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Paediatrica Indonesiana
ISSN : 00309311     EISSN : 2338476X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011" : 11 Documents clear
Epidemiology of Rotavirus diarrhea in children under five: A hospital-based surveillance in Jakarta Kadim, Muzal; Soenarto, Yati; Hegar, Badriul; Firmansyah, Agus
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (166.865 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.138-43

Abstract

Background Rotavirus is still a major cause of acute diarrhea in children around the world, both in developed and developingcountries. WHO Surveillance from 2001 to 2008 showed that in children under five years of age treated for acute diarrhea, on average 40% of cases were caused by rotavirus. A previous study in Indonesia showed that the incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in children ranged from 20%????60% of diarrhea cases. However, there have been few studies identifying the genotypes of rotavirus strains in Indonesia. This infonnation is indispensable for manufacturing vaccines.Objective To examine the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea, including genotypes and clinical characteristics, in children under five years who were hospitalized in Jakarta.Methods This study was a prospective surveillance conducted at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta from January to December 2007 investigating hospitalized children under five years of age who suffered from acute diarrhea.Results Ninety????nine patients joined the study. The incidence of rotavirus infection in this study was 67%. The youngest was 2months of age and the oldest 54 months of age, Mth an average age of 13.6 months. As much as 92% of rota virus diarrhea was found in subjects aged 3????23 months, Mth a peak age of 12????23 months. Nutritional status, degree of dehydration, bloating, fever, blood in stool, and mucus in the feces were not significantly different between rotavirus and non????rotavirus diarrhea. Vomiting tended to be more frequently experienced by children Mth rotavirus diarrhea than those with non????rotavirus (88% vs. 67%). There was no clear, seasonal pattern for rotavirus diarrhea. Most G genotypes in this study were G1 (35%), G9 (12.5%), G2 (7.5%) and the majority of P genotypes were P6 (52.5%), P8 (17.5%) and P4 (10%).Conclusions The incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children under five years of age in Jakarta was 67%, with apredominance ofG1, G9 and G2 genotypes. 
The influence of intrauterine growth retardation on cardiac function, left ventricular mass and superior vena cava return in newborns Soetadji, Anindita; Advani, Najib; Aminullah, Asril; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (155.664 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.170-7

Abstract

Background Low birth weight (LBW) in neonates is a problem leading to high morbidity and mortality. Barker hypothesized that fetal cardiac remodeling during hypoxic conditions or maternal under????nutrition is a risk factor for coronary heart disease in theyoung. Early vascular changes may influence cardiac function and newborns' cerebral blood flow.Objective The aim of this study was to detennine the effects of being small for gestational age (SGA) on newborns' cardiac function, left ventricular (LV) mass and superior vena cava (SYC) return.Methods This cross????sectional study was conducted in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from February to June 2008. LBW and nonnal newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited as subjects. Maternal history, infant physical examination, and echocardiography were obtained Mthin 48 hours oflife to exclude those with congenital heart disease, and assess cardiac function and SYC flow.Results Subjects were 21 preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 19 SGA and 19 normal newborns. SGA newborns showed lower LV mass, stroke volume and cardiac output than normal newborns. However, these SGA parameters were not different from preterm AGA babies. In additio n, LV mass index was sig nificantly different but no difference ofSVC return between the three groups.Conclusion SGA newborns' LV function was lower than that of nonnal newborns, as low as pretenn AGA newborns. N onnal SVC return was observed in the three groups. This finding may be due to a brain????sparing effect to maintain sufficient cerebral blood flowin the fetus.
Incidence and factors associated with mortality of neonatal sepsis Kardana, I Made
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (109.172 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.144-8

Abstract

Background Neonatal sepsis is one of the major causes of mortality and long term morbidity in neonates, particularly in premature and low birth weight infants. The incidence of neonatal sepsis varies from 1 to 4 in 1000 live births in developed countries and 10 to 50 in 1000 live births in developing countries. The mortality rate of neonatal sepsis remains high, especially in developing countries.Objective To describe the incidence, mortality rate, and factors associated 'With mortality in neonatal sepsis in Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar.Methods A retrospective, cohort study was conducted in the Perinatology Ward, Department of Child Health, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali from January to December 2008. One hundred thirty????eight patients 'With neonatal sepsis were enrolled in this study. Patients' characteristic data were collected including sex, mode of delivery (spontaneous, non????spontaneous), condition at birth (vigorous, asphyxic), gestational age (premature, full tenn), birth weight «2500 grams, > 2500 grams), and sepsis classifica????tion (early onset sepsis, late onset sepsis). Outcomes were grouped into alive and dead.Results A total of 138 cases of neonatal sepsis were reviewed, 59.4% of whom were boys, 63.0% spontaneously delivered,39.1 % asphyxic, 53.6% 'With low birth weight, 50.7% premature, and84.8% with early onset sepsis. The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 5% of babies admitted, 'With a mortality rate of 28.3%. Low birth weight and prematurity were significantly associated withmortality in neonatal sepsis (RR8.4, 95% CI 2.4 to 29.0, P = 0.001 and RR3.4, 95% ClI.O to 11.0, P ???? 0.042, respectively). Conclusion The incidence of neonatal sepsis in Sanglah Hospital was 5% of babies admitted, with a mortality rate of 28.3%. Low birth weight and prematurity were significantly associated with mortality in neonatal sepsis. 2011;51:144-8].
Detection of childhood developmental disorders, behavioral disorders, and depression in a post-earthquake setting Prawira, Yogi; Tumbelaka, Intan; Alhadar, Ali; Hendrata, Erwin; Hidayat, Renno; Anderson, Dave; Pakasi, Trevino; Endyarni, Bernie; Sekartini, Rini
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (173.612 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.133-7

Abstract

Background Disasters, including earthquakes, may strike abruptly without warning. Children may develop psychological damage resulting from experiencing an overwhelmingly traumatic event. They may feel very frightened during a disaster and demonstrate emotional and behavioral problems afterwards.Objective To evaluate the presence of developmental disorders, behavioral disorders, and depression in children after the earthquake at Padang and Pariaman on September 30th, 2009.Methods This was a cross????sectional study using the developmental pre screening questionnaire (KPSP), Pediatric Symptoms Checklist-17 (PSC-17), and Child Depression Inventory (CDI) in children after the Padang and Pariaman earthquake (September 30th, 2009), in Sungai Limau and Sungai Geringging District, Pariaman Region, West Sumatera. Our study was conducted October 15th to November 28th, 2009.Results There were 172 children screened using the KPSP. Forty-two (25%) children scored 7????8 (reason for concern), 18 (10%) children scored <7 (suspected to have a developmental disorder), and the remainder scored as developmentally appropriate. Behavioral disorder screening was perfonned in 339 children using the PSC???? 17. Internalizing disorder alone was suspected in 58 (17%) children, externalizing disorder alone in 26 (7.7%), and attention????defidt disorder alone in 5 (1.5%). Eight (2.4%) children were suspected to have both internalizing and attention????defidt disorders, 4 (1.2%) children externalizing and attention????defidt disorders, 22 (6.5%) children internalizing and externalizing disorders, and 15 (4.4%) children all three disorders. From 4 9 children who underwent depression screening using CDI, 15(30.6%) children were suspected to have depression. Conclusion After the Padang and Pariaman earthquake, we found 10% of subjects screened were suspected of having a developmental disorder. The most connnonbehavioral disorder found was internalizing disorder. Possible depression was found in 30.6% of children surveyed. Traumatized children are at risk for developing post traumatic stress disorder. 2011;5' :133-7]. 
Critical site differences of fusion protein between wildtype and vaccine measles virus strains in Indonesia Setiawan, Made; Sjahrurachman, Agus; Ibrahim, Fera; Suwandono, Agus
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (248.395 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.123-7

Abstract

Background Measles virus can cause high morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Fusion glycoprotein (F protein) found in the viral envelope is important for the host cell infection mechanism. F protein is immunogenic and may cause specific immune responses in the host. High variability is found in the F protein gene of vaccine viral strains compared to 'Wild type strains. This amino add sequence variability may result in a less specific immune response against other strains, possibly rendering thevaccine to be less effective.Objective To detennine the amino add sequence differences in critical sites of F protein in Mld type and vaccine measles virus strains in Indonesia.Methods We compared amino acid sequences of three genotypes of Mld type measles virus (02, 03 and D9) to those of the vaccine strains, CAM???? 70, Schwarz, and Edmonston????wt type measles virus.Resul ts Analysis showed that there were differences at Fl????F2 cleavage site, B cell epitopes, and H protein binding site between the CAM????70 vaccine viral strains and Mld type strains. Schwarz vaccine strain differed from the wild type strains at the H protein binding site. A 03 wild type strain potential glycosylation site was also different from all other strains studied.Conclusion There were differences in the critical sites of F protein between Mld type strains and the CAM????70 and Schwarz vaccine strains. 
Effect of zinc supplementation on morbidity among stunted children in Indonesia Siregar, Rustam; Lilisianawati, Lilisianawati; Lestari, Endang Dewi; Salimo, Harsono
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (103.982 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.128-32

Abstract

Background The Indonesian Health Ministry reported that 35 .6% of Indonesian children and up to 50% in certain regions have stunted growth. They are at high risk of chronic zinc deficiency. Inadequate zinc intake may result in an impaired immune sy stem and high incidence of morbidity. Zinc supplementation is knO\Vll to improve immune status thus reducing the incidence of morbidity among stunted children.Objective To evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on morbidity incidence among stunted Indonesian school children. Methods We evaluated the effects of daily zinc supplementation (2.38 mg of zinc????supplemented milk) on the incidence of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and fever in a double????blind, randomized, controlled trial in 169 stunted children (zinc????supplemented n=84; placebo n=85) aged 7 to 9 years in Jakarta and Solo. Zincsupplementation and morbidity surveillance were perfonned for 6 months.Results Compared to the first 3 months of intervention, zinc supplementation resulted in a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and fever during the second three months (by 67%, 42%, and 30%, respectively). Children from the zinc????supplemented group tended to have a lower episodic incidence of diarrhea and fever than those from the placebo group, although neither of these differences was statistically significant (P< 0.45,95% CI 0.63 to 0.89).Conclusion Zinc supplementation has no significant effect in reducing the incidence of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and fever in stunted children although tended to have a lower episodic incidence. 
Ventricular function and dimensions in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection Kuswiyanto, Rahmat B.; Djer, Mulyadi M.; Akib, Arwin A. P.; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (131.735 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.149-56

Abstract

Background Prevalence of cardiac complications in children 'With human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have increased, in association 'With the availability of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and the decrease of opportunistic infections. However, studies on cardiac complications in HIV patients in the various HIV clinical and immunologic categories have been limited. Furthermore, cardiac complications in Indonesian HIVinfected children have never been reported.Objectives To detennine the prevalence of cardiac complications in HIVinfected children and to compare ventricular function and dimensions based on HIV clinical and immunologic categories. Methods A cross????sectional study was done in the Department of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta between October and December 2009 on 7 4 HIV????infected children aged below 15 years. Children with severe chronic or acute systemic diseases were excluded. Investigations included physical examinations, 12????lead electrocardiography and echocardiographyto assess left ventricular dimension and ventricular function. Cardiac findings among children in different clinical and immunological categories were compared.Results Five children showed left ventricular fractional shortening below 25% and 16 had right ventricular dysfunction. Mean cardiac function and dimension were in the normal range. No differences in cardiac function and dimension, among the clinical HIV category groups (p>0.05) or immunologic suppression status groups (p>0.05) were observed.Conclusion In children 'With HIV infection, the prevalence of left ventricular dysfunction and right ventricular dysfunction was 7% and 22%, respectively. No differences in cardiac function and dimension were found among the different HIV clinical and immunological categories.
Clinical manifestations and hematological and serological findings in children with dengue infection Karyanti, Mulya Rahma
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (164.274 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.157-62

Abstract

Background Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is endemic to Indonesia and remains a public health problem, with its highest incidence in children. There have been few reports on the clinical, hematological and serological data in children \\lith dengue.Objective To assess the clinical and laboratory profiles of children \\lith dengue infection in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.Methods Clinical, hematological and serological infonnation from children diagnosed v.ith dengue infection in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were collected from 2007 to 2009.Results Of611 children admitted with dengue, 143 (23.4%) had dengue fever (DF), 252 (41.2%) had DHF grades I and II; and 216 (35.4%) had DHF grades III and IV. Of the 81 cases where dengue serotypes were identified, 12.3% were DENV1, 35.8% were DENV-2, 48.2% were DENV-3 and 3.7% were DENV-4. Mean age of subjects was 8.9 years (SD 4.4), and 48.4% of cases were boys. The mean length of fever before hospital admission was 4.2 days (SD 1.1) and mean length of stay in the hospital was 4 days (SD 2.7). Common symptoms observed were petechiae, hepatomegaly and epistaxis. Complications found mostly in those with dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were hematemesis (30 cases, 4.9% of all patients), encephalopathy (19 cases, 3.1 %) and melena (17 cases, 2.8%).Conclusion Signs and symptoms of fever, bleeding manifestations and thrombocytopenia were present in children 'With DF and DHF, while signs of increased vascular permeability were found only in those 'With DHF. Encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding were found mostly in DSS cases. At admission, leukopenia was found in more DF patients than in DHF patients. Absence of leukopenia may be a sign of more severe dengue infection. 
Quality of life assessment of children with thalassemia Wahyuni, Masyitah Sri; Ali, Muhammad; Rosdiana, Nelly; Lubis, Bidasari
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.968 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.163-9

Abstract

Background Thalassemia is a chronic disease that is becoming a major health problem in the world, including the Mediterranean, as well as Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. This condition clearly affects the patient's quality of life, because of the condition itself andthe effects of treatment. Assessment is needed to detennine actions to be taken to improve the quality of life in thalassemic children.Objective To assess the differences in quality of life of thalassemic children compared to their normal siblings.Methods We perfonned a cross????sectional study from May 2010 until June 2010 in H. Adam Malik Hospital, Medan and the home of a member of the North Sumatra Chapter of the Association of Parents of Thalassemia Sufferers (perhimpunan Orangtua PenderitaTalasemia Indonesia, POPTI). Thalassemic children aged 5-18 years and their age and gender????adjusted siblings were divided into two groups: case group and control group. Parents and children were asked to fill the PedsQL (Pediatric Quality of life Inventory)version 4.0 questionnaire to assess their quality of life.Results There were 59 children in each group. The assessments of four quality of life domains in the thalassemic group vs the control group showed the folloMng: physical function 53.1 vs 71.5 (95% CI -21.41 to -15.26, P????O.OOOI), emotional function 50.9 vs 62.9 (95% CI -16.82 to -7 .41, P????O.OOO 1), social function 62.5 vs 72.8 (95% CI-13.50 to -7.01, P????O.OOOI) and school function 36.2 vs 56.0 (95% CI -22.95 to -16.71, P????O.OOOI). Total scores were 50.9 vs 66.1 (95% CI -18.20to -13.12, P????O.OOOI). School function was the most affected parameter studied, with thalassemic children scoring lower than the control group.Conclusion There were significant decreases in the quality of life parameters in the thalassemic group compared to the control group. Thalassemic children have poorer quality oflife compared to their nonnal siblings, Mth school function being the mostaffected domain. 
Effect of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy on T3, T 4 and TSH levels in newborns Suratmin, Suratmin; Lubis, Siska Mayasari; Deliana, Melda; Hakimi, Hakimi
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 51 No 3 (2011): May 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (101.8 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi51.3.2011.178-81

Abstract

Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants is associated v.ith maternal iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Infants from anemic mothers often have lower hemoglobin levels than those from non????anemic mothers. S everal studies have suggested that IDA in infants can impair thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme which is required to produce thyroid hormones. Objective To detennine the effects of IDA during pregnancy on T3, T4, and TSH levels in newborns.Methods We conducted a cross????sectional study from September to December 2010 in two hospitals. Mothers' blood specimens were examined for IDA. Newborns' hematocrit, hemoglobin, ferritin, T3, T4, and TSH levels were measured in umbilical vein bloodspecimens taken at 24 hours of life.Results Mean T3, T4, and TSH levels of 40 newborns whose mothers suffered from IDA were 2.2 nmollL (SD 1.19), 8.4 ug/dL (SD 6.12), and 15.3 mIU/mL (SD 3.99),  respectively. There was no significant relationship between maternal IDA duringpregnancy and infant T3 and TSH levels (P=0.96, P=0.29, respectively ). However, maternal IDA significantly correlated 'With infant T4 levels.Conclusion There was no significant relationship between maternal IDA during pregnancy and levels of T3 and TSH in newborns. However, maternal IDA significantly correlated with lower infant T4 levels.

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