Ketamine binds non-competitive against a phencyclidine receptors bound N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a receptor that is involved in the pathophysiology of acute pain. Ketamine has been used as an intravenous anesthesia, analgesia for acute and chronic pain at a dose of subanaesthetic. Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic produces a state with a characteristic strong analgesia, amnesia, and catalepsy. Dissociative components resulting from the effect on the limbic system and talamoneokortikal. Low-dose ketamine as known as analgesia dose ketamine or subanestesia dose is 0.2 to 0.75 mg / kg IV. At low doses, ketamine does not increase the effect psikomimetik like dissociation or deep sedation. The combination with midazolam provides satisfactory sedation, amnesia and analgesia without significant cardiovascular depression.
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