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Contact Name
Dwi Priyanto
Contact Email
balaba_banjarnegara@yahoo.com
Phone
+62286-594972
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balaba_banjarnegara@yahoo.com
Editorial Address
Sekretariat BALABA Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Banjarnegara Jalan Selamanik No 16 A Banjarnegara, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia 53415
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Kota adm. jakarta pusat,
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INDONESIA
BALABA (JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA)
ISSN : 18580882     EISSN : 23389982     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health, Science,
BALABA is a journal aims to be a peer-reviewed platform and an authoritative source of information. We published research article and literature review focused on vector borne disease such as malaria, DHF, filaria, chikungunya, leptospirosis, etc.
Articles 269 Documents
LALAT: VEKTOR YANG TERABAIKAN PROGRAM? Andiarsa, Dicky
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 14 Nomor 2 Desember 2018
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (301.409 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v14i2.67

Abstract

Flies coexist with humans since long times ago are associated with sanitation problems and also clean and healthy living behavior (PHBS). Program support in term of fly control should be improved. This article is a literature review which discussed the role of flies as pest and vectors that spread various diseases and their interests as program targets and the latest program situation also all aspects as well as how to control them. Some studies said that flies can contain many types of pathogenic microbes in their bodies. Most pathogens in the body of flies are bacteria, fungi, viruses, and worm parasites. Flies also contribute to the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The most effective strategy in reducing the population of flies is the improvement of environmental sanitation and improvement of hygiene behavior. Program support is expected to improve fly vector control services and the participation of the community, in general, is expected to be more active in overcoming this problem. ABSTRAKLalat merupakan serangga yang kehidupannya dekat dengan manusia dan seringkali dikaitkan dengan masalah sanitasi dan perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat (PHBS). Dukungan program masih kurang dalam hal pengendalian vektor lalat. Artikel ini berupa studi literature review yang membahas peranan lalat sebagai hama pengganggu dan vektor penyebar berbagai penyakit, kepentingannya sebagai target program, pencegahan dan pengendalian lalat, serta situasi program terkait pengendalian lalat. Beberapa studi menyebutkan bahwa lalat dapat mengandung banyak jenis mikroba patogen dalam tubuhnya sekaligus. Sebagian besar patogen pada tubuh lalat adalah bakteri, jamur, virus, dan parasit cacing. Lalat juga berkontribusi terhadap penyebaran bakteri yang resisten terhadap antibiotik. Strategi paling efektif dalam menurunkan populasi lalat adalah perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan dan perbaikan pola perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat. Dukungan program diharapkan dapat meningkatkan layanan pengendalian vektor lalat dan peran serta masyarakat pada umumnya diharapkan lebih aktif terhadap penanggulangan masalah ini.
EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK ETANOL AKAR TUBA (DERRIS ELLIPTICA) TERHADAP KEMATIAN PERIPLANETA AMERICANA DENGAN METODE SPRAYING Kinansi, Revi Rosavika; Handayani, Sri Wahyuni; Prastowo, Dhian; Sudarno, Ary Oktsari Yanti
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 14 Nomor 2 Desember 2018
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (288.984 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v14i2.70

Abstract

Cockroaches are harmful insects since they act as mechanical vectors. Transmission of the disease can occur through bacteria or germs that are present in waste or food scraps. These germs are carried by the feet or other body parts of the cockroach, then contaminate the food. Based on these facts, it is necessary to conduct research on the effectiveness of tuba roots against the cockroaches. The ethanol extract of tuba roots is effective in reducing the population of annoying insects, fish killers in ponds and reducing rat populations. This study was conducted from March to October 2014. This study used 7 extract concentrations which were : 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 g / 100 ml. Extraction of tuba root ethanol using the maceration method. The seven extracts were diluted with water medium then sprayed on all outside body parts of the cockroach using hand sprayer. Observations were performed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 48th hours. Data were analysed by  probit model. The results showed that tube root ethanol extract (Derris elliptica (Roxb.) Benth) was effective  to kill Periplaneta americana on with LC50 at concentrations of 3 mg / 100 ml and LC90 was 10.306 mg / 100 ml, while LT50 7 h and LT90 was 11 h . Ethanol extract of tuba plant roots (D. elliptica (Roxb.) Benth) can be used as an alternative natural insecticide that can kill P. americana cockroaches. ABSTRAKKecoa merupakan serangga yang merugikan karena berperan sebagai vektor mekanis. Penularan penyakit dapat terjadi melalui bakteri atau kuman penyakit yang terdapat pada sampah atau sisa makanan. Kuman tersebut terbawa oleh kaki atau bagian tubuh lainnya dari kecoa, kemudian mengontaminasi makanan. Ekstrak etanol akar tuba efektif dalam mengurangi populasi serangga pengganggu, pembunuh ikan di tambak dan mengurangi populasi tikus. Berdasarkan fakta tersebut, perlu dilakukan penelitian mengenai efektivitas dari akar tuba membunuh kecoa. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Maret hingga Oktober tahun 2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan 7 konsentrasi ekstrak yaitu: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, dan 13 g/100 ml. Ekstraksi etanol akar tuba menggunakan metode maserasi. Ketujuh ekstrak diencerkan dengan media air kemudian disemprotkan menggunakan alat sprayer biasa pada seluruh bagian tubuh luar kecoa. Pengamatan dilakukan pada jam ke-1, ke-2, ke-3, ke-4, ke-5, ke-6 dan ke-48. Analisis data menggunakan regresi probit. Hasil analisis menunjukkan ekstrak etanol akar tumbuhan tuba (Derris elliptica (Roxb.) Benth) efektif mematikan Periplaneta americana dengan  LC50  pada konsentrasi 3 mg/100 ml dan LC90 adalah 10,306 mg/100 ml, sedangkan LT50 7 jam  dan LT90 adalah 11 jam. Ekstrak etanol akar tumbuhan tuba (Derris elliptica (Roxb.) Benth) dapat dijadikan sebagai salah satu alternatif insektisida alami yang dapat membunuh kecoa P. americana.
KEANEKARAGAMAN, DETEKSI DAN PERANAN TIKUS TERHADAP PENULARAN TOKSOPLASMOSIS DI KABUPATEN BANJARNEGARA Wijayanti, Tri; Marbawati, Dewi
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 14 Nomor 2 Desember 2018
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (630.197 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v14i2.188

Abstract

Rats could play a role as reservoir of diseases which caused by protozoa parasite such as toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis is zoonotic disease which caused by Toxoplasma gondii,with Felidae (cat) as definive host. Toxoplasmosis in cat can be obtained from predator to small mammals like rat at surroundings. The aims of this study were to measure the trap success, identify of rat species, measure diversity index, and dominant species. In addition, we also analyse toxoplasmosis in rat and their role in toxoplasmosis transmission in Banjarnegara District. This study was descriptive, with purposive samples collection.  Rat survey was conducted by single live trap at main market, hospital and Semampir shopping complex. Toxoplasmosis determination was carried out by imunostic FELISA. Mean of rat?s trap success was 17%, which the highest rate at main market 17%. Rats species trapped were Rattus tanezumi and R. norvegicus, which R. tanezumi 98,32% as dominant species. Majority of rat?s sex species is female.  Diversity index of rat species at Banjarnegara District public places was low (<1). Rat?s toxoplasmosis was 3,57%, showed that rats could be had minimal role in toxoplasmosis transmission in Banjarnegara District. ABSTRAKTikus dapat menjadi reservoir penyakit yang disebabkan oleh parasit protozoa, salah satunya adalah toksoplasmosis. Toksoplasmosis merupakan penyakit zoonosis yang disebabkan oleh Toxoplasma gondii dengan Felidae seperti kucing sebagai hospes definitifnya. Infeksi toksoplasmosis pada kucing dapat diperoleh dari hewan kecil disekitarnya seperti tikus. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengukur keberhasilan penangkapan, mengidentifikasi spesies tikus yang tertangkap, mengukur indeks keragaman, dominasi, menganalisis toksoplasmosis pada tikus dan peranannya pada penularan toksoplasmosis di Kabupaten Banjarnegara. Jenis penelitian deskriptif dengan pengambilan sampel secara purposive. Survei tikus dilakukan dengan metode single live trap di pasar induk, rumah sakit umum dan kompleks pertokoan Kelurahan Semampir. Pemeriksaan toksoplasmosis menggunakan FELISA imunostik. Angka keberhasilan penangkapan tikus rata-rata sebesar 7,63% dengan keberhasilan penangkapan tertinggi pada pasar induk sebesar 17%. Spesies tikus tertangkap adalah Rattus tanezumi dan Rattus norvegicus, dengan dominasi R. tanezumi sebesar  98,32%. Mayoritas tikus betina yang tertangkap. Indeks keragaman spesies tikus di tempat-tempat umum rendah (<1). Toksoplasmosis pada tikus sebesar 3,57% menunjukkan bahwa tikus kurang berperan dalam penularan toksoplasmosis di Banjarnegara.
LEPTOSPIROSIS PADA TIKUS ENDEMIS SULAWESI (RODENTIA: MURIDAE) DAN POTENSI PENULARANNYA ANTAR TIKUS DARI PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN Ardanto, Aryo; Yuliadi, Bernadus; Martiningsih, Ika; Putro, Dimas Bagus Wicaksono; Joharina, Arum Sih; Nurwidayati, Anis
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 14 Nomor 2 Desember 2018
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (567.637 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v14i2.196

Abstract

Leptospirosis is zoonotic disease which caused by pathogenic Leptospira bacteria and potentially causing death in human. Rat, as main reservoir of Leptospira, had been most studied in urban or rural areas around the settlement  of community. In contrast, leptospirosis studies in endemic rat were still limited. This study was aimed to identify endemic rat species of Sulawesi as reservoir of Leptospira in some regencies of South Sulawesi Province namely Bulukumba, Pangkep and East Luwu. This study was a part of Rikhus Vektora in 2017 by using live traps to catch rats in six various ecosystem types each regency. All catched rats were identified morphologically and followed by examinations using Microscopic Agglutination Test and Polymerase Chain Reaction. The result showed various endemic rats such as Rattus marmosurus, Rattus hoffmanni, Bunomys chrysocomus, Bunomys andrewsi and Bunomys coelestis were infected with leptospirosis. This study also showed new record of some endemic rat species were infected with leptospirosis. It is important to rise awareness  of  leptospirosis transmission in the forest habitat by the endemic rats. ABSTRAKLeptospirosis merupakan penyakit zoonosis disebabkan bakteri Leptospira patogenik dan berpotensi menyebabkan kematian pada manusia. Tikus sebagai reservoir utama Leptospira kebanyakan diteliti di kawasan perkotaan atau pedesaan di sekitar permukiman. Sebaliknya, penelitian leptospirosis pada tikus endemis jumlahnya sedikit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi jenis tikus endemis Sulawesi sebagai reservoir Leptospira di Kabupaten Bulukumba, Pangkep dan Luwu Timur. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari Rikhus Vektora tahun 2017 dengan menggunakan perangkap hidup untuk menangkap tikus di enam ekosistem berbeda pada tiap kabupaten. Seluruh tikus tertangkap diidentifikasi secara morfologis yang selanjutnya diuji Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) dan Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Hasilnya diperoleh berbagai tikus endemis seperti Rattus marmosurus, Rattus hoffmanni, Bunomys chrysocomus, Bunomys andrewsi dan Bunomys coelestis terinfeksi leptospirosis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan catatan baru beberapa jenis tikus endemis Sulawesi terinfeksi leptospirosis. Kondisi ini perlu diwaspadai karena terdapat potensi penularan leptospirosis di habitat hutan dari tikus endemis tersebut.
RESISTENSI MALATHION DAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM ESTERASE PADA POPULASI NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI DI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN Widiastuti, Dyah; Ikawati, Bina
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 12 Nomor 2 Desember 2016
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (381.05 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v12i2.199

Abstract

Pekalongan regency, Central Java (Indonesia) is one of area which experienced with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) incidence since many years ago. The extensive use of insecticides for dengue vector control has been carried out for long period in Pekalongan Regency. This fact stimulate the need to study the resistence status and  esterase enzyme avtivity of Aedes aegypti to Malathion. The research was conducted in April-November 2014. Insecticide susceptibility assays were performed on F1 generation of wild-caught adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from Simbangkulon Village Buaran Sub district, Kedungwuni Barat Village Kedungwuni Sub dsitrict and Karangsari Village Karanganyar Sub district, with the diagnostic doses of malathion (0,8%). Esterase enzyme activity of these mosquitoes was tested biochemically to find out the mechanisms of resistance to Malathion. Mosquitoes mortality as a result of Malathion effect showed variation in range from 3.33 to 13.75% in all study sites. That result indicated that Ae.aegypti mosquitoes are resistant to Malathion in all study sites . Based on biochemical assays, there was an increase if esterase enztyme activity of Ae aegypti in all study sites.. Therefore, alpha esterase enzyme activity could be associated with the mechanisms which responsible to malathion resistance in Ae. aegypti in Pekalongan. The results of this study provided the information about the malathion resistance status of Ae. aegypti in Pekalongan, and biochemical mechanisms which essential for monitoring the insecticide resistance in this area.  
PARASIT GASTROINTESTINAL PADA HEWAN TERNAK DI TEMPAT PEMOTONGAN HEWAN KABUPATEN SIGI, SULAWESI TENGAH Tolistiawaty, Intan; Widjaja, Junus; Lobo, Leonardo Taruk; Isnawati, Rina
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 12 Nomor 2 Desember 2016
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (214.742 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v12i2.200

Abstract

Disease in lifestock due to gastrointestinal parasites can cause economic loss and harmful for health of breeders or people who eat meat from these animals. . Slaughterhouse is an important place for monitoring parasitism in livestock, surveillance of disease in livestock and zoonoosis. Previous studies showed that some people living nearby a swine slaughterhouse were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichura. Based on those results, it is required to study about the gastrointestinal parasites in livestock which could transmit to human in Slaughterhouse in Jono Oge Village and Biromaru Slaughterhouse, Sigi regency. This study was a cross-sectional design, and fecal samples collection were carried out on  97 cattles, 33 pigs and 33 goats slaughtered at slaughterhouse of Sigi, Central Sulawesi. Samples from cattleswere examined according to sedimentation method, while those from pigs and goats were examined using Ritchie method. Single infections by Facsiola sp., Paramphistomum sp., Trichuris sp., Oesophagustomum sp., Ascaris sp., Eimeria sp., and Balantidium sp. were found in cattle and pigs. In cattle, dual infections were found which caused by Strongyloidea sp. and Paramphistomum sp., Trichuris sp. and Paramphistomum sp., Fasciola sp. and Paramphistomum sp. A mixed infection also observed  in cattles which caused by Paramphistomum sp., Fasciola sp., and Trichuris sp. while Trichostrongylus sp., was found in goat  
EFEKTIFITAS PENGGUNAAN MANITOBA TRAP DALAM SURVEILANS PENYAKIT BERSUMBER LALAT DI KABUPATEN TANAH BUMBU, KALIMANTAN SELATAN Andiarsa, Dicky; Setyaningtyas, Dian Eka; Setianingsih, Ika; Fadilly, Abdullah; Hidayat, Syarif; Hairani, Budi
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 12 Nomor 2 Desember 2016
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (470.374 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v12i2.201

Abstract

Flies-vector control programs are essential to prevent flies-borne diseases. These activities consist of surveillance to determine the multiplication and distribution patterns of flies, as well as efforts to control flies populations. Flies trap as a surveillance tool was vary according to the interests of the user. Manitoba trap and bottled trap have been widely used to control flies population. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of both traps type and their modification form for the benefit of the survey, thus it can be a recommendation for flies surveillance program manager. This was a quasi-experimental study design conducted on January 2016 in twocattle farm in Kersik Putih and Segumbang Village, Tanah Bumbu District, South Kalimantan. There were 4 types of trap used in this study: 1) Manitoba trap with black cloth; 2) Manitoba trap with domestic waste or animal excreta as bait; 3) Bottled trap filled with sugar and vinegar solution; and 4) Bottled trap with domestic waste or food scraps. Each type of trap was doubled.Traps was put in pre-randomized spot around cattle cage and leftfor 4 days. The number of flies trapped ranged between 0-55, with Stomoxys calcitrans and Musca Linnaeus as the most species found trapped. Manitoba trap with domestic waste or animal excreta has the highest mean of density compared to the other three trap types. This study showed that Manitoba trap is fairly effective to be used as a surveillance tool in the open area offarm.  
DISTRIBUSI FILARIASIS BRUGIA TIMORI DAN WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI DI DESA KAHALE, KECAMATAN KODI BALAGHAR, KABUPATEN SUMBA BARAT DAYA, NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR Yunarko, Rais; Patanduk, Yona
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 12 Nomor 2 Desember 2016
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (245.623 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v12i2.202

Abstract

Lymphatic filariasis is still a health problem in the East Nusa Tenggara province. Southwest Sumba District is filariasis endemic area. It is found 35 chronic cases in Kodi Balaghar subdistrict. Although implementation of mass drug adminsitration was held in 2011 but drug coverage had been poor and not reach Kodi Balaghar subdistrict. The purpose of this study were to measure the prevalence and distribution, determine the density and type of parasite and mapping cases in the Kodi Balaghar subdistrict. This research was a descriptive study with cross sectional approach which conducted in the Kahale Village, Kodi Balaghar Subdistrict in 2012. Five hundred people were checked. The results of the examination found that 21 positive microfilariae cases,  Mf rate was 4.2%. Two species of microfilariae that found were Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori. The distribution filariasis cases is higher in men and higher in reproductive age (15-45 years). There were three types of infection, an infection by B. timori, W. bancrofti, and mixed infections both the microfilariae. The density of microfilariae in the area was 190.86 mf/ml, the density W. bancrofti was 160.04 mf/ml, B. timori was 115.97 mf/ml. Filariasis cases distributed near to potential breeding places of mosquito .
HABITAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN SPESIFIK ANOPHELES SP. DI TAMBANG EMAS KURA-KURA BANIAN (PERUBAHAN PERILAKU ANOPHELES SP.) Indriyati, Liestiana; Rosanji, Akhmad; Juhairiyah, Juhairiyah; Yuana, Windy Tri; Haryati, Erly
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 12 Nomor 2 Desember 2016
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1058.459 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v12i2.203

Abstract

The results of Health Research 2010, showed that malaria was an infectious disease that the sixth cause of death cause of the sixth of death in Indonesia. Kotabaru is a malaria endemic district, especially in Puskesmas Banian, Annual Parasite Incidence 241.19 in 2014 where the cases of malaria with occurring in illegal gold mines on the slopes of Banian Mountain. It?s needed to know the factors that affect the existence of malaria in these locations. This research was observational study doing by cross-sectional study and analyzed by descriptively. Research conducted at the Gold Mine Banian Buluh Kuning village, Sungai Durian subdistric, Kotabaru district, South Kalimantan Province in February and March, 2015. The activities were catching larva and adult mosquitoes, environmental and mosquito breeding habitats observation and Mass Blood Survey. It was found Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles leucosphyrus with very low densities in area with the number of malaria cases by 22.99%. It was found divers breeding habitats of Anopheles sp on a former gold wash, former drum and former plastic containers. This indicated a behavioral change of Anopheles breeding places because previous to this the Anopheles breed in puddles on the ground or direct contact with the ground.
FAKTOR RISIKO PERILAKU DAN LINGKUNGAN DALAM PENULARAN MALARIA DI PULAU SEBATIK, KABUPATEN NUNUKAN, KALIMANTAN TIMUR Trapsilowati, Wiwik; Pujiyanti, Aryani; Negari, K. Sekar
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 12 Nomor 2 Desember 2016
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (296.043 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v12i2.208

Abstract

Malaria transmission is influenced by several factors, including parasites, human, mosquito and environment. In 2009, slide positive rate (SPR) in Puskesmas Aji Kuning, Sungai Nyamuk and Setabu in Sebatik Island were identified as amount 63,61%, 28,04% and 30,12% respectively, while the target malaria pre-elimination SPR < 5%. The aim of this study was to determine the behavioral and environmental risk factors of malaria transmission. This is a cross sectional study and the number of sample were 101 respondents. The results showed that there was significant association between the habit of using mosquito nets, the habit of using mosquito coils, repellent and others, the respondent's house near breeding mosquitoes habitats and the respondent?s house near the cocoa/coffee plantation with the occurrence of malaria cases. Relative risk (RR) value were 2,0, 2,3, 2,9 and 1,7, respectively. Behavioral risk factors of malaria transmission were the habit of using a mosquito nets and habit of using mosquito coils, repellent and others. Environmental risk of malaria transmission were the house near mosquito breeding habitats, and the house near the cocoa and coffee plantation.

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