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Paediatrica Indonesiana
ISSN : 00309311     EISSN : 2338476X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
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Articles 10 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006" : 10 Documents clear
The accuracy of clinical diagnosis for dehydration according to the integrated management of childhood illness Marudut, Siswanto; Soenarto, Yati; Juffrie, Mohammad
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (256.271 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.225-8

Abstract

Background Acute diarrheal disease causes over 5 milion deathsworldwide in children under 5 years old, mostly because of failureto detect and treat dehydration properly and immediately.Objective To determine the validity of clinical diagnosis of dehy-dration according to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness(IMCI) as a diagnostic test for dehydration in children under fiveyears old.Methods A prospective observational study was done for clinicaldiagnosis in dehydration. Children aged 2 months-5 years old withdiarrhea and or vomiting who visited the primary health centers inYogyakarta were enrolled. Clinical diagnosis was made by atrained IMCI nurses. Dehydration was defined as the presence ofdecreasing consciousness, very sunken eyes, slow reaction whenoffered a drink, and decreased skin elasticity. Ninety-five per-cents confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the signifi-cance was assessed by X 2 .Results There were 148 children aged 2 months to 5 years oldenrolled this study. Clinical dehydration used according to IMCIproduced sensitivity of 91% (95% CI 83;98), specificity of 82%(95% CI 75;89), positive predictive value (PPV) of 70% (95% CI58;77), negative predictive value (NPV) of 94% (95% CI 90;98),positive likehood ratio of 5.17 (95% CI 3.37;7.94), and negativelikehood ratio of 0.11 (95% CI 0.04;0.27).Conclusion Clinical diagnosis for dehydration according to IMCIis sufficiently accurate as a diagnostic test for dehydration in chil-dren under 5 years old
Predictors for the recurrent febrile seizures after the first complex febrile seizures Tanjung, Conny; Mangunatmadja, Irawan; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Budiman, I.
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (341.95 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.204-8

Abstract

Background Complex febrile seizures (CFS) have been shownto be related to recurrence and epilepsy. Many studies were doneto determine the predictors of recurrence in both simple and com-plex febrile seizures. To our knowledge until now there is no pub-lished data that specially looks for predictors of recurrence after afirst CFS.Objective To find out clinical and demographical characteristicsof a first CFS and to define the predictors for the recurrent febrileseizures.Methods Prospective survival analysis study was done in chil-dren with first CFS who visited Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital,Jakarta, over 14 months periods. The predictors for developmentof recurrence were analyzed by SPSS for Windows 11.5 usingKaplan-Meier test and Cox regression model with a level of signifi-cance <0.05.Results There were 62 subjects completed this study. Male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age at onset was 18.2 months.Recurrence occurred in 9 subjects (14.5%). Body temperaturebetween 38-38.5°C (7 of 26 subjects, P=0.02), upper motor neu-ron type of delayed development (3 of 7 subjects, P=0.03), andepileptic history in the family (2 of 2 subjects, P<0.05) were asso-ciated with recurrence in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analy-sis only body temperature between 38-38.5°C (HR 1.6, 95% CI1.0;23.9) and epileptic history in the family (HR 16.9, 95% CI2.8;101.4) were identified as predictors.Conclusion Low body temperature at the first seizures and epi-leptic history in the family were independent predictors for the re-currence after a first CFS
Morphology and disaccharidase activity of small intes- tinal mucosa in post-weaning-induced malnourished rats and after realimentation Sosrosumihardjo, Rustadi; Firmansyah, Agus; Rasad, Asri; Harjodisastro, Daldiyono; Ridwan, Endi; Wanandi, Septilia Inawati; Retno, Dwirini
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (403.995 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.229-35

Abstract

Background The most common cause of failure to thrive in in-fants is malnutrition which causes histological and biochemicalchanges of small intestine. Studies on histology and enzyme ac-tivity of small intestinal mucosa were not much developed.Objective To study about histology and disaccharidases activity ofsmall intestinal mucosa in post-weaning-induced malnourished rats.Methods We used Sprague-Dawley white rats as the subjects ofthis study with post test-control group design. The study was per-formed at the CentER for Research of Food and Nutrition Devel-opment from April 2003 to December 2004.Results There were a decrease of body weight (hypotrophy nor-moblastic) and an increase of disaccharidase activity of small in-testinal mucosa in post-weaning-induced malnourished rats. Afterrealimentation, there were an increase of body weight, an improve-ment of the hypotrophy, and a decrease of the enzyme but theystill cannot reach normal condition.Conclusion In malnourished rats, there are decrease of bodyweight hypotrophy normoblastic and increase of disaccharidasesactivity of intestinal mucosa that are improved after realimentation
Genetic problems at present and their challenges in the future: Thalassemia as a model Wahidiyat, I; Wahidiyat, P A
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.189-94

Abstract

Compared to the infectious diseases, geneticdisorders are not so frequently encounteredin the clinic, so that there has been a trendthat they are neglected by people or evenby the authorities. Our government is still fightingagainst infectious diseases and nutritional disorders.The immunization programs of the government haveindeed reduced the occurence of many infectious dis-eases. Actually, the government has to begin to thinkhow to handle the emerging genetic disorders, afterhaving eradicating infectious diseases.
Apoptotic cell identification: An in-vivo study during induction treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia Widjajanto, Pudjo H; Veerman, AJP; Sutaryo, Sutaryo
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.195-8

Abstract

Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children hashigh cure rate but it can cause death due to the side effects oftreatment or to the disease itself. Thus the evaluation on responseof treatment is important and may predict the prognosis. Sinceapoptosis can be induced by chemotherapy, it is thought that thenumber of leukemic cells that undergo apoptosis may reflect drugsensitivity and cytoreduction rate, thus it may correlate with prog-nosis.Objective To detect apoptotic cells in peripheral blood of childrenwith ALL during the first week of treatment.Methods We conducted a cross sectional study on 58 childrenwith newly diagnosed ALL treated in Department of Child Health,Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta. Apoptotic cells were detected onsmears of buffy coat made from peripheral blod and stained withMay-Grunwald Giemsa. The apoptotic cells viewed under light mi-croscope within 12 time points during 7 days after treatment started.Results Apoptotic cells were identified in 3 of 58 patients withindex range of 4.2% to 36.2%.Conclusion Apoptotic cells can be detected in peripheral bloodwith simple method. The explanation of why not all blood smearsviewed showed these cells need further study. It may due to themethods or the apoptotic process itself.
Association between cord blood IgE levels in newborns and family history of atopic diseases Hutapea, Andhika T.; Setiabudiawan, Budi; Soepriadi, Myrna; Rustama, Diet Sadiah
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (365.267 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.199-203

Abstract

Background Cord blood-IgE (CB-IgE) levels have been usedwidely as a specific marker of atopic diseases. In some previousstudies, CB-IgE levels in subjects with and without a family historyof atopic diseases have been controversial.Objective To determine the CB-IgE level in newborns and to iden-tify the association between CB-IgE and family history of atopicdiseases.Methods A cross-sectional study was done to compare the CB-IgElevels in neonates with or without a family history of atopic diseasesin mother, father, or siblings. Subjects of this study were 124 new-borns who consecutively born in Puskesmas Kiaracondong,Bandung, during the period of March 2001 to July 2002. Subjectswere divided into 2 groups based on history of atopic diseases.Measurements of CB-IgE levels were done by sandwich ELISAmethods. Data were analyzed by c 2 statistics, t test, ANOVA, andDunkan’s test.Results The mean CB-IgE levels in the group with and without afamily history of atopic diseases were 3.2±2.5 IU/ml and 0.5±0.5IU/ml (P<0.001), respectively. The mean CB-IgE levels in maleand female infants with a family history of atopic diseases were3.3±2.7 IU/ml and 3.03±2.2 IU/ml (P>0.05), respectively. Basedon the cut-off point (1.3 IU/ml), CB-IgE levels had significant posi-tive association with a family history of atopic diseases (OR 156,95%CI 29.61;1104.24). CB-IgE levels in neonates with 1, 2, and 3atopic family members were 1.67±0.78 IU/ml, 3.76±2.11 IU/ml, and6.6±2.7 IU/ml, respectively (F=32.603; P<0.001).Conclusion Most newborns with a family history of atopic dis-eases showed high levels of CB-IgE, but there were no correlationwith gender. The probability of having atopic diseases increase inconcord with the number of family with atopic diseases
Incidence of HIV-infected infants born to HIV- infected mothers with prophylactic therapy: Preliminary report of hospital birth cohort study Kurniati, Nia; Nilamsari, T; Akib, Arwin AP
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (297.491 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.209-13

Abstract

Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is expandingrapidly and was reported double in several places in Indonesia Toour knowledge, reports regarding HIV-infected infants are stillscarce.Objectives To investigate the incidence of HIV-infected infantsborn to HIV- mothers who had received prophylaxis therapy at birth.Methods A prospective hospital-based cohort study was held fromJanuary 2003 until December 2004 in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hos-pital, Jakarta. The inclusion criteria were mothers with positive HIVand their infants had been given anti retroviral (ARV) therapy. Thebabies were followed up monthly and the status of infection wasdetermined by PCR at the age of 4 weeks and 6 months. Outcomewas measured based on PCR assays or clinical signs of HIV in-fection.Results The mothers’ age ranged from 19 to 27 years. All of themwere carrying their first child and only 41% mothers took ARV pro-phylaxis. Almost all mothers underwent caesarean section and theinfants had formula feeding. HIV infection was diagnosed in 7 in-fants and 2 of them had RNA assays more than 5,000 copies/ml.Six infants were negatives whereas 3 infants were diagnosed asindeterminate HIV infection and needed further examination. Oneneeded no further investigation as the mother was seronegative.Conclusions Preventing HIV transmission from mother to infantcan be done by giving ARV during prenatal, intrapartum, and post-natal period to the newborn. In our hospital, transmission was con-firmed in 6 of 17 infants. Unison protocol must be used and popu-lation of HIV-pregnant mother must be registered in order to knowhow high the transmission rate among Indonesian HIV people
Left ventricular functions and mass of the adolescents and young adults with thalassemia major: An echocardiography study Ali, Muhammad; Putra, Sukman Tulus; Gatot, Djajadiman; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (358.123 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.214-9

Abstract

Background Thalassemia major (TM) is a transfusion-depen-dent disease. Multiple transfusions cause an accumulation of ironin the body. On the heart, iron can induce cardiomyopathy, theleading cause of death in TM.Objective To evaluate left ventricular functions and mass amongadolescents and young adults with TM.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 58 patientswith TM in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Hematologicaldata was collected from medical record. Left ventricular systolic func-tions (EF, FS), diastolic functions (A, E, E/A ratio, IVRT), and mass(LVDDi, LVDSi, LVMi) were detected using an echocardiographySonos 4500. T test, linier regression, and multiple regression analy-sis were performed.Results Out of 32 TM patients, 30 were enrolled to study. Leftventricular systolic and diastolic functions of TM patients were lowerthan those of the control and statistically significant [EF 66.1% (SD4.9) and 71.6% (SD 5.6); P<0.0001, FS 36.0% (SD 3.7) and 39.8%(SD 5.5); P=0.003, E/A 2.14 (SD 0.4) and 1.83 (SD 0.3); P=0.002,respectively]. Left ventricular mass of TM patients was greater thanthat of control, and also statistically significant [LVMi 111.1 g/m 2(SD 30.8) and 75.4 g/m 2 (SD 14.5); P<0.0001, respectively]. Linierand multiple regression analysis showed significant and powerfulcorrelation between left ventricular diastolic functions (E/A ratio)and serum ferritin concentration (r=0.71; P<0.0001).Conclusion Left ventricular functions and mass of adolescentsand young adults with TM show abnormalities. The higher the con-centration of ferritin serum is, the more likely for TM patient to suf-fer from diastolic abnormality
Relationships between plasma zinc and ferritin with nutritional status in thalassemic children Arijanty, Luszy; Nasar, Sri Sudaryati; Madiyono, Bambang; Gatot, Djajadiman
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (398.546 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.220-4

Abstract

Background Repeated blood transfusions in thalassemic chil-dren can lead to iron overload in the body. High ferritin level leadsto low plasma zinc status because of their competitive inhibition.Previous study found that there was a correlation between plasmazinc level and nutritional status.Objective To obtain plasma zinc level, to investigate the correla-tion between plasma zinc and ferritin, and the impact of plasmazinc on nutritional status in children with thallasemia.Methods A cross sectional study was conducted on 67 thalas-semic children. This study was performed at Thalassemia Center,Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, from 1 st until 31 st of March2005. The age of the patients ranged from 4 to 18 years, with fer-ritin levels more than 2000 ng/ml during the last 6 months or totaltransfusion more than 5 liters. The subjects were divided into 2groups, i.e. group 1 (4-10 years) and group 2 (>10-18 years). Di-etary intake was assessed by 3 day-dietary recall. The nutritionalstatus were judged by mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) forage and height for age (H/A). Venous blood was obtained to mea-sure plasma zinc and ferritin levels. Statistical analysis was doneby Student’s t-test (2-tailed) and linear regression analysis.Results We found that 42% subjects were well-nourished, 51%were undernourished, and 7% were severely malnourished. All sub-jects had low plasma zinc status 31.9 (SD 16.9) μg/dl. There was aweak negative correlation between plasma zinc and ferritin level (r= -0.282, P=0.021). Lower zinc intake was detected in 65 out of 67subjects.Conclusion All thalassemic children in our hospital had low plasmazinc level. There was a weak negative correlation between plasmazinc level and ferritin level. There was no significant correlationbetween plasma zinc status and nutritional status
Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5-alpha reductase type-2 deficiency in a 20-month old boy Andhita, Ida Bagus; Suryawan, Wayan Bikin
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 5 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2054.767 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.5.2006.236-40

Abstract

5-alpha-reductase (5-ARD) type 2 deficiencyis an autosomal sex-linked disorder, resulting inthe inability to convert testosterone to the morephysiological active dihydrotestosterone (DHT).DHT is the most potent androgen, bound selec-tively to the androgen receptors in genital skin andfibroblasts, making its action necessary for the de-velopment of normal male genital anatomy. SinceDHT is required for normal masculinizaton of theexternal genitalia in utero, genetic males with 5-ARD are usually born with ambiguous genitalia(male pseudohermaphroditism). The hallmarkof 5-ARD is elevated ratio of serum testosteroneto DHT. In healthy prepubertal children, thebaseline testosterone-to-DHT ratio is 1:2. Thispaper reports a 20-month old patient with malepseudohermaphroditism due to 5-alpha reductasetype-2 deficiency.

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