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Paediatrica Indonesiana
ISSN : 00309311     EISSN : 2338476X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
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Articles 12 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008" : 12 Documents clear
Feeding difficulties in children with cerebral palsy Sjakti, Hikari Ambara; Syarif, Damayanti Rusli; Wahyuni, Luh Karunia; Chair, lmral
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.224-9

Abstract

Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have feedingdifficulties due to their disability. This results in inadequate calorieintake which finally leads to malnutrition. Several studies foundthat 30-90% of children with CP have feeding difficulties associ-ated with malnutrition. There has been no sufficient publisheddata about this problem in Indonesia.Objective To determine the prevalence of feeding difficulties andmalnutrition in children with CP.Methods A cross-sectional study was done from January toSeptember 2005 in the pediatric outpatient clinic of Dr. CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital (CMH). Children with CP underwentnutritional and feeding difficulties assessment. Nutritional sta-tus was determined by the ratio of body weight to body heightstandardized to CDC-NCHS 2000 growth curve and wereclassified based on Waterlow. Calorie intake was evaluated bydietary analysis and defined as adequate if it reached 13.9 kcal/em BH ± 10%. Feeding difficulties assessment included historytaking, physical examination and observation of feeding skill inthe outpatient clinic.Results Fifty-five children with CP were included in this study,most of them were spastic type, mainly spastic diplegic and spasticquadriplegic cerebral palsy (SQCP). Malnutrition was found in76% subjects, most were SQCP. Feeding difficulties were found in76% subjects, half of them were SQCP, 38% with spastic diplegic.Thirty- eight percents of the parents whose children had feedingdifficulties was not aware of these problems in their children.Parallel with data above, 78% subjects received inadequatecalorie intake.Conclusions The prevalence of undernourished and severemalnutrition in children with CP is 66% and 11% respectively.Malnutrition in CP patients tends to be related with inad-equate calorie intake due to feeding difficulties that is found in78% subjects especially those with SQCP
Diagnostic clues in spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in babies July, Julius; Wahjoepramono, Eka Julianta; Wirjomartani, Beny Atmadja
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.230-4

Abstract

Background There has been increasing number of babies detectedwith SIH. In regard to find diagnostic clues for the first-rate babieswho really needs CT scan and referral, simple observation to lookat certain clinical and laboratory findings is needed.Objective To identify diagnostic clues associated with spontaneousintracranial hemorrhage (SIH) in babies.Methods Retrospective observation was carried out among ba-bies with SIH within the last two and a half years. Patients wereexcluded if there was an obvious cause of SIH such as trauma orany underlying disease such as hemophilia. Variables that wereobserved were patients age, seizure, decreased level of conscious-ness, tensed fontanel, neurological deficits, vomitting, fever(T > 3 7 .SOC), anemia, jaundice, PT and aPTT. All data weredescriptively evaluated.Results There were 53 babies with SIH (31 baby boys, 22 babygirls), forty eight of which (91%) were less than 3 months old.Of those, 50 patients (94%) had seizure as the leading clinicalpresentation, 44 patients (83%) had decreased level of conscious-ness, and 39 patients (74%) had tensed fontanel. PT and aPTTwere prolonged in 39 (74%) cases. The most common lesion wassubdural hematoma (38 cases/72%). Forty-three babies (81 o/o)required neurosurgical intervention. Overall mortality rate was22%.Conclusion Babies with seizure, decreased level of consciousness,tensed fontanel, and prolonged PT and aPTT should be consideredto harbor SIH. They need a CT scan and referral, particularlythose less than three months old. The prognosis is unfavorable,thus early recognition and treatment is needed
Identification of enuresis risk factors among primary school children in Makassar Artati, Ratna Dewi
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.204-8

Abstract

Background Enuresis is a common problem among children andadolescents which may lead to important psychosocial distur-bances. Several factors have been associated with the occurrenceof enuresis, including genetic, family history and socioeconomiclevel. Not many population-based studies have been publishedrgarding this matter.Objectives To establish the prevalence of enuresis among schoolchildren and to identify the risk factors associated with thisdisorder.Methods A cross sectional population-based study was conductedfrom April to October 2007 in 600 children aged 6-14 years.Identification of enuresis risk factors were collected from studentsrandomly chosen from six primary schools located in differentregions ofMakassar. Data were collected via a questionnaire com-pleted by the parents. Study population were grade I to grade VIof primary school students in Makassar which were chosen fromhigh economic level schools group (SD I) and low economicallevel schools group (SD II).Results The overall prevalence of enuresis was 10.8%. Bivariateanalyses show relationships between the occurrence of enuresisand maternal and paternal educational level, familys socioeco-nomic status, family history of enuresis, and history of use of diaper.On logistic regression analysis, statistically significant relationshipswere found between enuresis and mothers educational level,familys socioeconomic status, family history of enuresis, andhistory of use of diaper.Conclusions Enuresis is a common problem among school childrenin Makassar and associated with several factors, including motherseducational level, family socioeconomic status, family history ofenuresis and use of diaper
Level of knowledge on HIV I AIDS among senior high school students Hartawan, I Nyoman Budi; Wati, Ketut Dewi Kumara
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.235-9

Abstract

Background Young people are now the epicenter and bear adisproportionate burden ofHIV/AIDS pandemic. Until now,one of the strategies which are implemented by the govern-ment is by increasing the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge inorder to avoid its spreading.Objective This study was to explore the level of HIV/AIDSknowledge of senior high schools students towards HIV I AIDSat subdistrict ofPetang. The secondary outcome is to comparethe levels of knowledge toward HIV I AIDS between Petang andPelaga Senior high school, between class and gender.Methods This was a descriptive study, conducted between1st to 28th February 2007 in Petang and Pelaga Senior HighSchool. The study subjects are 529 students (all of senior highschool students in subdistrict of Petang, Badung Regency).Data was taken using UNICEF questionnaire 2000 for youngpeople, which had been passed the reliability test with thekappa value of 0.85.Results Most subjects (90.5%) have excellent and goodknowledge and only 9,5% have sufficient knowledge. Level ofknowledge in girls is better than boys with significant differ-ence between them (P=O.OOO), while school and grade didntshow any differences (P=0.760) and (P=0.489).Conclusion The level of knowledge of senior High School inSubdistrict ofPetang, Badung Regency toward HIV /AIDS is atexcellent or good level
Knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents with children of first time and recurrent febrile seizures Gunawan, Willy; Kari, Komang; Soetjiningsih, Soetjiningsih
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.193-8

Abstract

Background Febrile seizure is a condition of emotionally trauma-tize for most parents. It is believed that parents whose childrenexperienced febrile seizures before, have a better knowledge, at-titude, and practices (KAP) in responding to the seizure. Hencethe fear and emotional disruption that febrile seizures can causein the family, prevention should be addresses.Objective To find if there was any differences in KAP of parents ofchildren with recurrent febrile seizures compares to parents withchildren of first time febrile seizures.Methods A cross sectional study was conducted on parents whohave children aged between 6 months to 5 years old with eithersimple febrile seizures, complex febrile seizures or recurrent febrileseizures admitted to Pediatric Neurology Clinic ofSanglah Hospi-tal. Subjects were selected consecutively and were grouped intogroup of parents with children of first time seizures and parentswith children of recurrent febrile seizures group.Results Based from summated rated method, it seemed thatparents of children with recurrent febrile seizures have higherKAP of febrile seizures and was statistically different (A=O.OOO;P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance (ancova) showed that education(P=0.013) had an influence in the KAP of the parents. Otherancova revealed that childrens age and sex have significantinfluence.Conclusion The KAP of parents with children of recurrent febrileseizures are higher and have statistically different compared withparents of children with first time febrile seizures.
Influence of socioeconomic status on the association between low weight at birth and stunted growth or overweight in rural and urban Indonesian prepubertal children Julia, Madarina; van Weissenbruch, M. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A.; Surjono, Achmad
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.214-9

Abstract

Background Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with in-creased risk for both stunted growth andand overweight later in life.Objective To assess relative contribution of LBW on the preva-lence of stunted growth or overweight in rural and urban Indo-nesian children in Indonesia.Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of 2 833 (1125 rural and1708 urban) school-aged prepubertal children. Each child had dataon age, sex, stature, BMI (body mass index) and birth weight.Results Compared to the urban population, the prevalence ofstunted growth was significantly higher in the rural, i.e. 16.3 vs.32.7%, P<O.OOl. However, there was no significant difference iinn the prevalence of LBW in the two communities. While overall,stunted children were more likely to be born with LBW, OR 1.80(95%CI 1.31; 2.47), P<O.OOl. After stratifying data into rural andurban residences, the contribution of LBW on the risk of stuntedgrowth appeared to be only significant in the urban population, OR2.42 (95%CI 1.59; 3.68), P<O.OOl. In the rural, similar proportionsof LBW were found in stunted and not stunted children. Test of in-teraction showed that this difference in OR was significant, the ratioof OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.11; 3.17), P=0.02. We observed no associationbetween LBW and overweight.Conclusions In rural area, LBW is not an important contributorfor stunted growth, while in urbanarea LBW is an important riskfactor for stunted growth. As there is no significant difference inthe prevalence of LBW between the two communities, the dif-ference in the prevalence of stunted growth is more likely to beassociated with different pattern of post-natal growth
The value of urinalysis in presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children Rachmadi, Dedi; Setyastuti, Andaningrum
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.199-203

Abstract

Background Definite diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI)should only be established based on culture of urine specimen,otherwise it would be considered presumptive. Since urinalysisprovides more rapid information than urine culture, cliniciansshould consider to utilize urinalysis as a decision-making tool forinitiating treatment of UTI.Objective To determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive val-ues, and accuracy of several urinalysis parameters, namely the ni-trite, leukocyte esterase (LE), Gram staining, and methylene bluereductase (MBR) tests, in supporting the diagnosis of UTI.Methods This diagnostic test was done on 30 subjects with pyuriaduring the period of April to June 2004. The sensitivity, specific-ity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predicitve value(NPV) as well as the accuracy were calculated for each urinalysisparameter with urine culture as the gold standard. The relation-ship between categorical variables was analyzed by Fishers exacttest or chi square test.Results The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy fornitrite test, leukocyte esterase (LE) test, Gram staining, and MBRtest were respectively as follows: nitrite test showed 90.5%, 66. 7%,86.4%, 75%, and 83.3%; LE test yielded 95.2%, 33.3%, 76.9%,75%, and 76.4%; Gram staininglOO%, 44.4%, 80.8%, 100%, and83.3%; and MBR test 85.7%, 100%, 100%, 75%, and 90%.Conclusions The MBR, among other urinalysis routine tests, hasthe highest specificity and accuracy as well as high sensitivity inestablishing a presumptive diagnosis of UTI
Comparison of blood glucose level between breast--fed and formula--fed term babies Aldy, Omar Sazali; Lubis, Bugis M; Sianturi, Pertin; Azlin, Emil; Tjipta, Guslihan D.
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.209-13

Abstract

Background Hypoglycemia is common in newborns in the firstfew hours after birth. This may also occur in term babies. Dataof hypoglycemia in breastfed and formula-fed infants have beenlimited.Objective To compare blood glucose levels between breast-fed andformula-fed healthy term babies at 1, 24 and 48 hours of life.Methods A cross sectional study was performed on 32 neonatesbetween January and March 2007 in the Dr. Pirngadi Hospital.The subjects was classified into two groups, the breastfed andformula-fed groups. Blood glucose level was examined at 1, 24,and 48 hours after birth and level ofless than 2.6 mmol/1 definedthe presence of hypoglycemia.Results There was statistically significant difference in meanblood glucose level at 1 hour of life between breastfed [59.25(SD 3.38) mg/dl] and formula-fed infants [55.96 (SD 8.60) mg/dl], (P=0.049), while no significant difference was found after24 hours of life, i.e., 62.59 (SD 3.57) mg/dl vs. 61.21 (SD 6.87)mg/dl, P=0.319 and also after 48 hours of life, i.e., 67.34 (SD5.18) mg/dl vs. 66.75 (SD 7.76) mg/dl, P=0.720.Conclusion The blood glucose level at one hour after birth wassignificantly different in breastfed compared to formula-fed infants,while no statistically significant difference was found at 24 hoursand 48 hours after birth. The mean blood glucose at 24 hours oflife was lower than that of 48 hours after birth
Parascreen as an alternative diagnostic tool for falciparum malaria Ginting, Jenny; Mayasari, Siska; Lubis, Munar; Pasaribu, Syahril; Lubis, Chairuddin P.
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.220-3

Abstract

Background Malaria is a parasitic disease with high morbidityand mortality. Rapid immunochromatographic are emerging todetect specific antigens of human plasmodia.Objective To determine the sensitivity and specificity ofParascreenfor the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in children.Methods A diagnostic test study was performed in MandailingNatal District, Penyabungan, North Sumatera. Subjects werepublic health center and hospital patients with symptoms of fever,pallor, headache, and diarrhea. Blood specimens were obtained forParascreen testing. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood samplesserved as the gold standard.Results One hundred and four subjects were studied. The sensitiv-ity and specificity ofParascreen were 76% and 100%, respectively.Positive and negative predictive values of the test were 100% and49%, respectively. Likelihood ratio was infinite for a positive testand 0.23% for a negative test.Conclusion Parascreen is a useful and highly specific di-agnostic tool for P. falciparum malaria
Comparative efficacy of artesunate and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination with artesunate and amodiaquine combination in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children Mandei, Jose Meky; Rampengan, Novie Homenta; Nicolaas, Suryadi; Tatura, Napoleon; Runtunuwu, Ari Lukas; Rampengan, Tony Homenta
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 4 (2008): July 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.4.2008.240-5

Abstract

Background Malaria is still an important cause of mortalityand morbidity in children and adults in tropical countries.Multidrug resistance againts chloroquine and sulphadox-ine-pyrimethamine had brought to an introduction ofartemisinin-based combination.Objective To assess the alternative treatment of uncompli-cated falciparum malaria in children using artesunate andsulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination comparing toartesunate and amodiaquine combination.Methods This is a single-blind randomized trial. Sixty-seven children aged six months to 13 years, were recruited.Thirty-three children were treated with artesunate 4 mg/kgbw/day for three days with an additional sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (pyrimethamine 1-1.5 mg/kgbw) singledose on the first day, while 34 children were treated withartesunate and amodiaquine base 10 mg/kgbw/day for thefirst two days, then 5 mg/kgbw/day on the third day. Bodytemperature and parasite count were recorded everydayfor at least seven days. The outcomes were fever clearancetime, parasite clearance time, cure rate and side effects. Sta-tistical analysis was performed using the student t-test.Results The statistical analysis showed that there wereno difference between these two groups either in feverclearance time (P>0.05), or in parasite clearance time(P>0.05). The cure rate was 100% in both groups. Vomit-ing was found in one patient treated with artesunate andamodiaquine combination.Conclusion The combination of artesunate and sulpha-doxine-pyrimethamine and combination of artesunateand amodiaquine were found to be equally effective in thetreatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

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