The Special Economic Zones (SEZs) is one of the tourism agglomeration models whose effectiveness in meeting development goals needs to be analyzed. Tourism agglomeration policies that are not in line with the national development goals will cause inequality, especially in the welfare of the local community. The aim of this study is to analyses the effectiveness of SEZ policies in achieving regional development goals by comparing the community prosperity level with the goals of tourism development. The study is conducted by employing the meta-analysis method and uses secondary data of economic study from the West Nusa Tenggara Province which compares the National Development Index (HDI) with the regional tourism development targets. There is a quite large gap between the quality of education of the local community and the standard of human resource (HR) requirements specified in the SEZs. Management of tourism agglomeration must be carried out with a sustainable development approach, namely by integrating tourism development strategies into regional development.
The concept of community-based ecotourism is one of the sustainable development concepts suitable to be applied to traditional regions with nature tourism potential. Differences in culture between traditional communities and the outside world are not an obstacle in developing the region because with their local wisdom traditional communities can participate in protecting and managing their natural surrounding and at the same time become an attraction for other communities. However, outside societies can influence the culture of the traditional communities that originally tends to be oriented on biocentrism to shift towards anthropocentrism. This can eventually hamper the continuity of ecotourism development. This can be seen from the traditional communities at Lake Sentani, the case study of the author. The study is based on literature and secondary data and used descriptive analysis. The traditional communities of Sentani do not yet fully participate in the development of tourism in its surroundings. Their involvement in tourism development is more focused on ceremonial activities such as can be seen at the Lake Sentani Festival which is organized every year by the government. Besides this, after coming into contact with modern life the traditional communities of Lake Sentani rarely perform their daily activities based on local wisdom aimed at natural conservation of the lake. The development of urban areas in the surroundings also influences changes in land use in the Lake Sentani region which then causes among others erosion, sedimentation, and pollution of the lake water. Socio-economic and cultural changes in the traditional communities of Sentani and the growth of development also contribute towards ecological change in the area of Lake Sentani, the place they live in.
Belitung is one of the regencies in Bangka Belitung Province that has quite large mineral resources of tin mining and has provided a lot of benefit to Belitung Regency for hundreds years. However, these unsustainable mineral resources reserves dwindling and has impact in environmental damage. Meanwhile, Belitung also has the potential of nature tourism that is very unique. The tourism sector is expected to replace the previously development bases of Belitung regency in mining sector, which in turn could improve the welfare of society. This policy also supported by determination Tanjung Kelayang area as a National Tourism Strategic Area. The acceleration of tourism development has not been balanced yet by the readiness of the community, both of as a host and as a business tourism operator. This study aims to assess the community readiness take on tourism-based development. Identifying the readiness both of as the host, which encompass cognitive, affective a nd conative aspects as well as tourism businesses operators, which encompass cognitive, functional and social competencies. Based on the results of analysis, known that the local community of Tanjung Kelayang area still not ready either as a host or as a tourism business operators. Miners mindset for hundreds years has been deeply embedded in the public mindset. However, along with the accelerating of tourism development, the community began to transform into the tourism community. Moreover, some peopleâs respond is to begin changing their professions to the tourism sector, despite of not continuous and only rely on a drop of skills. Based on the results of analysis, also noted that the communityâs competencies as a tourism business operators are still very low level, especially of cognitive competencies and functional competencies, which indicates the low competitiveness of Belitung tourism. People who started to switch the professions in tourism sector, currently do not have the educational background of tourism and neither any formal tourism training yet. All the expertise and skills that they have only rely on the expertise and skills that has learned autodidact and hereditary. Therefore, formed the Local Working Group (LWG) as an opinion leader whose role is to foster and to assist the communities, and also to mediate the various elements of tourism actors in order to collaborate in the development of tourism.
For years, Bandung city has been known and popular as a tourist destination.Various tourist attraction and activities have been developed so that it has attracted visitors from various community groups. One of the attractives and potentials tourism activities which could be developed is a scientific tourism. Although this type of tourism was formally introduced recently, but actually this type of tourism has been known in Indonesia for a long time, especially by students. As an educational city, Bandung is very potential to be a scientific tourist destination, not only for domestic tourists but also for foreign tourists. Scientific tourism can be grouped into three, namely 1) the tourism activities where tourism senses are more dominant than scientific sense, 2) tourism activities where scientific senses are more dominant than tourism sense, and 3) tourism activities where tourism attractions are relatively in balance with scientific elements. Among these three types of scientific tourism, the second type of scientific tourism was most often found in Bandung. Actually, the common problems frequently experienced by scientific tourism attraction, especially on the third type of scientific tourism that highlight the scientific aspects, was relatively low in the number of visitors. This figure proved a relatively low level of interest for community towards scientific tourism. Therefore efforts needed to be carried out to improve the scientific tourism attractions, thereby increasing public enthusiasm for scientific tourism. Strategy which was needed to develop a sustainable scientific tourism consisted of Tourism Attractions Development, Promotion, Management, and Supporting Strategies
One of the factors affecting tourism is the climatic conditions. It could become the attractiveness of tourism destinations, yet it can also interfere the performance of tourism in certain areas. In the last ten years, global climate have been changing, marked by changes in temperature, intensity and distribution of rainfall, wind speeds and patterns, etc. Climate change may impact tourism sector in various countries. Indonesia, as an archipelagic country and one of the world tourism destination, with various attractions, are vulnerable to climate change. One of the tourist destinations most vulnerable to climate change impacts is coastal tourism area. This paper discusses the phenomenon of climate change in Indonesia and the possible impact on coastal tourism from both, supply and demand sides. From the supply side, climate change could impact on coastal natural resource which has become the attraction of the coastal tourism, while from the demand side, climate change can affect the pattern of tourist visits to coastal tourism destinations. Although climate change and its impacts have not been felt by tourists and also managers of local tourism area, adaptation programs need to be proposed. Pangandaran beach tourism area, one of the leading and popular tourist destinations in West Java province, will be the focus of discussion in this paper.
Mass tourism is criticized because it jeopardizes environment, economic, socio-integrity of tourism destinations, and it can lead to impoverishment of local societies. Ecotourism emerges as an alternative of tourism which is more environmentally friendly and offers inclusion of social responsibility. This research aims to assess whether the ecotourism practices in disaster-prone conservation area fulfil the ideal ecotourism criteria and to explain the importance of governance in realising ecotourism practices. The result showed that ecotourism practices in the Merapi area are insufficient to fulfil ideal ecotourism criteria. It is found that quality of communication and collaboration, political views and character of planning (reactive or adaptive) determine the practice of ecotourism.
Tourism has an important role in regional development particularly in the improvement of quality of life and human life. Many tourism activities have been developed in hazard areas and consequently it has risks to the disaster. Disaster in tourism areas influences the performance of tourism particularly the number of tourist who visit the areas. The impact of disaster depends on disaster characteristics, vulnerability, and capacity of tourism areas. The impact will be experienced not only by tourist and tourism employees but also by other sectors and population in the area, as well as other related areas. Based on the important role of tourism in site/regional development and the impact which might be causedbu the disaster, management of disaster particularly disaster mitigation is important in the development of tourism areas.Keywords: dampak kebencanaan, kawasan wisata, mitigasi
The trend of tourist activities has changed in the last ten years, particularly on the awareness about environmental quality, education and involvement of local community. This paper discusses the ecotourism area that has become a tourist attraction as well as environment conservation. Part of ecotourism concept has been applied in the development of Capollaga except for the rest of the areas. Local community has not been intensively involved and has not obtained the optimum benefits from ecotourism in the area. Ecotourism has not contributed much in stimulating the economy of local community as well as of local income. In order to meet the criteria of ecotourism concept, efforts particularly involvement of local community is needed.
Coastal areas have various natural resources potency that can be useful for various activities or land uses. For years, many cities and growth center have been developed in coastal areas. Besides its potency and opportunity for development, some coastal areas are located at hazards areas that can trigger a disaster particularly a tsunami. The impact of disaster (tsunami) to coastal areas is influenced by hazard characteristic, vulnerability, and capcity of the areas. Tsunami that was triggered by strong earthquake in Indian Ocean at December 2004 had caused a huge impact to the coastal areas which covered a serious damage in coastal ecosystem, devastation of housings and other buildings, fish pounds and agricultural areas, local and regional infrastructures, social facilities, economy, pollution of surface water, tsunami waste, etc. The areas also suffer social impact such as interruption of education process, and disease endemics because of poor sanitation condition and health services, as well as psychological disorder (trauma, stress) among Aceh population and their families. Program to rebuild Aceh have been done by BRR (Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Agency) supported by any other institutions, government as well as privates institutions, from local, regional/national and international.
Urban areas, particularly metropolitan areas, throughout the world are increasingly faced environmental degradations (pollution squatter settlements, wastes) as well as economic and social problems (unemployment, violence, street children). Local governments, particularly in developing countries, have implemented various programs aimed to improve the quality of city in Brazilia, faced the same problems with other cities. The local government of Curitiba has been implementing various program in order to create a sustainable cities. The process of redesigning Curitiba focused on the transportation system in the city. Integration of traffic management, public transportation and land-use planning have successfully minimized the downtown traffic. It's also encouraging social interactions by providing more leisure areas (parks, open spaces, etc) and pedestrian zones in the city centre. Furthermore, the plan also encourages the use of public transport and recycling system in order to achieve an environmentally healthy city. Sustainable Curitiba has been achieved since it was supported by the strong leader, who has a long experience and a vision in urban planning, as well as supported by social capital of community participation. Curitiba now is the world's showcase ecocities and ecological capital of Brazil. Urban managers and planners from all over the world learn from the successfull of Curitiba's sustainable development.