Estiati, Amy
Pusat Penelitian Bioteknologi, LIPI

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Regulasi Keamanan Hayati Produk Rekayasa Genetik di Indonesia Estiati, Amy; Herman, M.
Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian Vol 13, No 2 (2015): Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/akp.v13n2.2015.129-146

Abstract

EnglishGenetically Modified Organism (GMO) has been believed to enhance human life quality and prosperity. GMO is any organism whose genetic material has been altered by the application of recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering. This technology can be used to improve plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, biofortification and production of pharmaceuticals. Rice resistant to stem borer, papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus, soybean resistant to herbicide, and Golden rice that contains beta carotene are the example of GMOs. However, the use of GMO still raises public concern on whether the GMO might pose a risk to environment, biodiversity, human, and animal health or not. For that reason, countries will enforce precautionary approach in utilization of GMO either for research or commercial by implementing the existing or new regulations in the country. In Indonesia, Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 21 year of 2005 (PP No. 21/2005) on Biosafety of GMO, had been established. Biosafety of GMO includes environmental safety, food safety and/or feed safety. The enforcement of PP No. 21/2005 is to prevent potential adverse risks to biodiversity as a result of the utilization of GMO and to prevent the negative risks to human, animal, and fish health as a result of production process, preparation, storage, distribution, and utilization of GMO. This paper gives the overview of Indonesia’s regulation on the biosafety of GMO and the current status of GMO in Indonesia.IndonesiaProduk Rekayasa Genetik (PRG) diakui memiliki potensi besar untuk peningkatan kehidupan dan kesejahteraan manusia. PRG adalah organisme yang telah mengalami modifikasi genetik dengan menggunakan teknologi DNA rekombinan atau rekayasa genetik. Teknologi rekayasa genetik dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman terhadap cekaman biotik dan abiotik, biofortifikasi dan  produksi bahan farmasi. Padi tahan hama penggerek batang, pepaya tahan penyakit papaya ringspot virus, kedelai toleran herbisida, dan Golden rice yang mengandungbeta carotene adalah contoh-contoh PRG yang telah dikembangkan. Namun demikian, pemanfaatan tanaman PRGmasih mengundang kekhawatiran masyarakat bahwa produk tersebut mungkin dapat menimbulkan risiko terhadap lingkungan, keanekaragaman hayati, kesehatan manusia dan hewan.  Sehubungan dengan itu, secara global pemanfaatan dan peredaran PRG baik untuk tujuan penelitian dan pengembangan maupun komersial diatur oleh peraturan perundang-undangan atau pedoman yang baru atau yang sudah ada dan berlaku dalam suatu negara. Di Indonesia, telah  disahkan  Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia No. 21 Tahun 2005 tentang Keamanan Hayati PRG yang diberlakukan baik untuk PRG yang diintroduksi dari luar negeri maupun hasil riset nasional. Keamanan hayati PRG adalah kemanan lingkungan, keamanan pangan, dan/atau keamanan pakan. Pemberlakuan PP No. 21/2005 ditujukan untuk mencegah kemungkinan timbulnya risiko yang merugikan bagi keanekaragaman hayatisebagai akibat pemanfatan PRG dan mencegah timbulnya risiko yang merugikan dan membahayakan kesehatan manusia dan hewan dan ikan sebagai akibat dari proses produksi, penyiapan, penyimpanan, peredaran, dan pemanfaatan pangan PRG. Dalam artikel ini diuraikan  mengenai regulasi yang berlaku di Indonesia terkait dengan keamanan hayati PRG beserta lembaga otoritas yang dibentuk dan status PRG di Indonesia.
Review: Rice momilactones, potential allelochemical for weeds suppression ESTIATI, AMY
Asian Journal of Agriculture Vol 3 No 01 (2019)
Publisher : Society for Indonesian Biodiversity & Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.13057/asianjagric/g03102

Abstract

Abstract. Estiati A. 2019. Rice momilactones, potential allelochemical for weeds suppression. Asian J Agric 3: 6-15. Weeds become one of the important biological constraint declining the productivity and quality of rice. Among the weeds, barnyardgrass is reported as the most destructive weed species. Synthetic herbicides are preferred method to control weeds. However, the excessive and continuous use of synthetic herbicides can have a negative impact on the environment, health and even the emergence of herbicide-tolerant weeds. Therefore, another alternative to overcome weed problems become the concern of scientists. Rice plants have been proven to be able to suppress the growth of weeds nearby by secreting secondary metabolites called allelochemicals. In this article, the achievements of research on rice allelochemicals at laboratory level will be reported. Among rice allelochemicals, momilactones are potential growth inhibitor. The biosynthetic pathway of momilactones and its coressponding genes have been extensively investigated in rice. OsCPS4, OsKSL4, CYP99A2, CYP99A3 and OsMAS are genes that co-regulated in momilactones biosynthetic pathway and production, and they form a gene cluster which is located on chromosome 4. Reverse genetic approach by inserting genes knock-out of OsCPS4 and OsKSL4 into two rice cultivars from Japonica subspecies showed that insertional mutant lines harboring cps4 or ksl4 exhibited a significant loss in inhibition potential due to the lack of momilactones production.