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Paediatrica Indonesiana
ISSN : 00309311     EISSN : 2338476X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005" : 8 Documents clear
Oral-dental hygiene and oral microorganisms in children with and without congenital heart disease Panggabean, Erniwaty P; Irsa, Lily; Anwar, Rosihan; Lubis, Munar; Rusdidjas, Rusdidjas; Pasaribu, Syahril
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.127-31

Abstract

Objective This study was done to compare the dental and oralhygiene status of children with and without congenital heart dis-ease (CHD) by investigating oral microorganisms and dental andoral hygiene indices.Methods A cross-sectional study was done on children aged 2 to15 years from April 2002 to December 2003 at the Department ofChild Health, Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan. There were twosubject groups, the first consisting of children with CHD and thesecond of those without. The dental and oral hygiene status wasdetermined by determining caries index and oral hygiene index.Swabs from the subjects’ upper first molars were taken and cul-tured to determine the types of microorganisms present. Data wereanalyzed using the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and t-test.Results There was a significant difference in mean oral hygieneindex between children with (mean 2.75; SD 1.85) and without(mean 1.45; SD 0.78) CHD (P<0.001). Positive bacterial cultureswere more frequent in children with CHD than in those without.The proportion of normal anaerobes was significantly higher in chil-dren with CHD (P=0.038). Such a significant difference was notfound for normal aerobes, pathogenic aerobes, and pathogenicanaerobes. In children with CHD, there was no significant asso-ciation between mean caries index and oral hygiene index withculture results. In those without CHD, a significant association wasfound between the caries index components of decayed tooth in-dex (P=0.003) and DMF-T (P=0.022) with culture results.Conclusions Oral-dental hygiene in children with CHD is poorrelative to that in children without CHD. Microorganism growth ap-pears more likely in children with CHD than in those without
The association between nutritional status and motor development in children under five years old Masloman, Nurhayati; Gunawan, Stefanus
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.107-10

Abstract

Background Severe malnutrition in children is closely related todelayed physical growth and mental development. Very few re-ports mention the effects of mild to moderate malnutrition on mo-tor development.Objective The objective of this study was to determine the rela-tionship between nutritional status and motor development in earlychildhood.Methods In this cross-sectional study, we examined body weightof children under 5 years of age, the ability to sit or walk withoutsupport, and parachute sign in those under 2 years of age whocame to community child health surveillance posts in TumintingSubdistrict, Manado, Indonesia.Results Among 359 under-five children, 296 were well-nourishedand 63 had mild to moderate malnutrition. The ability to sit withoutsupport in malnourished children was significantly delayed com-pared to that in well-nourished ones (P=0.03). The ability to walkwithout support and parachute sign were not significantly differentbetween the two groups.Conclusion The ability to sit without support in children with mildto moderate malnutrition is delayed compared to that in well-nour-ished ones
Cardiac arrest in a child during a combined general epidural anesthesia procedure Soenarjo, Soenarjo; Prabakti, Yudhi; Siahaan, Edwin MP; Soemantri, A; Sidhartani, M
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.132-6

Abstract

An increased risk of perioperative cardiac arrestin children, in comparison to adults, has beenrecognized. A number of factors associatedwith perioperative cardiac arrest have been identified,including young age, comorbidities, and emergencysurgery. Since anesthesia-related cardiac arrest isuncommon, a multi-related database is required tounderstand the mechanisms of cardiac arrest and todevelop preventive strategies. Most cardiac arrestsoccur during induction (37%) or maintenance (45%)of anesthesia, usually following one or more of thefollowing antecedent events, i.e., bradycardia (54%),hypotension (49%), abnormality of oxygen saturationas measured by pulse oximetry (48%), inability tomeasure blood pressure (25%), abnormality of end-tidal CO 2 (21%), cyanosis (21%), or arrhythmia(18%). In 11% of cases, cardiac arrest occurredwithout recognized warning. There are only fewreports in the literature, and in Kariadi Hospital, nonehas ever been reported. The aim of this report is toidentify and discuss possible causes of cardiac arrestand to anticipate its complications.
The use of 4.5% hypertonic saline challenge test in diagnosing asthma in children with chronic recurrent cough Supriyatno, Bambang; Medina, Dina; Tumbelaka, Alan R; Rahajoe, Nastiti N
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.93-8

Abstract

Background The 4.5% hypertonic saline (HS) challenge test hasseveral benefits compared to histamine challenge test as gold stan-dard. Saline is an inexpensive non-pharmacological substancewhich is relatively safe. Its mechanism in inducing bronchospasmresembles that of asthma. Moreover, it can easily be made in amodest medical laboratory.Objective To determine the ability of 4.5% HS challenge test com-pared to histamine challenge test in diagnosing asthma in childrenwith chronic recurrent cough (CRC).Methods This study was a diagnostic test on children with CRCaged 6 to 14 years, conducted in outpatient clinic of Department ofChild Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. All subjectsunderwent lung function tests. Subjects whose FEV 1 was <80% werediagnosed as asthmatic and underwent the 4.5% HS challenge testonly. Those whose FEV 1 was 80% underwent the histamine chal-lenge test followed by the 4.5% HS challenge test one or two weekslater. Test results were expressed as positive or negative. Based onthe results, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive val-ues, and likelihood ratios of the 4.5% HS challenge test.Results Forty-five subjects, consisting of 22 boys and 23 girls,were enrolled. The average age of subjects was 9 years old. Atopichistory in the family or in subjects themselves was found in 80% ofsubjects. Eight subjects had FEV 1 of <80%. Forty-four subjectswere diagnosed with asthma based on a baseline FEV 1 of <80%or a positive histamine provocation test. Thirty-seven subjects hada positive 4.5% HS challenge test; all had asthma. Sensitivity andspecificity of the 4.5% HS challenge test were 84.1% and 100.0%,respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were100.0% and 12.5%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio wasinfinite and negative likelihood ratio was 0.16.Conclusion The 4.5% hypertonic saline challenge test can be usedas an alternative bronchial provocation test in diagnosing asthma inchildren with CRC. Further study with larger sample size is neededfor widespread usage.
Socio-economic and environmental factors affecting the rehabilitation of children with severe malnutrition Felliyani, Felliyani; Nasar, Sri S; Tambunan, Taralan
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.99-106

Abstract

Background Poor diet and high infection rates inflicted by lowsocio-economic status and poor environments among infants andyoung children appear to be major causes of severe malnutrition.Objective To determine the practical and likely effectiveness inrehabilitation of severe malnutrition.Methods A descriptive observational study was conducted on 27children at three different sites: (1) Five inpatients at the InpatientWard, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta (IP-CM); (2) 8 out-patients at the Metabolic and Nutrition Clinic, Cipto MangunkusumoHospital (OP-CM); (3) 14 outpatients at the Nutrition Clinic, Bogor(NC). All the patients followed were aged <60 months and suf-fered from severe malnutrition (weight for length index <-3 NCHSZ-score). Subjects were followed for 12 weeks. The IP-CM groupreceived standard treatment following the WHO recommendation,while the OP-CM and NC group received proper medical treat-ment and nutrition education for mothers. The OP-CM group un-derwent more extensive laboratory investigations.Results All children generally had low socio-economic status. Mostchildren experienced poor feeding, child care, and other healthpractices. A tendency of increased prevalence, number of episodes,and duration of infectious diseases was noted in the majority ofsubjects. However, an improvement of nutritional status was ob-served during treatment in all groups, particularly in the IP-CMgroup.Conclusion Socio-economic status and environmental factorsmust be considered in the management of severe malnutrition.Educating parents concerning proper feeding and child care prac-tices appears to be of permanent nutritional benefit for the chil-dren.
The growth of foot arches and influencing factors Idris, Ferial Hadipoetro
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.111-7

Abstract

Background Foot arches are important components for body sup-port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities causeserious limitations in daily activities.Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factorsinfluencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er-rant growth patterns.Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil-dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects includedhad no evidence of physical abnormality other than flat foot, knock-knee, or bow leg. Subjects were grouped per year of age. Data onfoot arch class, age, sex, weight, height, medial intercondylar dis-tance, and medial intermalleolar distance were recorded. Chi-square test, correlation, binary and linear regressions, general lin-ear model, and contrast matrix were performed.Results In 8376 children aged 0-18 years, flat foot grade 3 hadstable proportions in all age groups. Flat foot grade 2 and 1 hadsmaller proportions in older age groups than in younger ones. Theproportions of normal foot was greater in older age groups. Boysat the age of 7 and girls at 9 have a small percentage of pes cavus.The mean foot arch measurements were consistent with flat footgrade 2 at age 0-3 years, flat foot grade 1 at 4 years, and normalfoot at age 18. Median foot arch measurement of children 0-10years old was consistent with flat foot grade 1, while that of chil-dren 11 years old was consistent with normal foot. Age and heightgave positive influence. Based on these measurements we inferthat the optimal time for intervention is 0-7 years for boys and 0-3years for girls.Conclusion The proportion of flat foot grade 3 is stable through-out age groups, that of flat foot grade 2 and 1 are smaller in olderage groups, and that of normal foot is greater in older age groups.Overgrowth happens in very small percentages after age of 7 inboys and 9 in girls. Age, sex, height, weight, and growth of theknees are influencing factors
The efficacy of single-dose albendazole for the treatment of ascariasis Putra, Deddy S; Dalimunthe, W; Lubis, M; Pasaribu, S; Lubis, Chairuddin
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.118-22

Abstract

Objective This study aims to assess the efficacy of single-dosealbendazole in treating mild, moderate, and severe ascariasis.Methods Stool specimens were collected from randomly selectedelementary school children in Suka village, Sumatera Utara, fromMarch to April 2002. Based on the number of eggs per gram feces(NEPG), samples were categorized as mild (NEPG < 7000), mod-erate (NEPG 7000-35,000), or severe (NEPG > 35,000) ascari-asis. All subjects then received 400 mg albendazole orally. NEPGcount was repeated on the 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 28 th day after treat-ment. The chi-square test was used to compare cure rates be-tween subjects with mild, moderate, and severe ascariasis. TheANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were employed to analyze quan-titative data.Results From the 134 specimens collected, we found mild ascari-asis in 57 (42.5%), moderate ascariasis in 57 (42.5%), and severeascariasis in 20 (15%). There was no significant difference be-tween the three groups in NEPG after treatment (P>0.05). Thecure rate and egg reduction rate on day 28 after treatment was 100%.Conclusion A single dose of 400 mg albendazole is effective forthe treatment of mild, moderate, and severe ascariasis.
Sonographic measurement of splenic length in children at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Wulandari, H F; Firman, Kemas
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 3 (2005): May 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.3.2005.123-6

Abstract

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the 10 th and90 th percentiles and medians of normal splenic lengths of Indone-sian children at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital by ultrasonogra-phy using a method introduced by Rosenberg et al .Methods The maximum splenic length was obtained in longitudi-nal coronal plane with the splenic hilum visualized. The age of thepatients were recorded. The medians and 10 th and 90 th percen-tiles for each age group were determined.Results Sixty-nine boys and 46 girls were examined at our institu-tion. The youngest subject was one month old and the oldest was15 years old. The 10 th percentile, median, and 90 th percentilesplenic length in the 1-3 months age group were 3.421 cm, 3.795cm, and 4.343 cm, respectively. In the 3-6 month age group thesemeasurements were 3.689 cm, 4.29 cm, and 5.094 cm, respec-tively; in the 6-12 month age group 4.016 cm, 4.72 cm, and 5.366cm, respectively; in the 1-2 years age group 4.558 cm, 5.04 cm,and 5.502 cm, respectively; in the 2-4 year age group 5.151 cm,6.225 cm, and 6.816 cm, respectively; in the 4-6 year age group5.774 cm, 6.415 cm, and 7.82 cm, respectively; in the 6-8 year agegroup 6.077 cm, 7.505 cm, and 8.228 cm, respectively; in the 8-10years age group 6.354 cm, 7.77 cm, and 8.602 cm, respectively;in the 10-12 years age group 6.354 cm, 7.77 cm, and 8.602 cm,respectively; and in the 12-15 year age group 7.934 cm, 9 cm, and9.919 cm, respectively. In all age groups, the 10 th percentiles,medians, and 90 th percentiles were smaller than those of Ameri-can children as reported by Rosenberg et al.Conclusion The normal splenic lengths of Indonesian childrenare smaller than those of American children as reported byRosenberg et al.

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