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BIOPLASTIK BERBASIS GALAKTOMANAN HASIL EKSTRASKI AMPAS KELAPA DENGAN CAMPURAN POLYVINYL ALKOHOL Sari, Nofita; Mairisya, Maudy; Kurniasari, Riska; Purnavita, Sari
METANA Vol 15, No 2 (2019): Desember 2019
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (993.211 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v15i2.24892

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi optimum yang meliputi luas permukaan dan jumlah solven pada proses ekstraksi galaktomanan dari ampas kelapa terhadap yield yang dihasilkan dan mendapatkan kondisi optimumpada proses pembuatan bioplastik yang meliputi jumlah sorbitol dan waktu pencampuran terhadap karakteristik bioplastik yang meliputi ketebalan, ketahanan air, kuat tarik, elongasi, waktu degradasi dan morfologi.Bioplastik merupakan plastik yang dapat diuraikan oleh mikroorganisme dalam waktu yang singkat, sehingga lebih ramah lingkungan dibandingkan plastik konvensional.Bioplastik terbuat dari bahan polimer alami seperti pati, selulosa atau lemak.Penelitian pembuatan bioplastik ini berbasis dari galaktomanan ampas kelapa dan PVA. Galaktomanan merupakan polimer alami yang memiliki kemampuan membuat lapisan film.Polyvinyl alkohol (PVA) merupakan polimer sintetik namun memiliki sifat mudah larut dalam air sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai bahan campuran pembuatan bioplastik. PVA juga mampu meningkatkan elastisitas dan kuat tarik bioplastik. Penelitian ini menghasilkan bioplastik dengan ketebalan terbaik 0,18 mm dan prosentase ketahanan air tertinggi 74,76%. Tensile strength bioplastik terbaik dengan nilai 7,55 MPa, sedangkan prosentase elongation terbaik 46,81%. Bioplastik pada penelitian ini memiliki titik leleh (MP) 120°C dan terdegradasi sempurna dalam 24 jam. This study aims to obtain optimum conditions which are including surface area and amount of solvent in the galactomannan extraction process from coconut pulp to the produced yield and obtaining the optimum conditions in the bioplastic manufacturing process which are included the amount of sorbitol and mixing time of the bioplastic characteristics including thickness, water resistance, tensile strength, elongation, degradation time and morphology. Bioplastics are plastics that can be decomposed by microorganisms in a short time, making them more environmentally friendly than conventional plastics bioplastics made from natural polymer materials such as starch, cellulose, or fat. The research in making bioplastics was based on galactomannan coconut pulp and PVA. Galactomannan is a natural polymer that can make film layers. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a synthetic polymer but has properties that are soluble in water so it can be used as a mixture of bioplastics. PVA is also able to increase the elasticity and strong pull of bioplastics. This study produced bioplastics with the best thickness of 0,18mm and the highest percentage of water resistance in 74,76%. The best bioplastic tensile strength at 7,55 MPa value, while the best percentage of elongation 46,81%. Bioplastics in this study had a melting point (MP) of 120 ° C and were degraded correctly in 24 hours.
STUDI AWAL PEMBUATAN ASAM LEMAK SECARA ENZIMATIK DARI BUAH SEGAR KELAPA SAWIT Yulianto, Mohammad Endy; Broto, RTD Wisnu; Pudjihastuti, Isti
METANA Vol 1, No 2 (2004): Desember 2004
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1681.018 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v1i2.3853

Abstract

Abstract Vegetable oil is one of plantation commodity, having advantages either as food or olechemical. One of the connecting bridges between vegetable oil and oleochemical industry is the conversion of vegetable oil to fatty acid. The supply of fatty acid in indonesia by import. Beside the promising market in global trading indonesia has the superiority in raw material supply for fatty acid  production. In indonesia, the most raw materials used for producing fatty acid naturally include crude palm oil (CPO), palm kertnel oil (PKO), and coconut oil (CNO). Fatty acid production by enzymatic from palmfruit can be reduce investation and operation cost. The objective of this research is finding a new way of product fatty acid by direct separation from palm fruit.  The research is information of process condition in fatty acid production by enzymatic from palm fruit, by quality of fatty acid is used in cosmetics, plastic, tyre, PVC, stabilizer, paint and soap industries. The variables studied in this process include temperature, pH, and water consentration. Yield of fatty acid is analysed for quality and quantity. The quality analysis include water consentration, acid number, iod number and perokside number. The quantity analysis is used titration or chromatografi gas. The research shows that the enzyme lipase action increases by temperature increase, and optimum temperatureof lipase from palm fruit for hydrolysis reaction is 35o C. If used buffer pH of reaction, fatty acid production can be increase. Beside that, water consentration increases by fatty acid production increase to. Keywords : fatty acid, enzyme, palm fruit
STUDI PENGARUH SUHU DAN KETEBALAN IRISAN TERHADAP KADAR AIR, LAJU PENGERINGAN DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIK UBI KAYU DAN UBI JALAR Yando, Adhit Mardita; Paramita, Vita
METANA Vol 13, No 1 (2017): Juni 2017
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1350.572 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v13i1.17514

Abstract

Pengujian kadar air, laju pengeringan dan organoleptik dilakukan terhadap ubi kayu dan ubi jalar menggunakan oven Memmert type UN 110 dengan variabel suhu 70, 90 dan 120 ºC serta variabel ketebalan 1 mm,  2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm dan  5 mm. Kadar air ubi kayu terbaik pada suhu 90ºC yaitu 54.367% dengan ketebalan 4 mm serta hasil laju pengeringan maksimalnya pada suhu 120 ºC yaitu 0.091 gram/menit dengan ketebalan 5 mm. Hasil uji organoleptik menunjukkan semua bahan pada suhu 120 ºC mengalami penghitaman namun bahan pada suhu 70 ºC dan  90 ºC dengan tebal 3, 4 dan 5 mm tidak mengalami penghitaman. Sedangkan pada ubi jalar, kadar air terbaik pada suhu 70 ºC yaitu 66.397% dengan ketebalan 1 mm serta hasil laju pengeringan maksimalnya pada suhu 120 ºC yaitu 0.077 gram/menit dengan ketebalan 5 mm. Hasil uji organoleptik memperlihatkan semua bahan mengalami penghitaman dengan bahan yang paling hitam dialami pada bahan dengan perlakuan suhu 90 ºC dengan ketebalan 1 mm.  Studies Effect Of Temperature And Thickness Of Slices To Water Content, Drying Rate And Physical Characteristic Cassava And Sweet Potatoes Determine of moisture content, drying rate and organoleptic was done on cassava and sweet potatoes using Memmert type 110 UN oven with temperature variable 70, 90 and 120 ºC and variable thickness 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm. The best cassava moisture content at 90ºC have value 54.367% with a thickness of 4 mm and the maximum drying rate at 120ºC have value 0.091 gram/min with a thickness of 5 mm. The result of an organoleptic test shown all the materials at 120 ºC had blackening but the material at 70 ºC and 90 ºC with thickness 3, 4 and 5 mm did not experience blackening. While in sweet potato, the best moisture content at 70 ºC have value 66.397% with a thickness of 1 mm and the maximum drying rate at 120 ºC have value 0.077 gram/min with a thickness of 5 mm. The result of an organoleptic test showed all the ingredients were blackened with the blackest material experienced by the material with temperature treatment 90 ºC with thickness 1 mm.
STUDI POTENSI EKONOMI PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH INDUSTRI TEKSTIL PRINTING SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR ALTERNATIF (STUDI KASUS: PT. SEKAR BENGAWAN, KARANGANYAR) Zaman, Badrus; Budihardjo, M. Arief
METANA Vol 4, No 1 (2007): Juni 2007
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5666.09 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v4i1.1721

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Abstract PT. Sekar Bengawan in Karanganyar Regency. Central Java is a printing textile industry which produces 1,25 m3 of kerosene waste per day. Based on technical test, the characteristic of the kerosene waste are as follows, 42,772 MJ/kg of calorific value, 0, 08359 mg/m3 of SO2 emision, and 0,13518 mg/m3 of NO2 emision. The kerosene waste can be used as fuel with the ratio of time length, volume of soot, and weight of soot is 1,72 ; 1,6 ; and 3,1 times bigger than kerosene. Based on exposure assesment of   SO2  and of NO2, Hazard index value for adult woman is 0,412; adult man is 0,272 ; child 6-12 years is 0,27;. and child  2-6 years is 0.2725. With hazard index less than one, so kerosene waste will not generate health impact. Based on these data, kerosene waste can be reused and resold to the market. The target market segments are households and street vendors. Kerosene waste which is priced            Rp ll75/liters will generate Rp.22.643.437,5 per month of profit compared with Rp.50.625.000 per month of cost if it is treated an hazardous waste treatment. Key word : Waste kerosene, Hazard Index, Reuse, Economic potency
KEBERADAAN ANILIN DI SUNGAI CITARUM HULU AKIBAT PENGGUNAAN AZO DYES PADA INDUSTRI TEKSTIL Suhendra, Edward; Purwanto, Purwanto; Kardena, Edwan
METANA Vol 9, No 02 (2013): Desember 2013
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (696.66 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v9i02.7614

Abstract

Abstract The dyeing and printing processes in textile industry produces wastewater containing residual dyes. The most widely used textile dyes are azo dyes. The textile industry is one of the main industries in West Java province, where one of the textile industry centers is Majalaya textile industry center. Majalaya textile industry center had begun since the 1910s, where in Majalaya subdistrict located the most textile companies which produced textile wastewater. Textile wastewater which contained azo dyes discharged into the Citarum Hulu River directly or after treatment in the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) owned by the company. One of the product metabolites produced from azo dyes biodegradation by bacteria in anaerobic conditions are various anilines. Several anilines which are persistent, could flow to downstream of Citarum Hulu River. Various anilines, referred to as total anilines, could be analyzed by the colorimetric method using visual spectrophotometer. Total anilines in water samples after biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria was 14.46 mg/l highest. While total aniline in river water samples was 3.58 mg/l highest. And at the downstream of Citarum Hulu River, there was total of aniline 1,825 mg/l highest in the river sediment samples. DO in the river water samples were 4.25 - 7.8 mg/l, while pH of the river water samples were 7.1 - 10.7. The occurence of total aniline in textile wastewater and river water samples in Citarum Hulu River (Majalaya subdistrict) and in river sediments at the downstream of Citarum Hulu indicated biodegradation of azo dyes from textile wastewater by anaerobic bacteria. Key words : Citarum Hulu River, textile wastewater, azo dyes, total aniline
ASIDOLISIS ENZIMATIK MINYAK IKAN TUNA( THUNNUS THYNNUS) MENJADI PRODUK ASAM LEMAK KAYA OMEGA-3 DENGAN PEMANFAATAN LIPASE GETAH PEPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA LATEX) Wahyuningsih, Wahyuningsih; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Kusumayanti, Heny
METANA Vol 7, No 01 (2011): Juli 2011
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (93.7 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v7i01.4031

Abstract

ABSTRACT Incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) into Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) fish oil was investigated by using acidolysis enzimatis Process. The product of this modification is expected to be used as an ingredient nutrifition food products, especially in milk and baby food as well as pregnant and lactating The purpose of this study was to optimizing the used of lipased papaya latex (Carica papaya latex) in the product to incorporation fatty acids rich in omega-3.Bioreactor acidolysis enzematik development and Optimization of process the productivity of fatty acids rich in omega-3. Reaction Acidolysis was conducted between tuna (thunnus thynnus) fish oil by microbial lipase (5% of the weight of the substrate mixture) or vegetable lipased (Carica papaya latex) (6-10% by weight subtract mixture) as biocatalist.Acidolysis mixture the bioreactor at 40 o C for (2-6 hours) and the stirring speed of 200 rpm, pH (4.5 to 6.5). to eliminate free fatty acids from the product acidolysis performed neutralization with NaOH The results are expected to show that the lipase papaya latex (Carica papaya latex) can be used as biocatalyst incorporated omega-3 fatty acids in   tunaIthunnus thunnyl) fish oil . In this study sought conditions for optimum incorporation rate, ie the use of papaya latex lipase concentration of 8%, the ratio of concentrations of omega-3 fatty acid and palm oil (1:1), pH = 5.5, Optimal time of 4 hours and the temperature (40oC) . The results were analyzed incorporation of omega-3 (EPA and DHA) with GC.EPA generated: 3.57% and DHA = 3.91% Key word:Acidolysis,Tuna fish oil
PRODUKSI SIRUP GLUKOSE DARI PATI SECARA ENZYMATIK Supriyo, Edy; Kurniawan, Dedy
METANA Vol 6, No 01 (2009): April 2009
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4062.506 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v6i01.1800

Abstract

  Abstract   In the prodacution of tapioca starch, before the starch being dried, glucose syrup could be produced wih ghigh concentrotion of maltose and glucose using enzymatic processes. Hidrolized tapioca starch using a-amylase enzyme which comes from Aspergilus niger produce concentration of syrup i.e. hanya 42,88 %, while using commercial a-amylase enzymes of NOVO (AMG 3001) the conversuion yiled was 114%.  Beside the ash content is still high make the syrup colour become cloudy, whilst glucose syrup produced with a-amylase enzymee is very clear.   Keywords : syrup glucosa, Aspergilus niger, a-amylase, tapioca starch
FUNGSI KURVA BONJEAN PADA PELUNCURAN KAPAL SECARA END LAUNCHING Cahyo, Indro Cahyo
METANA Vol 10, No 01 (2014): Juli 2014
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1229.001 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v10i01.9774

Abstract

  Abstract To build a ship in "Building Berth" has been completed and then proceed with the launch of the ship. Before the launch of the ship is quite ready, it is better to calculate the ship program launches etc. Launched ship calculations using "Bonjean Curve". Using bonjean curve can calculate the volume of displacement with several designs, they are in equilibrium vessel trim condition. So as to anticipate some of the problems in the slipway. Keywords : Launching and Bonjean Curves Abstrak Membangun sebuah kapal di ?Building Berth?jika sudah selesai dan dilakukan proses peluncuran kapal. Sebelum kapal siap diluncurkan,dilakukan perhitunganpeluncuran kapal dll. Perhitungan peluncuran kapal dengan menggunakan ?Bonjean Curve?. Penggunaan kurva bonjean utuk menghitung volume displacement dengan beberapa desain, kondisi ini kapal berada pada keseimbangan stabil. Untuk mengantisipasi permasalahan yang timbul pada slipway. Kata kunci : Launching dan Bonjean Curves
EKSPERIMEN PERFORMANCE POMPA AIR DENGAN PENGATURAN SUCTION HEAD M.Si, Drs. INDARTONO M.Par
METANA Vol 8, No 02 (2012): Desember 2012
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (104.27 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v8i02.6808

Abstract

The study objectives were: (1). to determine the efficiency of the pump with high and low suction head setting. (2). to know the power consumption saving. (3). To determine pump performance that is widely used by the public. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering, D III Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University. The study took 3 (three) of about 6 (six) pump brands as a sample which is traded and used by the public in Semarang. Water flow and electric current data are calculated to determine the pump efficiency data, then analyzed using analysis of variance statistical methods with formula , Mk brands is the mean squared of brands, Mk suction head is the mean square of the suction head, and Mk Dal is the inner mean square. Data analysis result showed that for the suction head with degrees of freedom 22 versus 10, null approach limit is 2.3 at significance level of 5% and 3.26 at significance level of 1%. Thus the hypothesis can not be defended (rejected) because the value of the F from table are far away from generated F. As for inter-brand, with degrees of freedom of 22 versus 2 hypothesis rejection limit is 3.44 for 5% significance level and 5.72 for the 1% level. The result show that for inter-brand, the generated Fo is much larger than Ft,, so the hypothesis are acceptable, it is proved that there is a difference in pump performance and efficiency between one and another pump brands. Installation of pumps will be efficient when the distance of suction head is relatively small and based on the test, Fuji?s pump brand is better than the other 2 (two) pumps. Keywords: Water Pumps, Suction Head and Efficiency
PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS INDUSTRI MANISAN NANAS MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN PENGERING MULTI RAK Yulianto, Endy; Yohana, Eflita; Sutrisno, Sutrisno; Utami H, Sri; Ariwibowo, Didik; Fardzanela S, Fardzanela S; Sitawati, Riana
METANA Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Desember 2018
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (492.664 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v14i2.20097

Abstract

Industri olahan buah-buahan khususnya nanas menjadi salah satu industri yang cukup berkembang. Olahan hasil panen nanas dilakukan untuk meningkatkan nilai tambah produk ini.Tujuan kegiatan ini adalah deseminasi teknologi pengering multi rak resirkulasi adsorpsi berbasis zeolit yang telah teruji di laboratorium dan merupakan well-proven technology ke industri manisan nanas rumput laut KUB 3 Sekawan. Target yang ingin dicapai melalui pengembangan proses produksi dan konsep pengering resirkulasi berbasis zeolit di industri manisan nanas rumput laut KUB 3 Sekawan mampu meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi produksi. Kegiatan diseminasi produk teknologi ke masyarakat meliputi: (i) desain dan pabrikasi prototipe pengering resirkulasi adsorpsi kapasitas 50 kg/batch, (ii) penyusunan dokumen Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), (iii) pengujian adaptasi dan evaluasi penerapan pengering resirkulasi adsorpsi, dan (iv) evaluasi tekno-ekonomi. Pengering multi rak dilengkapi resirkulator udara pengering berbasis zeolit telah terpabrikasi secara baik dan telah digunakan untuk produksi manisan nanas rumput laut. Pengering adsorpsi multi rak ini, mampu meningkatkan kapasitas produksi dan menurunkan biaya produksi. Analisis tekno-ekonomi meliputi: B/C Ratio, NPV dan IRR menunjukkan bahwa terap-kembang alat di industri manisan nanas rumput laut ini layak. Dengan demikian, alat memenuhi persyaratan secara teknis dan secara finansial atau secara ekonomis.

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