Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan
Vol 1, No 2 (2012): December 2012

PEMANFAATAN KULIT BUAH NAGA (Dragon Fruit) SEBAGAI PEWARNA ALAMI MAKANAN PENGGANTI PEWARNA SINTETIS

Handayani, Prima Astuti ( Program Studi Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Semarang )
Rahmawati, Asri ( Program Studi Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Semarang )



Article Info

Publish Date
30 Dec 2012

Abstract

Kulit buah naga merupakan limbah hasil pertanian yang mengandung zat warna alami antosianin cukup tinggi. Antosianin merupakan zat warna yang berperan memberikan warna merah yang berpotensi menjadi pewarna alami untuk pangan dan dapat dijadikan alternatif pengganti pewarna sintetis yang lebih aman bagi kesehatan. Pengambilan zat warna antosianin dilakukan dengan metode ekstraksi. Pelarut yang digunakan adalah aquades. Variabel penelitian antara lain varietas buah naga, konsentrasi asam sitrat dalam pelarut, suhu ekstraksi, dan waktu ekstraksi. Potongan kulit buah naga diekstraksi dengan pelarut aquades dan asam sitrat dengan perbandingan tertentu, pada suhu ekstraksi 25-800C dan waktu ekstraksi 0,5-3 jam. Analisis kadar antosianin dilakukan dengan analisa antosianin metode Glusti dan Wrolstad. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa varietas buah naga daging merah menghasilkan kadar antosianin terbesar 22,59335 ppm. Selain itu kadar antosianin terbesar diperoleh pada variasi pelarut aquades:asam sitrat (5:1) 26,4587 ppm, variasi pada suhu kamar menghasilkan 21,5028 ppm dan waktu pengadukan  3 jam menghasilkan 23,3027 ppm. Pewarna alami ini telah diaplikasikan pada makanan dan diujikan pada tikus putih, hasil uji coba menunjukkan pewarna buah naga dapat dipakai sebagai pewarna alami makanan. Dragon fruit peel is agricultural waste which contains quite high natural pigments of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin is a dye that potentially provides a red natural colorant for food and alternatively used as synthetic dye which is safe for health. In this study, the process of taking anthocyanin was conducted using extraction method. The solvent used was distilled water. The variables observed in the research include dragon fruit varieties, the concentration of citric acid in the solvent, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The dragon fruit peel was extracted using solvents of distilled water and citric acid at a certain ratio, at extraction temperature varies from 25-80oC with the extraction time varies from 0.5 to 3 hours. The analysis of anthocyanin concentration was conducted by using Glusti and Wrolstad method. The experimental result shows the red dragon fruit varieties produced the greatest concentration of anthocyanin (22.59335 ppm). Moreover, the result shows the greatest concentration of anthocyanin obtained from the following variations, i.e. the 5:1 solvent ratio of distilled water : citric acid produces 26.4587ppm,  the extraction at room temperature produced 21.5028 ppm, and the extraction for 3 hours stirring produced 23.3027 ppm. The extracted dragon fruit dye has been applied for food and tested on white mice; the test result shows the dye can be used as a natural food dye.

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Journal Info

Abbrev

jbat

Publisher

Subject

Materials Science & Nanotechnology

Description

This journal presents articles and information on research, development and applications in biomass conversion processes (thermo-chemical conversion; physico-chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion) and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. A ...