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INDONESIA
MAKARA of Science Series
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 23391995     EISSN : 23560851     DOI : 10.7454
Core Subject : Science,
MAKARA Journal of Science publishes high quality research on fundamental science and provides a broad-based forum for the information sharing of ongoing research and development in science. Topics covered include physics, chemistry and biology. All submitted manuscripts will be subjected to the peer review process following a thorough inspection by the editors. Makara Journal of Science is the successor to the "MAKARA of Science Series" and "Makara Sains", which have been published since 1997. Starting from 2014, the journal has been periodically published four times a year (March, June, September, and December).
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Articles 423 Documents
KOMPAKTIBILITAS KOMPOSIT ISOTROPIK Al/Al2O3 DENGAN VARIABEL WAKTU TAHAN SINTER Widyastuti .; Eddy S. Siradj; Dedi Priadi; Anne Zulfia
Makara Journal of Science Vol 12, No 2 (2008): November
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Compactibility of Al/Al2O3 Isotropic Composite with Variation of Holding Time Sintering. The requirement of component with structural ability, light weight and also strength is increasing base on Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) by aluminum as matrix (AMCs). A structural ability is connected to composites compactibility which is depend on quality of interfacial bounding. Powder metallurgy is one of method to produce composite with powder mixing, compacting and sintering. Volume fractions reinforced and sintering time can influence composites compactibility. Volume fractions reinforced variable can produce different reinforcement effect. Beside that, on sintering enables the formation of new phase during sintering time. In this research, Al/Al2O3 isotropic composites are made with aluminum as matrix and alumina (Al2O3) as reinforced. Volume fraction reinforced used 10%. 20%. 30% and 40%. Sintering temperature and compaction pressure are each 600oC and 15 kN. The tests that applied are compression and metallographic test. The result that obtained is optimum compactibility of Al/Al2O3 composite reached at holding time 2 hour. During sintering, new phase can occur that is aluminum oxides (alumina), with unstable properties. The best volume fraction reinforced and holding time sintering are 40% and 2 hours. Key words: MMCs, compactibiliy, holding time sintering, powder metallurgy
MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN DARI Melastoma affine Suharsono .; Syarifin Firdaus; Utut Widyastuti Suharsono1 Suharsono
Makara Journal of Science Vol 12, No 2 (2008): November
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Isolation and Cloning of cDNA Fragment of Gene Encoding for Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein from M. affine. M. affine can grow well in acid soil with high level of soluble aluminum. One of the important proteins in the detoxifying xenobiotic stress including acid and Al stresses is a multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) encoded by mrp gene. The objective of this research is to isolate and clone the cDNA fragment of MaMrp encoding MRP from M. affine. By reverse transcription, total cDNA had been synthesized from the total RNA as template. The fragment of cDNA MaMrp had been successfully isolated by PCR by using total cDNA as template and mrp primer designed from A. thaliana, yeast, and human. This fragment was successfully inserted into pGEM-T Easy and the recombinant plasmid was successfully introduced into E. coli DH5α. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the lenght of MaMrp fragment is 633 bp encoding 208 amino acids. Local alignment analysis based on nucleotide of mRNA showed that MaMrp fragment is 69% identical to AtMrp1 and 63% to AtMrp from A. thaliana. Based on deduced amino acid sequence, MaMRP is 84% identical to part of AtMRP13, 77% to AtMRP12, and 73% to AtMRP1 from A. Thaliana respectively. Alignment analysis with AtMRP1 showed that MaMRP fragment is located in TM1 and NBF1 domains and has a specific amino acid sequence QCKAQLQNMEEE. Keywords: Multidrug resistance protein, cDNA, cloning, PCR, Melastoma affine
PENGAMATAN KADAR MERKURI DI PERAIRAN TELUK KAO (HALMAHERA) DAN PERAIRAN ANGGAI (PULAU OBI) MALUKU UTARA Edward .
Makara Journal of Science Vol 12, No 2 (2008): November
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Observation on Mercury Concentration in Kao Bay (Halmahera) and Anggai Waters (Obi Island), North of Maluku. Observation on merkuri concentration in territorial waters of Kao Bay and Anggai have been done in January 2005. The result showed that mercury concentration in seawater and sediment in territorial waters of Kao Bay and Anggai waters still lower and still in line with peaceful threshold value for waters biota life. This data indicate that waste of mercury coming from activity of gold mining by PT Nusa Halmahera Raya (NHR) and illegal gold mining by society not yet polluted both of that waters. Keywords: Anggai, Kao, Mercury
VARIABILITAS SUHU DAN SALINITAS DI PERAIRAN CISADANE Hadikusumah .
Makara Journal of Science Vol 12, No 2 (2008): November
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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The Temperature and Salinity Variabilities at Cisadane Estuary. The study was conducted at Cisadane Estuary at 18 oceanographic station in Transition Monsoon Season I, East Monsoon Season, and Transition Monsoon Season II from 2003 to 2005. The area of the study was located at the longitude of 106.58° - 106.70° E and the latitude of 5.96° - 6.02°S. The measurements of temperature, salinity, tubidity and light transmision used CTD (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) Model SBE-19. The result shows that the temperature and salinity vertical profil variabilities at Cisadane Estuary underwent a change in the influence of Transition Monsoon Season I, East Monsoon Season, and Transition Monsoon Season II, for example it was obtained the leg time of the maximum salinity of Transition Monsoon Season II as the same as that of East Monsoon Season. Based on the horizontal and vertical distribution pattern analysis of the interaction between low salinity fresh water of Cisadane River and high salinity sea water of Java Sea, it was also influenced by the season variability and tide. The surface layer was much more influenced by the low salinity and the heat of sunray (seasonal variability) with the weaker intensity to the lower layer. The change of the heat energy by the increase of seasonal temperature occurred in September 2003 to May 2004 ((∆E = 600.6 ⋅ 105 Joule), July to November 2005 (∆E = 84.9 Joule). The decrease of the heat energy occurred in June to September 2003 ((-267.6 ⋅ 105), May ke October 2004 (∆E = 189.3 ⋅ 105 Joule) and October 2004 to July 2005 (∆E = -215.4 ⋅ 105 Joule). Keywords: variability, temperature, salinity, monsoon, Cisadane
KORELASI RAGAM AKTIVITAS TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN MAKAN TIGA JENIS KUNTUL DI CAGAR ALAM PULAU DUA TELUK BANTEN, SERANG Dewi Elfidasari
Makara Journal of Science Vol 12, No 2 (2008): November
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Correlation in Activity Variation to Feeding Success on Three Species Herons at Pulau Dua Nature Reserve Banten's Bays, Serang. This research intent to know activity manner influence that did by three species herons for feeding success at Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Banten Bay, Serang. Observational method that is utilized is direct observing with backed up by picture taking utilizes observation method is focal. Analysis draws to be done by scan sampling method's. Data analyzed by correlation terminologically Spearmann by programs SPSS. Result observationally to point out that activity type was done upon eating is step, strike, catch and devours prey. Result tests Spearmann's correlation proves that activity manner a large part gets positive correlation with feeding success for three species herons depend on different feeding location. Just activity stop and not active just that gets negative correlation with feeding success on three species herons. Keywords: activities, influence, feeding, success, herons
IDENTIFICATION OF SOME STRAINS OF DINOFLAGELLATES BASED ON MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS Hikmah Thoha
Makara Journal of Science Vol 12, No 2 (2008): November
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Dinoflagellates are the important primary producers in aquatic environments. In oceans, they play interesting role in ecological functions such as red tide forming organisms, symbiont of coral reef or sea anemone and DSP (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning) or PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) producing organisms. Morphology and molecular analysis of dinoflagellates were conducted on November 2002 to March 2003. The phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA analyses, sequence have begun to appear more frequently in the literature, as attention has turned to relationships within the major eukaryotic lineages, particular importance for the taxonomy of the armored and unarmored genera of dinoflagellates (Gyrodinium sp., Cachonina sp., Gymnodinium sp., Amphidinium sp.), because many of the genera cause extensive plankton blooms, fish kills and other harmful events, were studied used to amplify 18S rDNA, present in the total DNA extracted from algal pellet. The amplify approximately 1400 bp of the nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA gene using terminal primeirs DIR, products were cheked by 1.0 % agarose gel electrophoresis, then cloning with TA cloning KIT. Sequencing were analyzed by the GENETIX Mac Software, Homology search by Blast and Phylogenetic analysis. Results of hylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA are: Strain no. 10893 (un identified) from the genera, it is belonging Gymnodinium or Polarella. Strain no. 10795 is closely related other species Cachonina hallii. We tentatively named strain no 11151 and 11160 similar to Gyrodinium or Gymnodinium based on morphology, but these strain indepently position in this tree and is not a real of Gymnodinium sensu stricto. It is possible, we can establish the new genera for strain no. 11151; 11160 because this not cluster any other unarmored species. Keywords: Morphology, molecular analysis, dinoflagellates
EFEK DOPING Ni (II) PADA AKTIFITAS FOTOKATALITIK DARI TiO2 UNTUK INHIBISI BAKTERI PATOGENIK Yetria Rilda; Abdi Dharma; Syukri Arief; Admin Alief; Baharuddin Shaleh
Makara Journal of Science Vol 14, No 1 (2010): April
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Influence of Co-Doping of Ni (II) on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 for Pathogenic Bacteria Inhibition. Nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2) has most attention in the past decade, since it can be applied as alternative material on sterilization photocatalyst process. This research focused on increasing performance of titania such as structure, particles size and surface area through Ni ion doped on TiO2 surface by sol-gel technique. Product were used to design of a photobioreactor for sterilization process from pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Product were characterized using Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmition Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopes-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) dan Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET). Titanium dioxide with anatase structure have 12.1 nm in particles size and surface area 49.6 m2 / g that have higher inhibition rate to bacteria cell. Photobiocatalytic reaction was carried out in various TiO2-Ni concentration and UV irradiation times. The anti bacteria from TiO2-Ni to all bacteria cell suspension after UV irradiated at λm : 365 nm has good synergistic effect. Effect of mechanical treatment by sonicator showed the increasing inhibition rate around 4% for 120 minute irradiation. Inhibition rate optimization for each bacteria gave different efficiency inhibition to TiO2-Ni concentration 1.5-2.0 g/L. TiO2-Ni powder inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus around ≥ 95% for 120 minute irradiation, while Bacillus subtilis resistance with inhibition percentage rate only 88.1%. Keywords: activity, inhibition, pathogenic, photocatalytic, TiO2
PENGARUH KASEIN HIDROLISAT DAN INTENSITAS CAHAYA TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOMASSA DAN ALKALOID CANTHINONE DI DALAM KULTUR SUSPENSI SEL PASAK BUMI (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) Luthfi Aziz Mahmud Siregar; Chan Lai-Keng; Boey Peng-Lim
Makara Journal of Science Vol 14, No 1 (2010): April
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Effects of Casein Hydrolisate and Light Intensity on Production of Biomass and Canthinone Alkaloid in Cell Suspension Cultures of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack). A study on the effect of several concentrations of casein hydrolysate and light intensity to produce biomass and canthinone alkaloid in cell suspension culture of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) was conducted. The research was an experimental study with block random design non factorial. For study of casein hydrolysate was used 8 (eight) of concentration treatments, i.e. 0.00, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, dan 5.00% (w/v). Beside for study of different light intensity effect was used five of light intensity, i.e. 0, 190, 290, 585, and 1525 lux. The results showed that addition 0.1–2.0% (w/v) of casein hydrolysate into culture medium did not show the effect on production of cell biomass compare with without casein hydrolysate. Total of alkaloid produce increased two fold in the culture medium containing 0.1% casein hydrolysate. The medium with addition 5% casein hydrolysate significantly decrease of increased fresh weight, dry weight and total of alkaloid compare with medium without or additions of casein hydrolysate at 0.1–2.0% concentration. Besides, the modifications on light intensity (0–1525 lux) did not effect the production of cell biomass in culture medium, but the place of E. longifolia Jack cell suspension culture at light of 1525 lux was found have to stimulate increased the total of 9- methoxycanthin-6-one in cells. Keywords: canthinone, casein hydrolysate, cell suspension, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, light intensity
PEMBUATAN ARANG AKTIF DARI BATANG JAGUNG MENGGUNAKAN AKTIVATOR ASAM SULFAT DAN PENGGUNAANNYA PADA PENJERAPAN ION TEMBAGA (II) Dedy Suhendra; Erin Ryantin Gunawan
Makara Journal of Science Vol 14, No 1 (2010): April
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Preparation of Activated Carbon from Maize Stems by Sulfuric Acids Activation and Their Application in Copper (II) Ion Sorption. Activated carbons were prepared from maize (Zea mays L.) stems by sulfuric acids activation or chemical methods. The dry maize stems are usually used as low-value energy resources in many ountries, burned in the field, or discarded, which are unfavorable to environment. This motivates the investigation of producing value-added products from the dry maize stems, such as activated carbons, as well as solving some environmental problems. The preparation process consisted of sulfuric acid impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 250–400°C for 1–4 h. The results show that the impregnation ratio was 1.25, the optimum activation temperature was 300°C and the activation time was 1 h. The sorption capacity of the activated carbon was 25.1 mg/g. Keywords: copper (II) ion sorption, maize stems, sulfuric acid activator
PERGERAKAN PENDUDUK KOTA DEPOK MENUJU KE TEMPAT BEKERJA TAHUN 2001 Frans Sitanala
Makara Journal of Science Vol 9, No 1 (2005): April
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Depok’s Resident Movement to Their Workplace in 2001. The data of commuters from Depok town were taken from six Depok’s subdistricts to get the information of their work location, their transportation and the interaction betweenDepok town with DKI Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi regions (Botabek). The results show that majority the commuters went to DKI Jakarta as their workplace which was dominant in all subsdistrics. The commuters dominantly used non-train public transports. The strong interaction were happened between Depok town and South Jakarta and East Jakarta, the weak one was happened between Depok town with Tangerang.Keywords: commuter, transportation, interaction, Depok town, DKI Jakarta, Botabek

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