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Journal of Tropical Crop Science
ISSN : 23560169     EISSN : 23560177     DOI : -
Core Subject : Agriculture,
Journal of Tropical Crop Science is an international journal publishing research related to tropical crops. Articles in the journal focus on in-vivo and in-vitro production and production environment, breeding, seed technology, physiology, postharvest, pest and pathology of cereals, vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, medicinal and plantation crops; soil, landscape, turf and agro ecology management under tropical conditions.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science" : 7 Documents clear
In Vitro Mutagenesis of Etlingera elatior by Gamma Ray Intermittent Irradiation Azzahra, Elmi Irmayanti; Aisyah, Syarifah Iis; Dinarti, Diny; Krisantini, Krisantini
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Etlingera elatior is tropical ornamental plant commonly called “torch ginger” from Zingiberaceae family. Conventional breeding of E. elatior is limited by cross incompatibility, poor fruit set and low seed production.  In this study irradiation of E. elatior with Gamma ray performed to induce mutation. This study was aimed to increase morphological diversity and to obtain unique morphological characters to increase the aesthetic value of E. elatior as ornamental plants and cut flower. Two genotypes of E. elatior, red and white flowers, were tested. The LD20, LD35, and LD50 were determined following intermittent (split dose) Gamma irradiation with a two-hour gap between each gamma ray shot. Red genotype E. elatior explants were irradiated with dose of 3 + 3 Gy (LD20); 4 + 4 Gy (LD35) and 5 + 5 Gy (LD50); white genotype were irradiated with a dose of 2 + 2 Gy (LD20); 2.8 + 2.8 Gy (LD35) and 3.7 + 3.7 Gy (LD50). Non-irradiated explants were set as control.  The results of this study indicated that the increase in dose of gamma ray irradiation changed shoot length and number of leaves in the red genotype per explant as compared to control. Morphological changes occurred in leaf shape at 5 + 5 Gy and 3.7 + 3.7 Gy and formation of variegated leaves at 2.8 + 2.8 Gy and 5 + 5 Gy. Keywords: mutation breeding, ornamental plant, split irradiation dose, torch ginger, Zingiberaceae
Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Local and National Aromatic Rice Varieties in Indonesia Chairunnisak, Chairunnisak; Sugiyanta, Sugiyanta; Santosa, Edi
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a necessitate in order to enhance sustainable rice farming in Indonesia. Thus, objective of present research was to evaluate NUE of local and national Indonesian superior aromatic rice treated with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer (N). Planting plot was arranged using five levels of N as the main plot, i.e; 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha-1; and two rice varieties as subplot, i.e: Sigupai Abdya (local) and Inpari 23 Bantul (national). The results showed application 180 kg N ha-1 to Sigupai  Abdya significantly increased the plant height. However, it also postponed the flowering time. Inpari 23 Bantul treated with 180 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of tillers. Combination of 90 kg N ha-1 with Sigupai Abdya variety significantly reduced the number of empty grains. Sigupai Abdya variety has a higher number of grains per panicle and sampling plot yield than Inpari 23 Bantul, and  dosage 90 kg N ha-1 increases grain yield per clump also sampling plot yield significantly. Nitrogen at 180 kg N ha-1 made Sigupai Abdya variety has high N content and absorption N in primordia phase, and the Inpari 23 Bantul variety had grain with high N content. Nitrogen at 90 kg ha-1 caused Sigupai Abdya variety at primordia phase had NUE higher than Inpari 23 Bantul. This study showed that local variety Sigupai Abdya is suitable for development as rice with low input NKeywords: Aceh aromatic, low input, nitrogen dose, N uptake, Oryza sativa L. 
Somatic Embryogenesis of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) As Affected by Culture Media and Composition of Plant Growth Regulators Furqoni, Hafith; Efendi, Darda
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Conventional production of melon hybrid seeds requires a long time. Propagation through plant tissue culture can be an alternative method to produce hybrid melon seedlings in order to fulfill the high demand for uniform seedlings. Our current study was aimed to determine the type of propagation media and the best concentration of picloram for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in melon from young seed explants. The study was expanded to examine the effective concentrations of two of auxins, 2-4 D and NAA, combined with BAP to induce somatic embryogenesis in melon using hypocotyl explants. The experiment was conducted at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first experiment tested three types of planting media (MS, B5, and WPM) and four levels of picloram concentration (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg.L-1). The second experiment tested auxin (2,4-D and NAA) concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and two BAP concentrations, 0 and 1 mg.L-1. The first study showed that no somatic embryos were formed with the media types and picloram concentration tested; the seeds, however, germinated and formed callus. In the second study, there was an interaction between concentration levels of auxin (2,4-D and NAA) and BAP on induction of somatic embryos using hypocotyl explants. Somatic embryo formation can be induced with treatment of 1 mg.L-1 NAA + 0.1 mg.L-1 BAP and 2 mg.L-1 NAA + 0.1 mg.L-1 BAP. The highest yield of embryos formation was with the treatment of 1 mg.L-1 NAA + 0.1 mg.L-1 BAP at 0.53 embryos per explant. Keywords: embryogenesis, tissue culture media, melon, Picloram, 2,4 D, BAP
The Role of Biomulch Arachis pintoi In Increasing Soil Infiltration Rate on Sloping Land of Oil Palm Plantation Sarjono, Arif; Guntoro, Dwi; Supijatno, Supijatno
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

The slope of land in oil palm plantation areas is the one of the primary causes of low soil water content due to low rates of soil infiltration. Biomulch is one of the conservation methods that can be used to cover and shield the soil from weeds, prevent soil erosion, and increase the rate of soil infiltration. Arachis pintoi is a perennial, stoloniferous legume crop that has potentials to be used as biomulch. The objective of the research was to study the role of Arachis pintoi in increasing the rate of soil infiltration on a sloping land of oil palm plantation. The research was conducted on the slope land (22.8%) of the Bukit Kemuning Farmer Group, Mersam, Batanghari, Jambi, Indonesia (01036'21", 102057'11") from September 2017 to March 2018. The environmental design used in this study was a one-factor randomized block design (RBD) with five ground cover treatments, i.e. natural vegetation, Arachis pintoi, Centrosema pubescens, Pueraria javanica and Calopogonium mucunoides. The results showed that the average growth rate of A. pintoi was 2.47 cm per week, which was lower than the growth of other treatments. The root length of A. pintoi was 50.36 cm at 20 weeks after planting. A. pintoi can be used as biomulch; sloping land planted with A. pintoi had an infiltration rate of  49.30 cm per hour at 20 week after planting, i.e. an increase of 32.47% compared to the infiltration rate with the natural vegetation.Keywords: land cover crop, Centrosema pubescens, Pueraria javanica, Calopogonium mucunoides
The Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Black Cumin Rhizosphere (Nigella sativa L.) in Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia Al Asad, Faisal; Kurniawati, Ani; Budi R, Sri Wilarso; Faridah, Didah Nur
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) is a type of fungus that can form a symbiotic mutualism with most plants. Some AMF can only be symbiotic with a certain plant species. This research aims to determine and obtain the genus AMF from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) accessions from America, Turkey, Hong Kong, Slovenia, India, and Kuwait accessions which had been grown in West Java, Indonesia. Three samples from each accession, four replications each, were collected for examination. The results showed that six generas of AMF were found in the rhizosphere of black cumin: Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, Scutellospora, Dentiscutata, and Entrophospora. The genus Glomus was predominantly found in the Indian accession, i.e. 96.42 spores.Keywords: black cumin, diversity, fungi, exploration, AMF
Inheritance Of Shape And Kernel Color In Sweet Corn Using JM2 And JM4 Populations Nugroho, Rizki Anjal Puji; Syukur, Muhamad; Suwarno, Willy Bayuardi
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Corn kernel is one of the most important characters that correlate with corn yield and quality. Sweet corn kernels can be distinguished by its color which is either yellow and white or pale yellow. Sweet corn breeding by crossing genotypes with different kernel colors will affect the inheritance pattern of kernel color. The aims of this research were to understand the inheritance pattern in sweet corn kernel color by crossing yellow and pale yellow color with red and purple corn kernels using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Genetic materials consisted of P1 (JM2 and JM4) and P2 (Red and Purple) and F1, F2, F3, and F1 reciprocals. P1 consists of JM2 and JM4 with flint shape with yellow and pale yellow color; P2 consists of Red and purple with non-yellow colored kernel and flint shape. The results showed maternal effect influenced the kernel color, but did not affect the kernel shape. Epistatic effects were found in kernel shape but it was co-dominant on kernel color inheritance. Broad-sense heritability values were high for all quantitative variables. Keywords : color, heritability, pale yellow, purple, red, shape
Increasing Growth Rate and Production of Bioactive Compounds Curcuminoid and Xanthorrhizol in Javanese Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) Rhizomes with Biso Zyme Application Aziz, Sandra Arifin; Ridwan, Taopik; Batubara, Irmanida
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

The bioactive compounds from Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.), curcuminoid and xanthorrhizol, have been used to treat human diseases. This research aims to study the Javanese turmeric growth, its curcuminoid and xanthorrhizol content using Biso Zyme with different concentration and interval spraying. Biso Zyme is is conjugated enzyme concentrate (CEC) produced by yeast extracts that can be applied to the plant to increase and improve plant yields. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block factorial design with three replications. The concentrations of Biso Zyme were 0.0, 0.1, and 0.05 %, with monthly spraying intervals at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months after planting (MAP). The results showed that the highest leaf area index was 2.71 cm2g-1  followed by leaf area ratio which was 66.47 cm2.g-1 with 0.1% Biso Zyme application. Relative growth rate was 0.048 g.day-1while net assimilation rate was 0.00092 g.cm-2.day-1 without Biso Zyme application. The highest fresh and dry weight was those treated with 0.05% Biso Zyme applied at 4 to 5 MAP, i.e., 444.44 g and 68.72 g, respectively. The highest curcuminoid and xanthorrhizol contents were 0.435% and 1.505%, respectively, with 0.05% Biso Zyme spraying interval at 4 to 5 MAP, and 0.1%  Biso Zyme with sprayed at 1 to 5 MAP. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis detected standard curcuminoid at Rf 0.23 and xanthorrhizol at Rf 0.66 with dichloromethane:chloroform eluents. Keywords: curcuminoid, Javanese turmeric, Leaf Area Index, organic fertilizer, xanthorrhizol 

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