Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan
Vol 1, No 2 (2012): December 2012

SINTESIS BIODISEL DARI MINYAK BIJI KARET DENGAN VARIASI SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI KOH UNTUK TAHAPAN TRANSESTERIFIKASI

Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi ( Program Studi Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Semarang )
Bachtiar, Achmad ( Program Studi Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Semarang )



Article Info

Publish Date
30 Dec 2012

Abstract

Bahan bakar yang paling banyak digunakan adalah bahan bakar diesel atau fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Biodiesel berasal dari minyak nabati yang dapat diperbaharui, dapat dihasilkan secara periodik, dan mudah diperoleh. Pada penelitian ini digunakan minyak biji karet untuk sintesis FAME. Proses utama dalam pembuatan FAME adalah transesterifikasi. Penelitian ini mengkaji hasil optimum dari variasi konsentrasi katalis KOH dan suhu reaksi pada reaksi transesterifikasi. Preparasi minyak biji karet dengan menggunakan arang aktif granular diikuti dengan degumming. Reaksi esterifikasi dilaksanakan pada kondisi operasi 500 C selama 1 jam, katalis asam sulfat (98%) sebesar 0,5% volume minyak, dan metanol sebesar 20% volume minyak. Reaksi transesterifikasi dilaksanakan selama 1 jam, serta perbandingan volume minyak dan metanol sebesar 4:1. Analisis kadar metil ester yang terbentuk, jumlah komponen, dan komposisinya yang terdapat pada senyawa hasil dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat GC. Kondisi operasi terbaik pada transesterifikasi minyak biji karet menjadi metil ester adalah pada katalis KOH 1% dan suhu 60 0C. Berdasarkan uji sifat-sifat fisis, metil ester yang dihasilkan belum semua memenuhi mutu sifat fisis biodiesel yang disyaratkan. The most widely used fuel is diesel fuel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oil that can be renewed, can be produced periodically, and easy to obtain. In this research, the rubber seed was used for synthesizing the FAME. The main process in the production of FAME is transesterification. This study examined the optimum result from variations of the concentration of KOH catalyst and the reaction temperature on the transesterification reaction. Preparation of the rubber seed oil using granular activated charcoal was followed by degumming. Esterification reaction was carried out at 50 oC for 1 h with the sulfuric acid catalyst of 0.5% by volume of oil and methanol of 20% by the volume of oil. Transesterification reaction was carried out for 1 hour with the oil and methanol volume ratio of 4:1. The concentration of methyl ester, the number of components, and the composition of the contained compounds in the resulted products were analyzed using a GC. The best operating conditions on the transesterification of rubber seed oil into methyl ester was by using 1% KOH catalyst at temperature of 60 0C. Based on the analysis of the physical properties, the resulted methyl esters need to be improved further to meet the quality requirements of the physical properties of biodiesel.

Copyrights © 2012






Journal Info

Abbrev

jbat

Publisher

Subject

Materials Science & Nanotechnology

Description

This journal presents articles and information on research, development and applications in biomass conversion processes (thermo-chemical conversion; physico-chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion) and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. A ...