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Journal of Tropical Crop Science
ISSN : 23560169     EISSN : 23560177     DOI : -
Core Subject : Agriculture,
Journal of Tropical Crop Science is an international journal publishing research related to tropical crops. Articles in the journal focus on in-vivo and in-vitro production and production environment, breeding, seed technology, physiology, postharvest, pest and pathology of cereals, vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, medicinal and plantation crops; soil, landscape, turf and agro ecology management under tropical conditions.
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Articles 114 Documents
The Interaction between Endophytic Actinomycetes and Rhizobium in Leguminous Plants Sahur, Asmiaty
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 2 No 3 (2015): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Biological N2 fixation represents the major source of N input in many agricultural soils including those in arid regions where little artificial fertilizer is applied. The major N2-fixing systems in agriculture are the symbiotic systems, where bacteria such as rhizobia interact with legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen which plays a significant role in improving the fertility and productivity of low-N soils. The symbiotic association of legume-rhizobium is initiated by the colonization of the rhizosphere by the rhizobia and subsequent attachment to the root hairs of the host plant. Furthermore, the host will produce flavonoids, such as luteolin in alfalfa and diazedin in soybean, which interact with nod protein in the rhizobia. Moreover, this process then elicits the expression of a cluster of nodulation genes such as nod, nol, and noe in the rhizobia. The interaction is potentially of great importance to the health and growth in nature of this nodulating legume.The interaction between endophytic Actinomycetes and rhizobia in leguminous plants is one way to improve the capability of leguminous plants to fix atmospheric nitrogen in plant roots and contribute to the plants nutrition. From other studies, we know that certain types of Actinomycetes, for example Streptomyces, interact with peas to form healthy roots as an effective site to form nodules and improve biological nitrogen fixation.  Knowledge about this activity against fungal pathogens might lead to finding biocontrol agents for use in sustainable agricultural practices.Root-colonizing soil borne Actinomycetes might influence root nodulation in leguminous plants by increasing root nodulation frequency, possibly at the sites of infection by Rhizobium spp.  Actinomycetes also colonize and sporulate within the surface cell layers of the nodules. This colonization leads to an increase in the average size of the nodules that form and improves the vigor of the bacteroids which generate the red color within the nodules by enhancing nodular assimilation of iron and possibly other soil nutrients. Keywords: symbiotic, biological, nitrogen, molecular interaction
Improving Growth and Production of Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.) with Compound Fertilizer Application Kartika, Juang Gema; Sugiyanta, Sugiyanta; Herdyanti, Tri; Fadilah, Nurul
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 4 No 2 (2017): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Natural soils at times do not supply sufficient amount of nutrients for the crops including cabbage, an important vegetable crop in the tropics. Therefore it is necessary to add fertilizer to supplement the soil nutrients to optimize crop growth and production. A study was conducted to examine seven different rates of inorganic fertilizers Cap Daun at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 of the recommended rate with the no fertilizer as the control. The results showed that inorganic fertilizer treatment generally improved the growth and yield of cabbage compared to the control. The number of leaf, yield per plant, yield per plot, and yield per ha of cabbage treated with inorganic fertilizers was significantly higher than the control treatment. The recommended rate for cabbage plants is 0.5 recommendation rate, which means applying 136 kg.ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer and urea fertilizer of 64 kg.ha-1 and SP-36 27 kg.ha-1 applied twice, 50% at 1 WAP and the rest at four WAP to get the best results. Keywords: inorganic fertilizer, recommendation rate, relative agronomic effectivity value
Agronomic Requirements of Tomatoes and Production Methods in the Red River Delta of Vietnam Ha, Tuan Minh
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 2, No 1 (2015): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (Solanaceae) is one of the most economically important vegetable crops in the Red River Delta (RRD) of Northern Vietnam. The recent market demands for tomatoes in both domestic and overseas markets have led to an increasing cultivated area for the crop in the RRD. To support growers in producing healthy and quality produce, this paper presents in detail the agronomic requirements of tomatoes regarding temperatures, light, water, suitable soil types and nutrients. Cultivation techniques are discussed to provide a general guide for developing appropriate management strategies, depending on specific soil types, cropping seasons, cultivars and availability of resources. In addition, six major pests have been defined, providing useful information for developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program for tomato production in the region.
Evaluation of Leaf Spot Resistance and Agronomic Characteristics of Groundnut Advanced Breeding Lines Wahyu, Yudiwanti; Achmad, Achmad; Junaedi, Wahyu
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 3 No 3 (2016): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Leaf spot is a major groundnut disease in Indonesia and worldwidewhich has the potential to cause a yield loss of up to 60%. The use of leaf spot resistant cultivars is an easy, economical, and environmentally friendly way in groundnut cultivation to maintain high yields. The objective of the research was to evaluate the yields of 16 groundnut lines which had been developed to be leaf spot resistant and high yielding. The research was conducted in 2010 – 2011 at the Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) experimental station in Cikarawang, Indonesia. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used in the experiment. The groundnut lines evaluated were crosses between “Gajah”, a cultivar which is known to be susceptible to leaf spot, and the resistant line GPNC- WS4. Four Indonesian cultivars “Gajah”, “Jerapah”, “Zebra” and “Sima” were used as control. The results showed that selected lines demonstrated better resistance to leaf spot compared to “Gajah”. Their agronomic characteristics, such as pod number, filled pod number, pod weight, and kernel weight, were not significantly different from the control cultivars. The results of this study have provided information on groundnut leaf spot resistant lines for further evaluation.
The Usefulness of Molecular Markers Approach for Developing Heterotic Groups in Maize Suwarno, Willy B
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 1 No 2 (2014): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

The phenomenon of heterosis provides a greatopportunity for plant breeders to gain greaterperformance and yield in the hybrids compared to theirinbred line parents. In most cross-pollinated crops likemaize, heterosis plays an important role as theperformance of the hybrids is of a great value. Heterosisgain much interest until recently and current studies stillattempt to elucidateone of these is utilizing molecularmarkers to estimate genetic distances among inbredlines followed by developing putative groups. In a welldened heterotic group, between-groups mating areexpected to produce better hybrids than within-groupsmating. Some studies of marker-aided heterotic groupdevelopment resulted in functional heterotic groups;while some other reported that the groups failed toprovide evidence of heterosis in the hybrids.Considering the prediction of hybrids' performance willdepend on genetic background of inbred lines, andmarkers technology are continuously improved, there isstill a good opportunity to obtain useful heterotic groupsfor a particular breeding population.Keywords: maize breeding, genetic distance, heterosis,molecular markers.
Spray Hose Irrigation System Increased Yield of Polyethylene Mulched Shallot Sumbayak, Raka Daniel Lihardo; Susila, Anas Dinurrohman
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 5 No 2 (2018): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Spray hose is a micro-irrigation system using perforated hose as for micro irrigation. Shallot conventional cultivation requires lots of water and labor man days therefore is more efficient. Shallot cultivation system needs to be developed to increase yield and to reduce production cost. This research was conducted to compare conventional cultivation methods with using Spray hose and polyethylene mulch for shallot production. This research was conducted in a hydromorphic alluvial soil type at the Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies Field Station in Kersana, Brebes, Central Java (S 6 o, 55’, 20.536”; E 108o, 51”, 50618”) from May to July 2016. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a single factor and three levels of planting system, i.e. conventional ‘Surjan’ system without mulch, one line spray hose with mulch, and two lines spray hose with mulch, with five replications. The result showed that shallots production using of polyethylene mulch and two-line spray hose had higher yields than the conventional method. In addition, this system is more efficient in terms of labor requirement. Cost Revenue Analysis shows that conventional cultivation R/C ratio was 1.72, one-line spray hose R/C ratio was 1.92, while two-line spray hose was 2.26. This study demonstrated that the use of polyethylene mulch combined with two-line spray hose significantly improved shallot growth and increased bulb production, and more cost efficient.Keywords: R/C ratio, micro irrigation, labor, ‘Surjan’ system, soil drench, fertilizerConclusionIrrigation of shallot with two-line spray hose resulted in a better crop growth and a higher yield than conventional planting system and one-line spray hose for polyethylene mulched shallot.  Conventional planting system using more water and labor requirement than the two other treatments. Combination of  two-line spray hose and polyethylene mulch had the most eficient cost production of shalot compared to the  conventional system and one-line spray hose.
The Study of Organic Fertilizers Application on Two Soybean Varieties in Organic Saturated Soil Culture Aziz, Sandra Arifin; Melati, Maya; Ramadhani, Elrisa
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 3 No 1 (2016): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Indonesia is facing soybean shortage and the low productivity of soybean production from decreasing acreage. Saturated soil culture (SSC) could be one of the solutions for marginal land with drainage problem. Saturated soil culture is cultivation technology that gives continuous irrigation and maintains water depth constantly and makes soil layer in saturated condition. Farmers can use on-farm inputs that are normally available at the production site. An organic farming system may be able to ensure local and regional food security through continuous production. The study was conducted at Cikarawang Experimental Station of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia, from December 2009 to February 2011. The objective of the research was to determine the influence of organic fertilizer application on the productivity of two varieties of soybean, “Anjasmoro” and “Wilis”,    in organic saturated soil culture conducted in two cropping seasons. Prior to the experiment all plots were applied with 2 ton.ha-1 of dolomite, 2 ton.ha-1 of rice hull ash, and 10 ton.ha-1 of chicken manure. The experiment of the first season used split plot design with six replications. The main-plot was organic fertilizer that consisted of chicken manure only (20 ton.ha-1), chicken manure (10 t.ha-1) + Centrosema pubescens (4.2 t.ha-1), chicken manure (10 ton.ha-1) + Tithonia diversifolia (4.2 t.ha-1). The sub-plot was soybean varieties “Anjasmoro” and “Wilis”. The soybean productivity was not affected by the application of organic fertilizers. “Willis” productivity (1.98 t.ha-1) was higher than “Anjasmoro” (1.80 t.ha-1). The experiment of second season used split-split plot design with three replications. The main-plot consisted of 50 and 100% fertilizer rate of the first cropping season; the sub-plot was the same types of organic fertilizer with soybean varieties as sub-sub-plot. Rate of fertilizer, types of organic fertilizer and soybean variety did not affect productivity. Application of 50 and 100% rate of fertilizer in the second season produced 2.41 and 2.55 t.ha-1 of dry seeds, respectively. Soybean plants treated with chicken manure, green manure from C. pubescens and T. diversifolia produced 2.45, 2.50 and 2.49 t.ha-1 of dry seeds, respectively. “Anjasmoro” and “Wilis” produced 2.50 and 2.45 t.ha-1 of dry seeds, respectively. Productivity in the second season was 26.26-36.61% higher than those of the first cropping season.
Tropical and Subtropical Fruits in India Mitra, Sisir
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 1 No 1 (2014): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

India is the second largest producer of fruits in the world with an annual production of 81.2 million tonnes contributing 12.6% of world fruit production next only to China (21.2%). Of late, with growing population and realization of commercial and nutritional values, the demand and requirement for fruits has increased manifold globally and so is in India. Since then, India has managed a steady growth in area expansion and production of fruits. Even in 2012-2013, increase in area and production of fruits in India was 4.1 and 6.4 times over 2011-2012 Of these, tropical and subtropical fruits contribute a major share, and the important fruits are mango, banana, papaya, citrus, guava, pineapple, litchi, sapota and pomegranate. Among the minor fruits (less area in cultivation than the major fruits) are jackfruit, bael, aonla, carambola, syzygiums, passion fruit and tamarind are also growing in many states of India.
Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Peel as Agricultural Waste in Taiwan Gusman, Josephine Azaria; Tsai, Pi-Jen
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 2 No 2 (2015): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Besides being an agricultural waste, rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel has been widely known as good antioxidant source. However, no information about the antioxidant or their way of extraction for rambutan grown in Taiwan can be found. Since its major bioactive compound is geraniin, one of polyphenol compounds, so that total phenolic was used as an index to investigate the optimum condition of extraction from rambutan peel (red and yellow) in Taiwan. Extraction was conducted based on solvent ratio (1:10 to 1:30 g/mL), ethanol concentration (0 to 95 %), ultrasonic extraction temperature (30 to 70°C), and extraction method (conventional from 6 to 36 h at room temperature and ultrasonic from 0.5 to 10 min at 50oC). Results showed that the highest total phenolic content found in red rambutan variety was at 1:15 (g/mL) ratio, but no significant difference for yellow rambutan. Forty percent of ethanolic extraction and 50°C for ultrasonic extraction for both varieties. Conventional method (12 h) and ultrasonic method (2 min) resulted in the highest total phenolic recovery. As to their antioxidant activity in this study, FRAP ranged from 3800.25±86.49 to 4116.5±88.41 (µmol Fe2+/g D.W), flavonoid from 6.41±0.48 to 8.57±0.35 (mg Quercetin/g D.W), and total phenolic recovery from 297.78±4.06 to 358.42±4.63 (mg GAE/g D.W.). This is the first paper regarding the study of rambutan peel in Taiwan.Keywords: Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.), geraniin, antioxidant, agricultural waste
Optimization of Nitrogen Fertilization and Seedling Density of A New Rice Type (Oryza sativa L.) “IPB 3S” Sugiyanta, Sugiyanta; Kusuma, Galih Angga
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 4 No 3 (2017): Journal of Tropical Crop Science - available online January 2018
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

The new plant type of rice, or ‘padi tipe baru’ (PTB) in Indonesian, is a new group of rice cultivars with a higher productivity compared to the modern rice varieties (‘varietas unggul baru’ or VUB). This study was conducted to determine the optimum dose of nitrogen fertilization and the seedling density or number of seedlings per hill to increase growth and yield of the new type of rice “IPB 3”. The experiment was conducted in the Bogor Experimental Station  in January to June 2015.  Nitrogen doses (90, 120, 150, 180 kg N.ha-1) and number of seeds per hill (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20) were tested.  The results showed that the increased dose of nitrogen fertilizer reduced the percentage of filled grains, the rate of photosynthesis and the grain yield per hectare. Similarly, an increase in the seedling density up to 15 seeds decreased the dry matter of the crop, the number of grains per panicle, and grain weight per plant, but increased the grain yield per hectare. The optimum yield of “IPB 3S” was achieved with  90 kg N.ha-1 with 15 seeds per hill. The results of this study have provided a guideline for an improved nitrogen management in relation to rice seedling population to increase yield of a new rice type “IPB3S”.Keywords:  “IPB 3S”, new plant type, fertilizer, local variety

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