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Paediatrica Indonesiana
ISSN : 00309311     EISSN : 2338476X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015" : 11 Documents clear
MANTOUX TEST RESULTS AND BCG VACCINATION STATUS IN TB-EXPOSED CHILDREN Harahap, Fadilah; Daulay, Ridwan M.; Ali, Muhammad; Dalimunthe, Wisman; Daulay, Rini Savitri
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (103.936 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.7-12

Abstract

Background Tuberculosis (TB) infection is highly prevalent in Indonesia. The source of transmission of TB to a child is usually via an adult with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. The Mantoux test is a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis infection. The BCG vaccine has been used for the prevention of TB, but its efficacy is still debated. Objective To assess for an association between Mantoux test results and BCG vaccination in children who had contact with adult pulmonary tuberculosis and to assess for differences in Mantoux test induration with regards to nutritional status, age, type of TB contact, and time duration since BCG vaccination in BCG-vaccinated and BCG-unvaccinated children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in FebruaryMarch 2011 on infants and children (aged 3 months to five years), who had household contact with adult pulmonary TB. We performed tuberculin (Mantoux) skin tests to detect TB infection in the children. Subjects were consisted of two groups: BCG-vaccinated and BCG-unvaccinated. Results Subjects were 100 children (50 BCG-vaccinated and 50 BCG-unvaccinated subjects). Positive Mantoux test results were observed in 9 vaccinated subjects and 33 unvaccinated subjects. The mean diameters of induration in the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups were 7.6 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively (95%CI of difference -4.25 to 0.20; P=0.074). In children who had household contact with sputum smear-positive adult pulmonary TB, BCG vaccination was a protective factor against TB infection, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.113 (95%CI 0.045 to 0.286; P=0.0001). There were no significant differences in Mantoux test induration associated with nutritional status, age, type of TB contact, and duration since BCG vaccination, between the two groups. Conclusion BCG vaccination has a protective effect on TBexposed children, based on Mantoux test results. However, there are no differences in Mantoux test induration associated with nutritional status, age, type of TB contact, or duration since BCG vaccination, between the BCG-vaccinated and BCGunvaccinated groups.
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children: an 11-year retrospective in Surabaya, Indonesia Rochmah, Nur; Faizi, Muhammad; Harjantien, Netty
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (83.27 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.40-3

Abstract

Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication of type I diabetic mellitus (TIDM). Early recognition and prompt treatment can reduce mortality. Objective To evaluate the profiles of patients with diabetic ketoasidosis in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Methods Retrospective medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with DKA in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia from January 2002 to June 2013 were reviewed. The data collected included clinical parameters, laboratory and imaging results, predisposing factors, complications and outcomes. Results During an 11 years period, there were 58 cases of DKA in children with T1DM. Eighteen subjects (31%) were boys. The severity of DKA was classified as follows: mild 13 (22.4%), moderate 23 (39.7%), and severe DKA 22 (37.9%). Recurrent DKA was diagnosed in 24 (41.4%) patients. Common clinical profiles recorded were dehydration 46 (79.3%), malaise 37 (63.8%), decreased consciousness 35 (60.3%), dyspnea 27 (46.6%), vomiting 26 (44.8%), fever 25 (43.1%), seizure 13 (22.4%), and decreased body weight 9 (15.5%). Laboratory results observed were as folllows: hyponatremia 19 (32.8%), hyperkalemia 12 (20.7%) and acute renal failure 3 (5.2%). Head CT scans showed that 2 (3.4%) patients suffered from cerebral edema. Infections, as triggers of DKA, were found in 12 (20.6%) patients: 4 caries and periodontitis, 3 urinary tract infections, 2 acute diarrhea, 2 acute pharyngitis, and 1 otitis externa. Four out of 24 patients with recurrent DKA failed to take their insulin dose prior to DKA. The average of length of patient stay in the PICU was 3.26 (SD 3.50) days. No patients died during the study. Conclusion Dehydration is the most common clinical profile of DKA in our study. More than half of the patients suffer from moderate to severe DKA.
Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes Safri, Mulya; Putra, Aulia Rahman
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (83.505 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.13-7

Abstract

Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS) and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march) in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%). Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%). Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%). Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. 
Correlation between vivax malaria infection and iron deficiency in children Desmansyah, Desmansyah; Purnamasari, Rini; Theodorus, Theodorus; Waiman, Sulaiman
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (101.679 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.44-9

Abstract

Background Iron deficiency is considered to be a major public health problem around the world due to its high prevalence as well as its effect on growth, development, and infection-resistance in children. In malaria-endemic areas, malaria infection is thought to contribute to the occurrence of iron deficiency, by means of hepcidin and hemolysis mechanisms. Objective To assess the prevalence of asymptomatic vivax malaria, compare hemoglobin levels and iron status parameters between vivax malaria-infected and uninfected children, assess the prevalence of iron deficiency, and evaluate a possible correlation between vivax malaria infection and iron deficiency. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2013 at Sanana City of Sula Islands District, North Maluku. Six parameters were evaluated in 5-11-year-old children: malaria parasite infection, hemoglobin level, serum iron concentration, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), serum transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration. Results Among 296 children aged 5-11 years, 75 (25.3%) were infected with Plasmodium vivax. In infected children, hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, TIBC and serum ferritin were significantly lower than in non-infected children (P<0.01). Using a serum ferritin cut-off of <15 μg/dL, 142 (48.0%) of the children were found to be iron deficient. There was a strong correlation between vivax malaria infection and iron deficiency (OR 3.573; 95%CI 2.03-6.29). ConclusionThe prevalence of asymptomatic vivax malaria infection was 25.3%. The hemoglobin level and iron status parameters in vivax malaria-infected subjects were significantly lower than in uninfected children. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 48.0% for all study subjects. Malaria vivax infection was correlated with iron deficiency in 5-11-year-old children at Sanana City.
Linear growth patterns in small for gestational age and preterm infants after zinc supplementation Setiawan, Caecilia Nancy; Sarosa, Gatot Irawan; Setiawati, Mexitalia
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (196.635 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.23-8

Abstract

Background Low birth weight (LBW) infants are at risk for growth disturbances due to intrauterine zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation is expected to improve the linear growth of LBW babies. Objective To assess the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Methods This quasi-experimental study had a pre- and post-test design. Subjects were LBW infants hospitalized in Kariadi Hospital during March-December 2011, consisted of SGA and preterm neonates. All subjects were given 5 mg of zinc syrup daily for 3 months. Subjects’ head circumference, weight, and length were measured monthly. Serum zinc levels were measured before and after supplementation. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test, independent T-test, and general linear model repeated measure. Results A total of 61 subjects were enrolled consisted of 31 preterm and 30 SGA neonates. Mean serum zinc levels in the preterm group were 168.2 (SD 54.5) μg/dL pre-supplementation and 163.6 (SD 50.7) μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.049), while mean serum zinc levels in the SGA group were 174.8 (SD 46.6) μg/dL pre-supplementation and 167.4 (SD 49.4) μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.271). Median percentage preterm weight and length increased from 87.3 to 102.4% in the third month (P<0.001) and from 95.8 to 103.9% in the third month (P<0.001), respectively. Median percentage SGA weight and length increased from 73.5 to 98.3% in the third month (P<0.001) and from 94.5 to 102.2% in the third month (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion Both, the preterm and SGA infants exhibit catch-up growth after three months of zinc supplementation. [
Correlation between lipid profile and C-reactive protein in children with nephrotic syndrome Astuti, Kurnia Dwi; Muryawan, Mohammad Heru; Mellyana, Omega
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (101.427 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.1-6

Abstract

Background Nephrotic syndrome (NS) causes dyslipidemia in children, which can be long term or intermittent. Dyslipidemia has long been established as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. An early sign of atherosclerosis is elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protien (hsCRP). Atherosclerosis early in life, especially in childhood, warrants an assessment for NS. Study on a correlation between lipid profile and hsCRP, as a marker of atherosclerosis, in pediatric NS patients has been limited. Objective To assess for a correlation between lipid profile and hsCRP in childhood nephrotic syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 29 children with NS in Dr. Kariadi Hospital. Serum hsCRP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were examined in the active phase. Spearman’s test was used to analyze a possible correlation between total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and hsCRP levels. Results Mean levels of total cholesterol (454 mg/dL) and LDL (288 mg/dL) in this study were high, while the HDL level (55 mg/dL) was normal, according to US Department of Health and Human Services classifications. The median hsCRP level was 0.33 mg/L and 9 (31%) subjects had high hsCRP levels of more than 1 mg/L. There was a positive correlation between LDL level and hsCRP (r=0.423; P<0.05). Conclusions There is a weak positive correlation between LDL and hsCRP levels in children with NS.
Association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household TB contact Zuliartha, Novaily; Daulay, Ridwan M.; Deliana, Melda; Dalimunthe, Wisman; Daulay, Rini Savitri
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (101.568 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.29-34

Abstract

Background Tuberculosis (TB) and cigarette consumption are relatively high in Indonesia. Passive smoking may increase the risk of infection and disease in adults and children exposed to TB. An association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children has not been well documented. Objective To assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection in children who had household contact with a TB patient. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2011. Children aged 5 to 18 years who had household contact with a TB patient underwent tuberculin testing for M. tuberculosis infection. Subjects were divided into two groups: those exposed to passive smoke and those not exposed to passive smoke. Chi-square test was used to assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection. Results There were 140 children enrolled in this study, with 70 exposed to passive smoke and 70 not exposed to passive smoke. Prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was significantly higher in the passive smoking group than in those not exposed to passive smoke [81.4% and 52.9%, respectively, (P= 0.0001)]. In the passive smoking group there were significant associations between nutritional state, paternal and maternal education, and M. tuberculosis infection. But no associations were found between M. tuberculosis infection and familial income or BCG vaccination. Conclusion Among children who had household contact with a TB patient, they who exposed to passive smoke are more likely to have M. tuberculosis infection compared to they who not exposed to passive smoke.
Congenital obstructive posterior urethral membranes and recurrent urinary tract infection: a rare case of congenital hypertrophy of the verumontanum Bancin, Diana; Herini, Elisabeth S.; Kusuma, Pungky Ardani; Nurani, Neti
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (393.695 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.59-64

Abstract

Congenital obstructive posterior urethral membranes (COPUM) is a complex disease closely related to several pathological changes in kidney development and function, as a result of urinary reflux since in utero. This congenital anomaly of urinary tract potentially causes hydroureteronephrosis that is often associated with recurrent urinary tract infections and, ultimately, one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease in children.1,2 Congenital hypertrophy of the verumontanum as part of COPUM is very rare. Only a few reports have been written on congenital hypertrophy of the vermontanum causing congenital obstructive uropathy.3-6
Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia Dachlan, Tony Ijong; Yuniati, Tetty; Sukadi, Abdurachman
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (109.693 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.18-22

Abstract

Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH) is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01)]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH.
Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children Japutra, Andy; Fadlyana, Eddy; Alam, Anggraini
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55 No 1 (2015): January 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (91.074 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi55.1.2015.35-9

Abstract

Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 wellnourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/ week are risk factors for childhood obesity.

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