.217 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7256

Abstract

The Yogyakarta region is located in the southeastern part of Central Java, Indonesia. The region forms an elongated northeast – southwest-trending central depression bordered by two parallel faults in the west and east. These major faults divided the area into three parts, including the western, central and eastern parts. Herein, we investigate the relative uplift rate of the each part by using planktonic and benthonic foraminiferas. The foraminifera will show the initial position/datum of each part before uplift. Over sixty samples (primarily limestones and marls) were taken for this research. The uplift rates of each part were different and created a depressed block control by way of parallel faults. Based on foraminifera fossil observations, each block was in the same depositional environment (inner neritic) during N9. The present positions indicate that the western part was uplifted higher than the others, with this part being uplifted more than 590 meters. The central part was uplifted less than 120 meters, and the eastern part was uplifted above an altitude of 170-300 meters. Keywords: Foraminifera fossil, planktonic, benthonic, graben, uplift
MERCURY AND ARSENIC CONTAMINATION FROM SMALL SCALE GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES AT SELOGIRI AREA, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA Harijoko, Agung; Htun, Tin May; Saputra, Rodhie; Warmada, I Wayan; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Imai, Akira; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1689.074 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7235

Abstract

Small scale gold mines discussed here are located at Selogiri area, Central Java, Indonesia which was mined by local community mainly during gold rush in 1990s. This Selogiri gold deposit genetically is characterized by porphyry mineralization overprinted by epithermal system. The ore minerals assemblage consists of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, chalcocite and rare arsenopyrite. Chemical analysis of soil and stream sediment sampled over 1.5 km across at the Selogiri gold extraction site indicates that the site has been contaminated with mercury due to mining activities. The mercury concentrations in soil and stream sediments collected during dry season range from 0.01 to 481 ppm and 0.01 to 139 ppm, respectively, higher than background value of 0.05 ppm. In contrast, mercury concentration in stream sediments collected during rainy season from the same location as dry season sampling ranges from 0.01 to 13.42 ppm, and one sample has anomalous value of 331 ppm. This result show that rain water may disperse and decrease mercury concentration in stream sediments. In case of arsenic, although the ore contains rare arsenic minerals, arsenic concentration in bulk rock and ore is high ranging from 8 to 59 ppm, while the arsenic concentration in tailing is much higher ranging from 5.8 to 385 ppm. Chemical analyses on pyrite reveal that the pyrite grains contain arsenic and might be the source of arsenic in Selogiri mine site. However, analysis of dug-well water demonstrates that the mercury and arsenic content is still lower than the maximum allowable concentration. Keywords: Mercury, arsenic, contamination, Selogiri, gold mine
HOST ROCKS’ GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL OF POLYMETALLIC EPITHERMAL QUARTZ VEINS AT SORIPESA PROSPECT AREA, SUMBAWA ISLAND, INDONESIA Khant, Win; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 5, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2935.663 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7205

Abstract

The Soripesa prospect area is located at Maria village, Wawo district, Bima region in the eastern part of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. This area is a part of Cenozoic Calc-alkaline volcanic inner Banda- Sunda Arc. There are five main polymetallic epithermal quartz veins in the Soripesa prospect area, namely, Rini vein, Jambu air vein, Dollah vein,Merpati vein, and Arif vein. The dominant lithology is a lithic-crystal tuff of andesitic and dacitic composition and bedded limestone. Major oxides and trace elements were analyzed by using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to identify the host rock geochemistry. The main veins are hosted by andesitic and andesitic/ basaltic volcanic host rocks. Major elements compositions are affected by alteration. Based on the trace element data, host rocks of all veins were formed in the volcanic arc basalt (VAB) and island arc basalt (IAB) tectonic settings. Host rocks of Rini vein contain higher amount of precious and base metal elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Ag.etc.) than those of other host rocks. Keywords: Soripesa prospect area, lithology, tectonic setting, mineralization.
Fluid Inclusion Study Of The Polymetallic Epithermal Quartz Veins At Soripesa Prospect Area, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia Kant, Win; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 4, No 2
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3344.355 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7199

Abstract

The Soripesa prospect area is located at Maria village, Wawo district, Bima region in the eastern part of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. This area is a part of Cenozoic Calc-alkaline volcanic inner Banda-Sunda Arc. The dominant lithology of Soripesa prospect area are a lithic-crystal tuff of andesitic and dacitic composition and bedded limestone. There have five main polymetallic epithermal quartz veins in the Soripesa prospect area, namely, Rini vein, Jambu air vein, Dollah vein, Merpati vein, and Arif vein. Those quartz veins are hosted mainly in andesitic volcaniclastic rocks. Fluid inclusion study on those quartz veins is vey important to know the condition of hydrothermal fluids and their origin. Fluid inclusion study is conducted at the laboratory of Earth Resources Engineering Department, Kyushu University, Japan. Homogenization temperature, freeze temperature, eutectic temperature, and melting temperature can be known from fluid inclusion study. Based on fluid inclusion study, formation temperatures of all veins are between 250–260◦C. Melting temperature is between -0.2 to -3◦C. Based on the melting temperature, salinity (wt.% NaCl equiv.) of fluid inclusions is calculated by using Bodnar’s equation. Paleodepth of formations and pressure of trapping are also estimated by using formation temperature and salinity. Based on Hass (1971) diagram, estimated paleodepths of formations are 270 m for Merpati vein, 400 m for Dollah vein, 480 m for Rini vein, 570 m for Arif vein, and 680 m for Jambu Air vein, respectively. Pressure of trapping can also be estimated from depth of formation, density of lithostatic overburden, and gravity; 72 bars for Merpati vein, 106 bars for Dollah vein, 127 bars for Rini vein, 151 bars for Arif vien, and 180 bars for Jambu Air vein, respectively. Keywords: Soripesa, polymetallic quartz veins, homogenization temperature, salinity.
ORE MINERALOGY AND MINERAL CHEMISTRY OF PYRITE, GALENA, AND SPHALERITE AT SORIPESA PROSPECT AREA, SUMBAWA ISLAND, INDONESIA Kant, Win; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 4, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3683.914 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7191

Abstract

The Soripesa prospect area is located at Maria village, Wawo district, Bima region in the East Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. Lithology is dominantly composed of a lithic-crystal tuff of andesitic and dacitic composition and bedded limestone. The polymetallic epithermal quartz veins are hosted by andesitic volcaniclastic rocks. Within these veins, multiphases, colloform-crustiform, bedding to massive textures with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, azurite, and malachite are observed. Selected samples were analyzed by using ore microscopy and SEM-EDX. Ore minerals show replacement, ex-solution, colloform, and zonal textures. The paragenesis diagram was made from a careful study of polished sections and thin sections. Textures of ore minerals such as banded, exsolution, replacement, and zone, have been interpreted to correspond to the order of deposition. In pyrite, the average content of Co (0.45 wt.%) is higher than Ni content (0.14 wt.%) and it means that their origin may be hydrothermal origin. Average content ratio, Co:Ni is 2.81. Galena shows a low Ag content of 0.07 %in average. But they show a high Au content of 1.48 %in average. Sphalerite shows a low Fe content of 1.04 %in average and occasionally chalcopyrite inclusion/disease also occurred. Ga and Ge contents are also high in sphalerite. Co>Ni in pyrite, low content of Ag in Galena, low content of Fe and mole % FeS in sphalerite, high content of Ga and Ge, and log (Ga/Ge) in sphalerite, show that pyrite, galena, and sphalerite from Soripesa prospect area were formed under low temperature condition of hydrothermal fluid. Keywords: Ore textures, paragenesis, deposition, hydrothermal fluid, low temperature
Lateritization process of peridotites in Siruka, Choiseul, Solomon Islands V. Sagapoa, Christopher; Imai, Akira; Ogata, Takeyuki; Yonezu, Kotaro; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 3, No 2
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2319.578 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7184

Abstract

The lateritic weathering crusts exposed in Siruka, Choiseul Islands, Solomon Islands, were developed on the expense of serpentinized peridotite underlain by Siruka schists and Voza lavas with a subhorizontal contact. The lateritic profiles consist of three generalized zones: bedrock, saprolitic zone (weathered and decomposed zone) and the limonitic zones. The profiles demonstrate variations in depths and continuity but illustrate mineralogy and geochemical affinity down profile and are analogous to saprolitic nickel laterite deposits. Silica and magnesia in the bed rock and the saprolitic zones have been removed and only the residual elements (iron, chromium, aluminium, manganese, cobalt and nickel) remain in the limonitic zone. These elements are relatively concentrated as a result of the removal of the soluble elements. Nickel is associated with silica and magnesia, as lizardite ormixed gels (garnierite nickel ore) at the weathering fronts. On the other hand, nickel, with generally low concentrations (
Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rocks using multicationic parameters in the Sanggau Area, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia Linn Zaw, Kyaw; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Warmada, I Wayan; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6017.766 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7180

Abstract

Granitoid rock compositions from a range of tectonic environments are plotted on a multicationic diagram, based on major and trace element geochemistry and K-Ar dating. This shows that there is a different tectonic nature, rock affinity and suites. The basement granitoid rocks are ranging from diorite to granite composition. They appear to the products of crystallization differentiation of a calc-alkaline magma of island affinity and range to metaluminous granites, granodiorite and tonalite. The tectonic setting has two kinds which are subduction and post-subduction. The geochemical interpretation, origin and melting of mechanism and tectonic setting shows the types of granitoid are M and I-M type. The basement of granite and granodiorite are a segment of island arc that were happened the Sintang Intrusion as post subduction or syn-collision tectonic setting. Keywords: Petrogenetic, tectonic, affinity, Sintang Intrusion, Kalimantan
FLUID INCLUSION STUDIES OF THE EPITHERMAL QUARTZ VEINS FROM SUALAN PROSPECT, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA Tun, Myo Min; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Harijoko, Agung; Verdiansyah, Okki; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 6, No 2
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (952.327 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7218

Abstract

Sualan prospect is located at Talegong Sub-district of Garut Regency, West Java, Indonesia. The area constitutes calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. The rocks have experienced regional propylitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions from quartz veins were studied in order to constrain the nature, characteristics and evolution of fluids. Microthermometric measurements on fluid inclusion were carried out by freezing and heating experiment. Temperatures of homogenization (Th) and final melting of ice (Tm) were measured for primary, liquid-dominated, two-phase inclusions. The values of Th range from 160°C to 210°C and salinities range from 0.35 to 4.96 wt.% NaCl equiv. Formation temperature of the quartz veins are estimated at 180°C and 190°C and paleo-depth of formation are at 80m and 140m, respectively. Microthermometric data indicates that fluid mixing and dilution were important processes during the evolution of hydrothermal system. Based on fluid inclusion types, microthermometric data, trapping temperature, paleo-depth, texture of quartz and hydrothermal alteration types, quartz veins from prospect were developed under epithermal environment. Keywords: Quartz vein, fluid inclusions, microthermometry, salinities, formation temperature, paleo-depth, epithermal, Sualan prospect.
Characteristics Of Hydrothermal Alteration In Cijulang Area, West Java, Indonesia Tun, Myo Min; Warmada, I Wayan; Harijoko, Agung; Al-Furqan, Reza; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 7, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jag.16917

Abstract

Characterization of hydrothermal alteration in theCijulang area (West Java, Indonesia) was carriedout using shortwave infrared spectroscopy. Hydrothermal alteration in the Cijulang area occurs in the calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Shortwave infrared spectroscopic measurements of reflectance for altered rocks and minerals were carried out by ASD-FieldSpec and the laboratory spectra acquired were then analysed with “The Spectral Geologist” software program. Shortwave infrared spectroscopy is capable of detecting most finegrained alteration minerals from different hydrothermal alteration zones. Characteristic alteration minerals identified from the SWIR technique include pyrophyllite, alunite, kaolinite, dickite, illite, montmorillonite, polygorskite, gypsum, epidote, paragonite, and muscovite. Most of the spectra show mixture ofalteration minerals and only a few display pure spectra of single mineral. The crystallinity of kaolinite from the samples was also determined from the reflectance spectra and show moderately to high crystallinity. Alteration system of the Cijulang prospectis similar to others documented high-sulfidation epithermal deposits, such as Rodalquilar (Spain), Summitville (Colorado), and Lepanto (Philippines). A characteristic alteration sequence and zonation of advanced argillic, argillic and propylitic alterationoutward from the silica core has resulted from the progressive cooling and neutralization of hot acidic magmatic fluid with the host rocks.Keywords: Cijulang, High-sulfidation, Alteration minerals, Shortwave Infrared Spectroscopy
HIGH SULFIDATION EPITHERMAL MINERALIZATION AND ORE MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES OF CIJULANG PROSPECT, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA Tun, Myo Min; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Harijoko, Agung; Verdiansyah, Okki; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 6, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4446.559 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7215

Abstract

Cijulang is a high-sulfidation epithermal system hosted in the calc-alkaline rocks of andesite lava and lapilli tuff. Mineralization in the prospect is characterized by pyrite-enargite-gold and associated acid sulfate alteration. Studies on ore and gangue mineral assemblages and their mutual textural relationships were carried out in order to explore the paragenetic sequence of mineralization. Hypogene mineralization primarily occurs in the silicic core and the advanced argillic zone in the form of massive replacement, fracture-filling veinlets, vug-filling, patches and dissemination. Mineralization is apparently controlled by both lithology and structures. Common ore minerals include pyrite, enargite, luzonite, tennantite, chalcopyrite, covellite, galena, emplectite and Te-bearing minerals. The paragenetic study indicates that the epithermal prospect evolved from an early stage of intense acid leaching resulting in the formation of vuggy silica and advantage argillic mineral assemblage which was followed by the sulfides deposition. Two metal stages were identified during ore deposition: an early Fe-As-S stage and the later Cu-Fe-As-S stage. The former stage is char- acterized high-sulfidation state sulfides such as enargite/ luzonite+covellite whereas a later stage of Cu- Fe-As–S is represented by intermediate sulfidation state sulfides assemblage of tennantite+chalcopyrite. Gold is probably introduced in the early stage within the ore system and more abundant in the late stage. Keywords: Cijulang, high-sulfidation, acid sulfate, mineralization, enargite, paragenetic, metal stages