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Paediatrica Indonesiana
ISSN : 00309311     EISSN : 2338476X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
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Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012" : 11 Documents clear
Pediatric logistic organ dysfunction score as a predictive tool of dengue shock syndrome outcomes Dewi, Lola Purnama; Nurfitri, Eka
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (152.895 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.72-77

Abstract

Background The pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD)score is widely used as a predictive tool of patient outcomesin pediatrics intensive care unit (PICU) settings, includingfor dengue shock syndrome (DSS) patients. We evaluated thepredictive value of PELOD scores in DSS patients taken withinthe first hours after PICU admission.Objective To evaluate the usefulness of PELOD scores takenin day 1 of PICU admission for predicting outcomes in DSSpatients.Methods We included 81 DSS subjects admitted to the PICUbetween April 2006 - October 2009 by consecutive sampling.There were 12 children under 12 months of age, 48 children 1- 5years of age, and 21 children above 5 years of age enrolled in thestudy. PELOD calculations were performed as set out by originalarticles, using the published formula.Results0fthe81PICUpatients,15 (18.5%) died. The estimated,predicted mortality using PELOD scores were 43% for infantsunder 12 months, 12% for children 1 - 5 years, and 10% forchildren above 5 years. The actual mortality rates were 58.3%(7 subjects) for infants under 12 months, 10.4% (5 subjects) forchildren 1-5 years, and 14.3% (3 subjects) for children above 5years. In patients who died, PELOD indicated the most commonorgan problems to be hepatic disorders (SGOT/SGPT > 950 IU!L)and haematologic disorders (prothrombin time, INR > 1.65) in 8(53.3%) subjects and 9 (60%) subjects, respectively.Conclusion PELOD scores from subjects taken on day 1 of PICUadmission can be used to predict mortality outcome. [Paediatrlndones. 2012;5 2: 72-7].
The effect of treatment for soil-transmitted helminthiasis on cognitive function in children Sari, Dewi; Ali, Muhammad; Pasaribu, Syahril
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (112.596 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.99-105

Abstract

Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affectone-third of the world's population. School-aged children arereported to have the highest prevalence and intensity of disease,resulting in impaired cognitive function, malnutrition andmorbidity.Objective To examine differences in cognitive function in STHinfectedchildren before and after treatment.Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trialfrom November 2 008 - March 2009 in Aek Na bar a, Lab uh an BatuDistrict, North Sumatera Province. Subjects were primary schoolagedchildren with STH infection. Before intervention, data onage, sex, nutritional status, STH infection status and cognitivefunction were collected. Subjects were divided into two groupsby simple randomization. Group I received 400 mg albendazoleand group II received a placebo. Three months after intervention,cognitive function of subjects in both groups was reassessed. Datawas analysed by Student's t test, with P value of less than 0.05considered to be statistically significant.Results Cognitive tests with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale forChildren (WISC) were performed in 120 children infected withSTH. Sixty children received 400 mg albendazole and 60 childrenreceived placebo. Seven children were excluded and one droppedout from this study. Three months after the intervention, wereevaluated cognitive function and found significant differencesin the categories of digit span (P=0.024) and total IQ score(P=0.027) between the two groups.Conclusions Treatment of STH infection with albendazoleimproved cognitive function of children in comprehension, codingand digit span testing. Performance and full IQ scores were alsoimproved after treatment. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52:99-105].
Tuberculosis score chart signs and symptoms in children with positive tuberculin skin tests Yani, Finny Fitry; Machmoed, Rizanda; Marhefdison, Marhefdison; Basir, Darfioes
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (120.271 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.78-85

Abstract

Background The Indonesian Pediatrics Respirology WorkingGroup (IPRWG) developed the tuberculosis (TB) scorechart to assist in diagnosing TB in community health centers(Puskesmas).Objectives To document signs and symptoms of the IPRWG TBscore chart, to analyze various combinations of these signs andsymptoms, and to compare these combinations in children withTB to those without TB, based on a TB score chart.Methods We performed a cross-sectional study from July toOctober 2008, in Padang, Bukittinggi and Pasaman. We recruitedchildren with known positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) from a2006 tuberculin survey. Questionnaires on signs and symptoms(IPRWG TB score chart) were completed and chest radiographswere obtained for all children. Subjects fulfilling a total score ofsix or more were considered to have a diagnosis of TB.Results We diagnosed TB in 78/285 (27.3%) subjects. A scorevalue of3 for the category of household contact (HHC) positivesmears was added in 21/78 subjects. However, the highest risk forTB disease was found in those diagnosed with no clear history ofHHC (58.9%; OR 192, 95% CI 22 to 1679). The highest riskfactors for TB were suggestive chest X-ray (34.6%; OR 9.2, 95%CI 3.6 to 23 .4) and fever lasting > 2 weeks (17.9%; OR 8, 95%CI 2.2 to 29.1), respectively. Of 46 children with TB diagnosisbut without HHC, the combination of undernourishment, lymphnode enlargement and suggestive chest X-ray was highest (28.2%).Individual or dual combination signs and symptoms were alsofound in children without TB diagnosis.Conclusion Various combinations of signs and symptoms couldlead to fulfillment of scoring for TB diagnosis. [Paediatr lndones.2012;5 2: 78-85].
Efficacy comparison of cetirizine and loratadine for allergic rhinitis in children Juliana, Juliana; Evalina, Rita; Irsa, Lily; Loebis, M. Sjabaroeddin
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (105.511 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.61-66

Abstract

Background Allergic rhinitis represents a global health problemaffecting 10% to more than 40% of the population worldwide.Several studies in recent years have described the efficacy ofsecond-generation antihistamines in younger children. It isnot well established whether cetirizine is more effective thanloratadine in reducing symptoms of allergic rhinitis.Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacyof loratadine with cetirizine for treatment of allergic rhinitis.Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlledtrial of 100 children, aged 13 to 16 years, from October toNovember 2009 at two junior high schools in Medan. GroupI received 10 mg of cetirizine and group II received 10 mg ofloratadine, each once daily in the morning for 14 days. Drugefficacy was assessed by changes from baseline symptom scoresand evaluation of therapeutic responses after 3 days, 7 days and14 days of treatment.Results The efficacy of cetirizine compared to that of loratadinewas not statistically significant in diminishing nasal symptomsafter 3 days, 7 days and 14 days of treatment (P=0.40, P=0.07,and P=0.057, respectively). Evaluation of side effects, however,revealed significantly fewer headaches in the cetirizine group after3 days and 7 days of treatment (P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively)than in the loratidine group. In addition, the loratadine grouphad significantly more instances of palpitations after 7 days oftreatment (P=0.04) compared to the cetirizine group.Conclusion There was no significant difference in cetirizine andloratadine treatment effectiveness on allergic rhinitis. However,loratadine was found to cause more headaches and palpitationsthan cetirizine. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52:61-6].
IgE-mediated soy protein sensitization in children with cow’s milk allergy Santi, Agustina; Juffrie, Mohammad; Sumadiono, Sumadiono
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (117.943 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.67-71

Abstract

Background Soy-based formula as an alternative to cow's milkformula is preferable to extensively hydrolyzed protein formulabecause of the lower cost and more acceptable taste. However,cow's milk allergy patients can subsequently develop a sensitivityto soy protein.Objective To compare soy protein sensitization in children withand without an allergy to cow's milk.Methods This study was conducted in Yogyakarta from September2007 until March 2008. Subjects were children aged below 4years with an atopic history. Subjects were divided into 2 groups:those with a positive skin prick test to cow's milk and thosewith a negative skin prick test to cow's milk (control group).Both groups were given soy formula and tested at 6 weeks forsensitization to soy.Results There were 45 children in each group. Age, sex, andatopic history were similar in both groups. We found no soyprotein sensitization (negative skin prick results) in all subjectsfrom both groups.Conclusion Risk of immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitizationto soy protein was not proven in children with cow's milk allergy.[Paediatr lndones. 2012;52:67-71).
Diagnostic accuracy of the 2004 Indonesian Pediatric Society medical standard of care for neonatal sepsis Fitriani, Oki; Suryantoro, Purnomo; Wandita, Setya; Wibowo, Tunjung; Haksari, Ekawaty L.; Julia, Madarina
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (107.134 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.86-90

Abstract

Background Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal morbidityand mortality. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptomsto diagnose neonatal sepsis. Blood culture is the standard tool forsepsis diagnosis, but it is not available in most district hospitals. In2004, the Indonesian Pediatric Society (IPS) developed a medicalstandard of care to diagnose neonatal sepsis, but its accuracy hasnot been adequately verified.Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the IPS medicalstandard of care 2004 to diagnose neonatal sepsis.Methods We conducted diagnostic testing at the PerinatalWard, Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, from June to November2010. Inclusion criteria were neonates with signs and symptomsof infection. We excluded neonates with congenital anomalies,blood disorders, or whose mothers received peripartum antibiotictreatment. All neonates were assessed by the 2004 IPS medicalstandard of care for neonatal sepsis and by blood cultureexaminations.Results A total of 193 neonates with signs and symptoms ofinfection were evaluated. The IPS medical standard had asensitivity of 88% (95% CI 81 to 94), specificity of 17% (95%CI 2 to 25), positive predictive value of 53% (95% CI 45 to 60),negative predictive value of 57% (95% CI 39 to 75), positivelikelihood ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.19), and negativelikelihood ratio of0.71 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.42).Conclusion The 2004 IPS medical standard of care showedadequate sensitivity for diagnosing neonatal sepsis, but its lowspecificity limits its use as a diagnostic tool. [Paediatr lndones.2012;52:86-90].
Effect of adding tyndallized probiotics to the World Health Organization standard therapy for acute diarrhea in children Fanny, Kesatrianita Mawarni; Damayanti, Wahyu; Juffrie, Mohammad
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (95.576 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.91-94

Abstract

Background Diarrhea is the major cause of morbidity and mortalityin children. Probiotics can decrease the frequency and durationof diarrhea. There are two types of probiotics, live and tyndallized.Tyndallized probiotics have been stetilized, so they are unable to produceactive metabolites, but may have an effect on human immunity.Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing WHOstandard therapy with tyndallized probiotics in children withacute, watery diarrhea.Methods We performed a randomized, single-blind, controlledtrial in children aged 3-60 months who were diagnosed with acute,watery diarrhea at Gunungsitoh General Hospital, Nias, NorthSumatera. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling byway of parent interviews.Results One hundred subjects with acute, watery diarrhea weredivided into 2 groups of 50. One group was treated with onlyWHO standard therapy for acute, watery diarrhea. The othergroup was treated by WHO standard therapy with the additionof tyndallized probiotics. There were no significant differences inbasic characteristics between the two groups. Diarrheal durationfor the group receiving WHO standard therapy only was 3.95 ±1.3 days, while that of the group receiving both WHO standardtherapy and tyndallized probiotics was 4.6 ± 2.3 days (P > 0.05).Diarrheal frequency on the fifth day in the WHO standard therapygroup was 1.90 ± 0.99 times per day, while that of the tyndalhzedprobiotic group was 1.56 ± 0.67 times per day (P > 0.05).Conclusion There were no significant differences between WHOstandard therapy alone and WHO standard therapy with the additionof tyndallized probiotics for decreasing the duration and frequency ofdiarrhea in children. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52:91-4].
Comparison of maternal anxiety scores in pediatric intensive care unit and general ward parents Kartikahadi, Lie Affendi; Soetjiningsih, Soetjiningsih; Ardjana, I Gusti Ayu Endah; Windiani, I Gusti Ayu Trisna
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (100.685 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.95-98

Abstract

Background Hospitalization of a child is known to be a dreadfuland stressful situation for parents. One study reported thatadmitting a child to a general ward caused mild anxiety to mothers,while admitting a child to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)caused moderate anxiety to mothers.Objective To compare Hamilton anxiety scores of mothers whosechildren were admitted to the PICU to those of mothers whosechildren were admitted to the general ward.Methods A cross-sectional study was done on mothers ofchildren aged 1 month-12 years. Children were admitted toeither the intensive care unit or the general ward from October2010-January 2011. All subjects were assessed by Hamiltonanxiety scores and questioned for risk factors and other causesof maternal anxiety. Consecutive sampling was used to allocatethe subjects. Differences were considered statistically significantfor P < 0.05.Results Of the 72 subjects, the median Hamilton anxiety score inmothers of children admitted to the PICU was 20.5 (interquartilerange 14-29.75), higher than that of mothers of children admittedto the general ward (14, interquartile range 9-16.75). MannWhitneyU test revealed a statistically significant difference inscores between the two groups (P = 0.DO1). Ancova multivariateanalysis showed the admission location to be the only significantrelationship to Hamilton anxiety score (P = 0.0001).Conclusion Hamilton anxiety scores were higher for mothersof children admitted to the PICU than that of mothers withchildren admitted to the general ward. [Paediatr lndones.2012;52:95-8].
Correlation of tobacco smoke exposure to intelligence quotient in preschool children Natalia, Nina; Masloman, Nurhayati; Manoppo, Jeanette C.
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (103.28 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.106-110

Abstract

Background Exposure to tobacco smoke at home happens in 29-69% of children globally and 43% oflndonesian children. Smokeexposure during the developmental stage may affect cognitiveabilities, as measured by intelligence quotient (IQ). There havebeen few studies conducted on the correlation of tobacco smokeexposure to IQ. This is the first study of this type in Indonesia.Objectives To assess the correlation between tobacco smokeexposure and IQ in preschool children and to assess the correlationbetween serum cotinine levels and IQ in preschool childrenexposed to tobacco smoke.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Tumintingdistrict, Manado in January - May 2011. Subjects were collected byrandom sampling of 3-5 year-old children. In our study, 35 childrenwere deemed to have been exposed to tobacco smoke by serumcotinine ~ 0.05 ng/ml and 25 children were deemed to not havebeen exposed to tobacco smoke (cotinine < 0.05 ng/ml). Resultswere analyzed by t-test and simple correlation analysis using SPSSversion 17 software with a significance level of P < 0.05.Results There was a statistically significant difference in IQbetween the two groups, with mean IQ of 106.54 in the groupexposed to tobacco smoke and mean IQ of 109.36 in the group notexposed to tobacco smoke (P=0.01). The mean serum cotininelevel in the group with tobacco smoke exposure was 1. 77 ng/mL.There was no correlation between the mean level of cotinine andmean IQ in this group (r = -0.19 and P=0.14).Conclusions The mean IQ in the group with tobacco smokeexposure was lower than that of the group not exposed to tobaccosmoke. There was no correlation between mean serum cotininelevel and mean IQ. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52: 106-10].
Correlation between brain injury biomarkers and Glasgow coma scale in pediatric sepsis Arifin, Nahari; Mangunatmadja, Irawan; Pudjiadi, Antonius; Pardede, Sudung O.
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (120.201 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.2.2012.111-117

Abstract

Background Sepsis in children, with or without multiple organfailure, causes increased susceptibility to brain injury due tosystemic insults. Brain injury in sepsis is difficult to recognizeclinically. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-lOOB have beenextensively studied in brain injuries and appear to be promisingalternative biomarkers.Objectives To determine if there is a correlation between theGlasgow coma scale (GCS) and NSE as well as S-lOOB levels, inchildren with sepsis.Methods We performed an analytical study on septic childrenaged > 2 years. GCS scores were assessed on the first and thirddays of admission. Blood specimens to test for NSE and S-lOOBwere drawn on the first day of admission and stored at -70QC forfurther analysis at the end of the study.Results Out of 35 patients, 30 met the inclusion criteria. Postanalysis,one subject with NSE above the maximum level wasexcluded. Negative correlations were found between GCS scoreand NSE, as well as between GCS and S-lOOB levels. Analysisrevealed a significant ROC for NSE, but not for S-lOOB. NSEconcentration of 8.1 /.lg/L was the cut-off point for GCS scoresbelow 12.Conclusions There were negative correlations between GCSand NSE levels, as well as between GCS and S- lOOB levels. Thepredictive value ofNSE level was a cut-off point of 8.1 /.lg/L forGCS scores below 12. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52:111-17]

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