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INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Energy
ISSN : 25491016     EISSN : 2549760X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Science,
The journal covers research with a strong focus on energy economics, energy analysis, energy modeling, and prediction, integrated energy systems, energy planning, and energy management. The journal also welcomes papers on related topics such as energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy innovation, energy technology, biomass and bioenergy, renewable energy, electricity supply and demand, energy storage, energy in buildings, energy finance, energy law and on economic and policy issues, also provided such topics are within the context of the broader multi-disciplinary scope of energy.
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Articles 26 Documents
The Use of Big Data in The Oil and Gas Upstream Industry Syaifullah, Khalid Istiqlal
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 2 No 1 (2019): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v2i1.31

Abstract

A study has been done to perceive the uptake and impact of Big Data in the exploration and production of oil and gas in Indonesia compared to Norway. Interviews were conducted to officials in the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MoEMR) and the state regulator, SKK Migas. In both industries, more data is being generated more than ever in exploration, production, drilling, and operations, indicating potential application of Big Data. However, approach towards data has remained classical with physical models in opposed to common Big Data approach, which is data-driven analytics. Several impacts of Big Data in both industries are highlighted, including new demand for data analysts, the need for regulations surrounding cyber-security, improvement of safety and environment (which hasn’t been considered in Indonesia), and growing need for more trust and regulations towards open data. Open data in the two industries has seen two different trajectories with Indonesia only implementing it very recently, while the NCS has seen open data drives competition since 1999. This study produced recommendations for the government of Indonesia on open data and how uptake and application of Big Data analytics in EOR could potentially increase national petroleum production to desired levels. Keywords: Big Data, open data, oil and gas in Indonesia, Norway Continental Shelf, data analytics, EOR
Planning the Electrification of Rural Villages in East Nusa Tenggara Using Renewable Energy Generation Giwangkara, Jannata; van Campen, Bart
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i1.10

Abstract

Providing accessible, affordable and renewable electricity to rural areas in developing countries like Indonesia, is arguably challenging. The higher initial cost of renewable, as compared to conventional energy technologies, is often viewed as an obstacle in the rural electrification decision-making process. This study is conducted to examine the techno-economic feasibility of renewable energy generation options to bring electricity to the rural villages in Indonesia with Belu Regency, East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) as a case study. In this study, three village electrification scenarios were generated: basic (with the demand load of 150,5 kWh/day), moderate (359,9 kWh/day) and advanced electrification (579 kWh/day). To supply the load, three energy technologies were compared: conventional technology (diesel-powered); renewables technology (solar PV, and wind turbines); and hybrid technology (combination of diesel, solar PV and wind). The Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resource (HOMER) software was selected to model the best-optimised system configuration for the scenarios with defined constraints and sensitivity analysis. The study also investigates the impact and benefit of each system on the environment, specifically on CO2 emissions and pricing options. The results found that the renewable energy village-grid system (mostly powered by solar PV) is more competitive than the diesel-powered system in all scenarios. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of renewable energy system for each scenario is 0,66 USD/kWh (basic), 0,74 USD/kWh (moderate) and 0,55 USD/kWh (advance) respectively. This preliminary study concludes that rural electrification with renewables is a feasible option for a generic, modeled village in ENT. More, specific case research would be needed. JEL Classification: Q42, Q54Keywords: East Nusa Tenggara, electrification planning, HOMER, LCOE, renewable energy, rural electrification.
Enhancing Energy Security through Utilization of Local Resources Adiwibowo, Indradarma; Lestari, Dita Anggun; Manalu, Davit
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i1.11

Abstract

Remote rural villages in Indonesia do not have sufficient infrastructure to maintain an economically sound energy generation and distribution. Sparse area and low population hinder national electricity company PLN (Perusahaan Listrik Negara) to connect these remote rural villages to the national grid. Most of the villages lie in the palm oil plantation, where renewable biomass resources from the Palm Oil Mill wastes are plentiful. Untapped biomass resources could be the answer to energy security issue in the remote rural area. Berau Regency in East Kalimantan Province has many villages located in the palm oil plantation area. Nearly all of the palm oil processing plants in Berau use palm shell and fiber to power the mill. Some of them have the agreement with PLN to sell their excess power. This scheme can be applied to provide electricity to villages around the palm oil mills. However, it is unreliable since the amount of excess electricity produced keeps fluctuating. This paper explores the idea of village-owned biomass/biogas power plant that is owned and operated by the villagers themselves. That way, the village can ensure its energy security using sustainable local resources. In conclusion, the investment cost of biomass/biogas power plant cannot be provided by village annual budget. Although the villages in Berau Regency have a relatively high annual budget, wich is about Rp2 billion to Rp5 billion, the investment costs of biomass/biogas power plant is even higher. According to the economic analysis of biomass/biogas power plant development, a biomass power plant with 1,7 MW capacity can cost up to Rp46 billion. Moreover, a biogas power plant with 1 MW capacity costs around 41 billion. It is not possible for the villages to finance the power plant development by themselves. Therefore, the private sector is needed to implement biomass/biogas utilization for rural electrification from palm oil waste. With the Net Present Value (NPV) up to Rp 65.078.072.000,00 and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 20% for biomass power plant and Rp14.330.070.000,00 and 10% for biogas power plant, it is economically feasible and profitable for private enterprise to undertake. The challenges are for the government to encourage the private sector to invest and for PLN to sign Power Purchase Agreement with these palm oil enterprises rather than just Excess Power Agreement. JEL Classification: I39Keywords: Biomass, biogas, renewable energy, palm oil waste utilization
Study of Gas Resources Utilization of Tangguh, Masela, and Kasuri Blocks for East Indonesia Regional Development Ariadji, Tutuka; Yusgiantoro, Luky; Susanto, D; Sunarjanto, D; Sismartono, D; Akbar, W A; Taher, Wisnu P; Arsegianto, A
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i1.12

Abstract

This study is intended to evaluate, analyze and give recommendations for prudently utilizing gas production to maximize regional economic developments. A method to relate sectors and inter-regions, i.e., Inter-regional Input-Output (IRIO) Model, is employed to predict the impact of the upstream potential on the down stream. This techno-economic study examines the allocated gas from three gas field blocks altogether at Maluku and West Papua Provinces, i.e., Tangguh, Masela, and Kasuri, to supply the demands of (1) power plants; (2) fertilizer industries, and (3) petrochemicals industries. This study identifies development processes, investment parameters from pre-construction to operation, implementation parameters, and output parameters, both for the upstream and downstream sectors during 2016-2035. The IRIO model uses the 2010 IRIO Table published by BAPPENAS which consists of 35 sectors and 35 provinces. The shock data used to estimate the economic impacts include those data on infrastructure (CAPEX, OPEX, and supporting facilities), energy consumption (per kWh, per ton fertilizer, and per petrochemical product), workforce, and investments at a particular time. Six simulation modeling scenarios were developed to forecast the future performance of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)/Regional Gross Domestic Products (GRDP), Community Income, and Employment of 4 provinces in Eastern Indonesia. The results indicate that the regional economy could grow significantly by providing electricity first. Hence, the Petrochemical Industry gives more contribution than the Fertilizer Industry. The contribution (compared to BAU condition) increases sharply before taking a peak period and then declines in the year 2025. The best scenario results in a rise of the regional GDP at about 19 percent, wages at about 20 percent, and employment at about 55 percent. Maluku Province deserves the most economic improvement followed by West Papua Province. North Maluku and Papua provinces are not as well-off as those two provinces although there has been an indication of some employment in North Maluku Province. JEL Classification: E23Keywords: Gas resources, Input-Output, techno-economic, East Indonesia
Investigation of the price linkage between Asian LNG spot and Far East Asian LNG prices and its implications Pradipta, Muhammad Anas
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i1.13

Abstract

For so many times, Far East Asian liquid natural gas (LNG) buyers have been using price linked to crude oil-indexed, now they need to find another alternative pricing formula for their crucial energy supply as a better price structure that could reflect the market is needed. LNG spot price is expected to be the pillar for the future LNG trading, especially for Far East Asia Market. As less and less long-term contracts are signed in the Far East Asia Market, this creates an additional demand for the LNG in the spot market, while it raises some issues about the presence of different LNG pricing mechanisms. Most of the LNG spot prices in Asia are indexed to the relatively low natural gas prices in Atlantic Basin. Furthermore, the advancement of drilling technology in the US drives down its natural gas prices, resulting in price discrepancies between Asian LNG spot and East Asian LNG prices. This study investigates whether there is a price linkage between Asian LNG spot and East Asian LNG prices. This study comprehends 91 observations collected from January 2010 to July 2017. Johansen co-integration tests were carried out to examine the existence of long-run relationship on the spot, Japanese and South Korean LNG prices. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Phillip-Perron (PP), and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) unit root tests were conducted first before proceeding to the co-integration tests. The results showed that Asian LNG spot prices did not have price linkage for monthly averages of Japanese and South Korean LNG prices. The analyses also indicated that Taiwan LNG markets move together with Asian LNG spot markets. As a conclusion, the results inferred that supply dependency on LNG spot cargoes governed the price linkage among these Asian LNG markets. The use of gas indexed LNG price mechanism did not reflect the economic fundamentals in Asia-Pacific Basin. JEL Classification: Q41Keywords: Price linkage, Johansen co-integration, augmented Dickey-Fuller, Phillip-Perron, and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, unit root tests, Far East Asian LNG spot prices, LNG spot and short-term cargoes, long-term contracts, spot prices, energy: demand and supply, prices
Designing Oil and Gas Exploration Strategy For The Future National Energy Sustainability Based on Statistical Analysis of Commercial Reserves and Production Cost in Indonesia Azizurrofi, Ahmad Abdul; Mashari, Dian Permatasari
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i1.14

Abstract

Indonesia's declining oil production and rising domestic oil consumption have been a big issue for the last few decades which has turned Indonesia into a net oil importer from 2004 onward. The lack of exploration activities and other investments in oil and gas sector have resulted in the decline of Indonesia's oil production. This condition is a result of the plunge of global oil price which has fallen to its lowest level, i.e., US$43.14/Bbl (average oil price in 2016) over the last 12 years. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the distribution of oil and gas production in Indonesia along with the production cost. This analysis will allow investors to find and map working areas in Indonesia with potential commercial reserves while maintaining the lowest possible production costs. The approach of this empirical study is to divide Indonesia into 6 (six) geographical areas, namely Sumatera, Natuna Sea, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. We have collected relevant data about commercial reserves and production cost from existing working areas. Our preliminary results depict that Kalimantan has the highest commercial reserves (i.e., 18.60 MMBOE per contract area) and Papua has the lowest production cost (i.e., US$3.24/BOE). Sulawesi, meanwhile, has the lowest commercial reserves (i.e., 5.39 MMBOE/Contract Area) and Natuna has the highest production cost (i.e., US$16.46/BOE). In summary, this study has shown that Eastern area of Indonesia might hold more oil and gas reserves which can be further managed by Contractor for the benefit of the Country. This study also recommends the Government of Indonesia to be aware of the condition of each working areas to maintain a sustainable oil and gas production on a National level and create attractiveness for investors in the future. Keywords: Commercial reserves, cost per barrel, energy, investment, production cost, working areas.
Decarbonizing Energy in Bali With Solar Photovoltaic: GIS-Based Evaluation on Grid-Connected System Syanalia, Ami; Winata, Fikriyah
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i2.22

Abstract

In the past century, fossil fuels have dominated energy supply in Indonesia. However, concerns over emissions are likely to change the future energy supply. As people become more conscious of environmental issues, alternatives for energy are sought to reduce the environmental impacts. These include renewable energy (RE) sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, most RE sources like solar PV are not available continuously since they depend on weather conditions, in addition to geographical location. Bali has a stable and long sunny day with 12 hours of daylight throughout the year and an average insolation of 5.3 kWh/m2 per day. This study looks at the potential for on-grid solar PV to decarbonize energy in Bali. A site selection methodology using GIS is applied to measure solar PV potential. Firstly, the study investigates the boundaries related to environmental acceptability and economic objectives for land use in Bali. Secondly, the potential of solar energy is estimated by defining the suitable areas, given the technical assumptions of solar PV. Finally, the study extends the analysis to calculate the reduction in emissions when the calculated potential is installed. Some technical factors, such as tilting solar, and intermittency throughout the day, are outside the scope of this study. Based on this model, Bali has an annual electricity potential for 32-53 TWh from solar PV using amorphous thin-film silicon as the cheapest option. This potential amount to three times the electricity supply for the island in 2024 which is estimated at 10 TWh. Bali has an excessive potential to support its own electricity demand with renewables, however, some limitations exist with some trade-offs to realize the idea. These results aim to build a developmental vision of solar PV systems in Bali based on available land and the region’s irradiation. Keywords: Energy modelling, solar PV, energy policy
Enabling Community Participation for Social Innovation in the Energy Sector Budiman, Ibnu
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i2.23

Abstract

This study investigates enabling conditions for facilitating social innovation in the energy sector. This aspect is important to support the energy transition in Indonesia. This research provides appropriate project direction, including research (and action) gaps for the energy actors in Indonesia. The actors are encouraged to work further with the result of this study to stimulate the energy transition in Indonesia. This study uses a systemic change framework which recognizes four drivers of systemic change in a region: 1. transforming political ecologies; 2. configuring green economies; 3. building adaptive communities; 4. social innovation. These drivers are interconnected, and this study focuses on how the social innovation can be supported by other drivers. This study used interviews and literature review as the sources of data. There were interviews with eight experts who come from different countries and are experienced in social innovation in the energy sector. Afterward, this research reviewed related journal papers from the last five years, to check the latest developments within the topic, to support the interview results. The study found that the enabling condition can focus on one of the drivers of systemic change, which is building communities by increasing their participation, through several integrated actions. This point can be implemented in two types of citizen energy initiatives which are energy cooperatives and sustainable consumption initiatives. Further implementation of these initiatives requires a study on policy and governance support, to create complete enabling conditions to facilitate social innovation in the energy transition. Keywords: Enabling condition, social innovation, renewable energy, citizen initiatives, community participation
Estimation of Indonesia's Energy Demand to 2030 and Alternatives Scenario to Reduce Oil Dependence Mardiana, Dwi Atty; Kartoatmodjo, RS. Trijana; Kasmungin, Sugiatmo
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i2.24

Abstract

The impacts of high dependence on oil on the economy have encouraged many countries to start eliminating or sharply reducing their dependence on oil consumption. As an oil importer as well as oil and gas producer country, Indonesia seeks to do the same thing by eliminating fuel subsidies, shifting to gas, and developing renewable energy. The oil price affects the economic and energy policies and impacts the efforts of reducing oil dependence. Using an econometric model of Indonesia’s energy that is constructed based on its energy balance model, this paper will examine factors that influence the oil demand in Indonesia. It will estimate the country’s energy needs from 2017 to 2030 and simulate various alternative strategies to deal with oil dependencies, such as an increase in the refinery capacity, and a shift from oil to gas in the transportation sector. This paper suggests that shifting from oil to gas in the transportation sector will be able to reduce oil dependency, while the alternative of increasing refinery capacity to 3 million barrel per day will be an opportunity to support greater short-term energy security and economic returns. Keywords: Economy, econometric, energy, oil dependence, sustainable energy security
Multiple Challenges and Opportunities for Biogas Dissemination in Indonesia Budiman, Ibnu; Muthahhari, Raushanfikr; Kaynak, Ceylan; Reichwein, Fabian; Zhang, Wandi
Indonesian Journal of Energy Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Energy
Publisher : Purnomo Yusgiantoro Center

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33116/ije.v1i2.25

Abstract

More than the half of Indonesian households primarily rely upon firewood for cooking. To overcomecthis problem, multiple initiatives established the decentralized biogas programs. This paper aims to analyze the environmental problem of firewood cooking and to find out various challenges and opportunities for biogas dissemination in rural areas in Indonesia. The method used in this paper is literature review with frameworks of DPSIR and stakeholder matrix. The result found that the firewood cooking is adversely impacting local wooded ecosystems, deforestation rate and negative effect on human respiratory health. The biogas programme is still not able to replace the firewood use. The research found that it is caused by two major challenges. The first one is the issue with the project's approach in which biogas programmes are still dominated by the government grants. This situation leads to community dependency on the grant, lack of investment and low demand and market in this sector. The second challenge is the technology part where many biogas digesters were not operated due to the low quality of installation, and lack of knowledge and skill of the biogas user about the maintenance and installation of the digester. This study suggests that there is the opportunity to improve the approach of governmental biogas programme. It has to involve more roles from non-state actors. In the user side, the farmers as majority user also should be trained properly how to maintain the biogas installations. As the solution, instead of the full grant, the programme can reduce the percentage of subsidy and turn the cost to provide more digesters and training. Key stakeholders need to have cooperation to increase the quality and quantity of the biogas dissemination. Keywords: Biogas, firewood, programme, technology, Indonesia

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