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International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE)
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
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Core Subject : Engineering,
The scope of journal covers all area in the application on chemical, physical, mathematical, biological, agricultural, corrossion, and computer science to solve the engineering problems.
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Articles 19 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 5, No 2 (2013)" : 19 Documents clear
Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP) for Face Recognition in Parallel Computation Environment Rao, Gundavarapu Mallikarjuna
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1905.722 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.41-46

Abstract

Abstract  - The availability of multi-core technology resulted totally new computational era. Researchers are keen to explore available potential in state of art-machines for breaking the bearer imposed by serial computation. Face Recognition is one of the challenging applications on so ever computational environment. The main difficulty of traditional Face Recognition algorithms is lack of the scalability. In this paper Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP), a new scalable Face Recognition Algorithm suitable for parallel environment is proposed.  Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP) is found to be simple and computational inexpensive compare to Local Binary Patterns (LBP). WLAPP is developed based on concept of LAPP. The experimentation is performed on FG-Net Aging Database with deliberately introduced 20% distortion and the results are encouraging. Keywords — Active pixels, Face Recognition, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP), Pattern computing, parallel workers, template, weight computation.  
Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis) Arham, Nur Afiqah; Mohamad, Nurul Amal Nadhirah; Jai, Junaidah; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Yusof, Noorsuhana Mohd
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (366.392 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100

Abstract

The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013). Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis). International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2),95-100. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100
Zinc Supplementation Dosage Variations to Metallothionein Protein Level of Rattus Norvegicus Santosa, Budi; Wahyu Subagyo, Hertanto; S, Lisyani; Rya Sunoko, Henna
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (223.679 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.15-17

Abstract

Zinc is an essential trace element involving in the activity of more than 300 enzymes and proteins of human body. One important role of zinc is to improve metallothionein protein binding heavy metals and functioning as heavy metal detoxification facilities. This research discusses the effect of zinc supplement  on the  improvement of metallothionein protein level. The in vivo test involving 28 rats categorized in 4 groups was performed. The experiments used randomized post test control group design. The 3 groups were daily supplemented by zinc in th concentration of  0.2 mg, 0.4 mg, and 0.8 mg. Whereas, the last group was let without zinc treatment. As an indicator the metallothionein protein level was checked after three weeks. The data was then evaluated by Anova an Bonferroni test in order to know the signicant of protein level difference among the groups. The result showed that the average of metallothionein protein level improved by increasing zinc suppplement with the 0.95 ±0.20; 1.28 ±0.19; 1.39 ±0.09; 1.91 ±0.3 ng/ml metallothionein per 0, 0,2, 0,4, 0,8.mg zinc added. Based on the ANOVA and Bonferroni test,  indicated that the improvement was significant as shown with p value  of 0.00
UTILIZATION OF AGARWOOD DISTILLATION WASTE IN OILWELL CEMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON FREE WATER AND POROSITY Sauki, Arina; Md. Shahid, Muhammad Hazman; Ku Hamid, Ku Halim; Azizi, Azlinda; Jamaludin, Siti Khatijah; Tengku Mohd, Tengku Amran; Alias, Nur Hashimah
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (166.506 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.61-65

Abstract

The intent of this research is to utilize the waste produced by distillation process of Agarwood oil and convert it into a profitable oilwell cement additive. Common problem during oilwell cementing is free wáter separation. This problem could weaken cement at the top, gas migration problem and non uniform density of cement slurry that are even worst in cementing deviated well. Another concern on cementing design is the porosity of the hardened cement. If the cement is too porous, it can lead to gas migration and casing corrosion. All tests were conducted according to API Specification-10B. Free water test was determined at different concentrations of Agarwood Waste Additive (AWA), different inclination angles and different temperatures. Based on the findings, it was observed that zero free water was produced when 2% BWOC of AWA was used at all angles. The findings also revealed that AWA can maintain good thermal stability as it could maintain zero free water at increased temperature up to 60˚C.  The porosity of AWA cement was comparable with standard API neat cement as the porosity did not differ much at 2% BWOC of AWA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the AWA is suitable to  be used as an additive in oil well cement (OWC)  with 2% BWOC is taken as the optimum concentration.
Effect of Concentration of Catalyst (BF3-Diethyl Etherate) on Synthesis of Polyester From Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) Manurung, Renita; Tanjung, Ahmad Rozi; Ayuningrum, Ida
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (398.694 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.36-40

Abstract

Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) can be used as raw material for synthesis polyester. The aim of this research is to synthesis of polyester and to determine the effect of concentration of catalyst on polymerization methyl ester PFAD. The esterification stage was done at temperature 70oC, reaction time 120 minute, reactant ratio 1:8 (PFAD: methanol), concentration of catalyst (H2SO4) 1% (w/w) PFAD; polymerization stage was done at temperature 126-132°C, polymerization reaction time 4 hours; variation of concentration of catalyst (BF3-diethyl etherate) 0%, 6.9%, 9.2%, 11.5% (w/w) methyl ester; and polyesterification stage was done at temperature 175-200 oC, reactant ratios (w/w) 1:1 (polymerized ME : ethylene glycol), reaction time 4 hours and all of stage was stirred at 150 rpm. The results showed, in the esterification stage was obtained methyl ester with iodine value 77.29 g I2/100 g, viscosity 6.90 cP, density 859.91 kg/m3 and analysis by using GC-MS showed that the purity of methyl ester was 82.23% and molecular weight 267.97 g/mol. Decreasing in iodine value from 77.29 I2 g/100 g to 74.97-59.99 g I2/100 g indicated that the polymerization process had taken place. In polyesterification stage was obtained light brown colored liquid for concentration of catalyst 0%; viscous, light brown colored liquid for concentration of catalyst 6.9%; and gel polyester, viscous, dark brown colored solid at room temperature for concentration of catalyst 9.2% and 11.5% with acid value from 8.19 to 26.14 mg KOH/g, viscosity from 0.07 to 15.2 P, and molecular weight 288.81 to 1522.07 g/mol which is more suitable for applications of modified polyester. Analysis by using GC showed that the purity of polyester is equal to 65.49%. Keywords— polyester, palm fatty acid distillate, polymerizationconcentration of catalyst,biodegradable polymer
Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste Haji, Abdul Gani; Pari, Gustan; Nazar, Muhammad; Habibati, H
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1413.595 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

Abstract

The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1), and C=O (1639,4 cm-1). In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013). Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2),89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94]
Correlation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Commonly Used Binary Systems in Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes Atashrouz, Saeid; Mirshekar, Hamed; Bagheri, Hamid
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (698.475 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.1-8

Abstract

In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model is developed based on the Feed-ForwardBack Propagation Artificial Neural Network (FFBP-ANN). The model is employed for thecalculation of Vapor Liquid Equilibria (VLE) of four CO2-containing binary mixtures. Themixtures include CO2 - Tertpentanol was investigated at the temperature range from 313.14 to343.15 K. The following mixtures including CO2 - Isobutanol at 313.2 to 353.2 K, CO2 - methylacetate at 308.15 to 328.15 K and CO2 - diisopropyl ether at 265.15 to 333.15 K wereinvestigated as well. The related experimental data of open literature have been used to constructthe model. The results confirm that there is a reasonable conformity between the predicted valuesand the experimental data. Additionally, the ability of the ANN model is examined by comparison with the conventional thermodynamic models and ANN model predicted VLE datawith more accuracy.
Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan Mayulu, Hamdi; Sunarso, S; Sutrisno, C. I.; Sumarsono, S; Christiyanto, M; Isharyudono, K.
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (700.385 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60

Abstract

By-product produced from plantation and palm oil mill can be utilized for energy and protein source of ruminant feed. Thus, it still has potency for further exploration. The objective of the research was to investigate the nutrient value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product used to formulate ruminant feed. The research located in 66,118.5 ha of palm oil plantation in Paser regency, East Kalimantan province. The research was carried out in palm oil plantation and mill of PTPN XIII comprising productive plants (TM) in +14,000 ha arranged in 9 divisions (afdeling). Measured variables consisted of: 1) dry mass production (mass of midrib every cutting and frond) (kg);                        2) Centrosema sp mass production (kg); 3) mass of empty fruit bunches (kg); palm pressed fiber (PPF) (kg), palm kernel cake (PKC) (kg) dan palm oil sludge (POS) (kg); 4) nutrient content analyzed under proximate analysis in accordance with the procedure of Ruminant Feed Nutrient Laboratory, Faculty of Livestock, Diponegoro University. The result showed that total dry matter (DM) production was 14.82 ton/ha/year, consisting: midrib 29.09% (crude protein (CP) 3.16% and crude fiber (CF) 37.85%), frond 10.31% (CP 6.53% dan CF 30.39%), Centrosema sp. 2.48% (CP 22.58% and CF 35.12), EFB 24.31% (CP 7.01% and CF 40.22%), PPF 1.23% (CP 5.56% and CF 50.36%), PKC 1.29% (CP 15.49% and CF10.45) and POS 1.20% (CP 17.86% and CF 45.99%). This could be concluded that palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product was recommended for ruminant feed as it had huge amount and appropriate nutrient contentDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono, M. Christiyanto, K. Isharyudono. (2013).  Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan, 5(2),56-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60]
Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint Rafiu King, Raji; Xiaopeng, Wang
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (702.989 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35

Abstract

The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King, R.R. and Xiaopeng, W. (2013). Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2),18-24. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35]
Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension Machmud, M. Nizar; Fahmi, Reza; Abdullah, Rohana; Kokarkin, Coco
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (329.877 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

Abstract

Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013). Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2),81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

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