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Articles 23 Documents
Resistance of peanut varieties to phytoplasm. Recently, witches' broom disease on peanut is becoming more important in Indonesia The use of resistant varieties is very potential to overcome the yield loss caused by the disease. Ten peanut varieties were evaluated for their response to phytoplasma using insect vector transmission. Three categories of plant response were observed during the experiment, i.e. moderate resistant (var, Macan, Zebra, and Simpai), susceptible (var. Biawak, Treggili Nugroho, Sandi; Suseno, Rusmilah; Hidayati, Sri Hendrastuti; Hidayat, Purnama
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Vol. 12 No. 2 (2000): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Publisher : Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan

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Abstract

Resistance of peanut varieties to phytoplasm. Recently, witches' broom disease on peanut is becoming more important in Indonesia The use of resistant varieties is very potential to overcome the yield loss caused by the disease. Ten peanut varieties were evaluated for their response to phytoplasma using insect vector transmission. Three categories of plant response were observed during the experiment, i.e. moderate resistant (var, Macan, Zebra, and Simpai), susceptible (var. Biawak, Treggiling, Pelanduk, and Kidang), very susceptible (var. Gajah, Tupai, and Banteng). The average seed weight decrease per plant due to the phytoplasma infection was 40.99 - 100%.
Soils containing sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii were covered with transparent plastic and exposed to sunlight in an experiment to study the effect of soil solarization on the growth of the fungi and its pathogenicity to peanut. Soil solarization for 3 to 4 weeks significantly suppressed the sclerotial germination up to 44% and reduced hyphal growth and pathogenicity of S. rolfsii placed at 0.5 cm below the soil sulfate, but did not have any gects when the sclerotia were placed at the depth of 1 ., Kartini; ., Widodo
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Vol. 12 No. 2 (2000): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
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Soils containing sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii were covered with transparent plastic and exposed to sunlight in an experiment to study the effect of soil solarization on the growth of the fungi and its pathogenicity to peanut. Soil solarization for 3 to 4 weeks significantly suppressed the sclerotial germination up to 44% and reduced hyphal growth and pathogenicity of S. rolfsii placed at 0.5 cm below the soil sulfate, but did not have any gects when the sclerotia were placed at the depth of 15 cm. Among ungerminated sclerotia, 88.0 and 82.7% of them were physically damaged by 3 and 4 weeks of soil solarization, respectively. Some of the damaged sclerotia were colonized by microorganism. The most frequent colonizing microorganisms observed were Asagillus spp, Trichodenna spp., and bacteria. Increased soil temperature as direct effect of soil solarization and the role of some soil microbes might be responsible for the suppression.
Pathogenicity of two species of entomopathogenic agents to subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory. Pathogenic effcts of two species of entomopathogenic agents, Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis A ard B, were trested to subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann in laboratory. Three groups of rhc tcrti~ite tclor.ker:s were each e.xposed to a treated filter paper with one of the entomopathogenic agents for one minute. Twenty Sukartana, Paimin; Rushelia, Rusti; Rumini, Widi
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Vol. 12 No. 1 (2000): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
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Abstract

Pathogenicity of two species of entomopathogenic agents to subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory. Pathogenic effcts of two species of entomopathogenic agents, Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis A ard B, were trested to subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann in laboratory. Three groups of rhc tcrti~ite tclor.ker:s were each e.xposed to a treated filter paper with one of the entomopathogenic agents for one minute. Twenty-five termite workers and three soldiers were then transferred to a wetfilter paper disk that had been installed in a plastic vial. The test materials were stored in a dark and humid at room temperature for 14 dc~j'.s. Five replicates were provided. Observations were conducted daily to determine termite nlortality urld take out dead termites. Reszllts showed that the fungus M. anisopliae was more pathogenic than Bt. A and B. After being exposed to treated paper with the fungus, all test termites died within 8-10 days. Treatments with B. thuringierisis A and B did not produce high mortality, and seemed to be not different from the control, only causing less than 3% termite mortality until the end of the tests.
Swietenia mahogany Jacq. (Meliaceae) seeds were extracted with methanol. In choice and no-choice leaf disc methods, the crude extract at 5% completely inhibited feeding activity of third instar larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Fractionation of the extract by combination of counter-current distribution method, silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC yielded one fraction which strongly inhibited P. xylostella larval feeding activit ., Dadang; Oshawa, Kanju
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Vol. 12 No. 1 (2000): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
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Abstract

Swietenia mahogany Jacq. (Meliaceae) seeds were extracted with methanol. In choice and no-choice leaf disc methods, the crude extract at 5% completely inhibited feeding activity of third instar larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Fractionation of the extract by combination of counter-current distribution method, silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC yielded one fraction which strongly inhibited P. xylostella larval feeding activity by 98.3 % at a concentration of 0.2%.
Parasitization of the white rice stem bore< Scirpophaga innotata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was studied in Karawang during an outbreak in 1991/1992. The percentage of egg masses parasitized averaged 85.5%, whereas the percentage of individual eggs parasitized 44.2%. Egg masses attacked by parasitoids yielded 1 to 100 wlth arz average of 53.9 borer larvae. A mean of 56.6parasitoid wasps emerged from the parasitized egg masses. Based on the proportion of egg masses parasitized and the n Rauf, Aunu
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Vol. 12 No. 1 (2000): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
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Parasitization of the white rice stem bore< Scirpophaga innotata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was studied in Karawang during an outbreak in 1991/1992. The percentage of egg masses parasitized averaged 85.5%, whereas the percentage of individual eggs parasitized 44.2%. Egg masses attacked by parasitoids yielded 1 to 100 wlth arz average of 53.9 borer larvae. A mean of 56.6parasitoid wasps emerged from the parasitized egg masses. Based on the proportion of egg masses parasitized and the number of wasps emerged, the predominant parasitoid was Telenomus rowani Gahan, followed by Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead, and the least was Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere. The level of individual egg parasitization was 22.7% for T. japonicum 55.8% for T. rowani, and 92.1% for T. schoenobii. A mean of 66.5 borer larvae survived after attack by T. japonicum, 19.4 lawae by T. rowani, and only 0.8 larvae per egg mass by T. schoenobii. The last mentioned species was the most efJicient and efective parasitoid, and the borer outbreak was considered to be related to the low level of eggparasitization by T. schoenobii.
Parasitoid Telur pada Hama Kubis Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera : Yponomeutidae) Meilin, Araz; Hidayat, Purnama; Buchori, Damayanti; Kartosuwondo, Utomo
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Vol. 12 No. 1 (2000): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
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Abstract

Egg parasitoids of the diamonback mont, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera : Yponomeutidae) have never been reported in Indonesia. In this study, eggs of P.xylostella were collected from cabbage planation in Cisarua-Bogor, Ciloto-Cianjur, Cikole-Lembang (West Java), Tawangmangu (Central Java), and Malang (East Java). Three species of parasitoids were colleted from all areas, Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja emerged from eggs colledted from Cisarua-Bogor, Cikole-Lembang, and Ciloto-Cianjur, and Trichogramma flandersi Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera : Trichogrammatidae) was only found from the eggs collected from Tawangmangu. The morphological character of the parasitoids are discussed
Ketahanan Beberapa Varietas Kedelai Terhadap Nematoda Puru Akar (Meloidogyne incognita) Adnan, A Muin
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Vol. 12 No. 1 (2000): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
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Abstract

Resistance of 19 soybean varieties to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was evaluated in the green-house. One-week old seeding in a plastic bag containing 4 liters soil of Segunung Andosol type, was infested with 500 second stage juveniles (L2) per 1000 cm cubic of soil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomiz-ed design with three replication. Based on the reproductive index of M.incognita, two varieties (Wilis and Ringgit) were moderately resistant, 14 varieties were slightly resistant and three varieties (Muria, Malabar, and Lakon) were susceptible to M.incognita. The productive index of M.incognita on the varieties that were moderately resistant, slightly, and susceptible were 12.75 - 23.65, 25.48 - 42.88, and 50.99 -58.83 % respectively
The tidal swamp lands in Indonesia are potential areas for increasing food production especially rice. About 250.000 hectares of the swampy areas in suamtra and Kalimantan have been developed for rice production. Tidal swamp land has many interconnecting natural habitats wgich are economically and scientifically important. Agronomic activities in rice fields might have detrimental effects on other habitats. Therefore, agrochemicals especially pesticides for pest control, have to be carefully app Satari, Uha Saharja; Sosromarsono, Soemartono
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan No. 3 (1979): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan
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Abstract

The tidal swamp lands in Indonesia are potential areas for increasing food production especially rice. About 250.000 hectares of the swampy areas in suamtra and Kalimantan have been developed for rice production. Tidal swamp land has many interconnecting natural habitats wgich are economically and scientifically important. Agronomic activities in rice fields might have detrimental effects on other habitats. Therefore, agrochemicals especially pesticides for pest control, have to be carefully applied based on sound ecological approach. A Kind of pest management model is presented which consits of compatible combination of cultural control, use of resistant varieties, sanitation, and chemical control with environmentally least toxic pesticides if it is needed base on pest population count.
TKV-0 was identifled as the causal agent of a disease of Aranda Wendy Scott in Jakarta. Bioasssay showed that the virus prduced 10-1 lesirms m Cassia occidentalis, Chenopodium amzranticolor, Gornphrena ~l obosa , and Nicotiana glutinoaa . Observation of the "dig methoda preparation of diseaaed plant sap under the electron microscope indicated that the virus particles were rod-shaped and right with a length of about 300 mm. Suseno, Rusmilah Hari
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan No. 3 (1979): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan
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Abstract

TKV-0 was identifled as the causal agent of a disease of Aranda Wendy Scott in Jakarta. Bioasssay showed that the virus prduced 10-1 lesirms m Cassia occidentalis, Chenopodium amzranticolor, Gornphrena ~l obosa , and Nicotiana glutinoaa . Observation of the "dig methoda preparation of diseaaed plant sap under the electron microscope indicated that the virus particles were rod-shaped and right with a length of about 300 mm.
A number of legume species were inoculated with Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. the causal agent of soybean rust. The species showing rust symptom were Pachyrhizus erosus, Crotalaria juncea, Glycine max var. si Nyonya, Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean), P. radiatus (mung bean), P. aureus, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Vigna umbellata and Calopogonium mucunoides. Sinaga, Meity
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan No. 3 (1979): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan
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A number of legume species were inoculated with Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. the causal agent of soybean rust. The species showing rust symptom were Pachyrhizus erosus, Crotalaria juncea, Glycine max var. si Nyonya, Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean), P. radiatus (mung bean), P. aureus, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Vigna umbellata and Calopogonium mucunoides.

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