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INDONESIA
Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 188 Documents
INVESTIGATION ON NEUTRON FLUX EFFECT ONTO IRRADIATED FUEL BURN-UP STORED IN THE REACTOR TRIGA PUSPATI Husain, M.A.A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D.; Rabir, M.H.; Zakaria, N.; Zin, M.R.M.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.859

Abstract

An investigation on the out-core neutron flux in the Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI is carried out in this work to determine whether the thermal and/or fast neutron from the core would cause burn-up of the irradiated fuel stored in the same vicinity of the reactor core. The storage rack is positioned at 1 m from the central thimble.MCNPX code is used to calculate the fast and thermal neutron flux at 750 kW reactor power using 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm mesh while MATLAB model on 20 cm x 20 cm mesh model is used to plot the axial and radial distribution of the neutron flux density. The results show that the thermal neutrons occurred at  energy lower than 1 x 10-6 MeV and traveled to a maximum distance of 78 cm. The greatest flux for thermal and fast neutrons is 1 x 1013 n.cm2.s-1 and 5 x 1013 n.cm2.s-1 respectively.  The fission-rate of the fuel in the core is determined to be 3.18 x 1014 particle/s compared to 1.51 x 107 particle/s of the irradiated fuel in the storage rack. The burn-up of the fuel in the storage rack is in the order of micrograms and therefore is negligible. It is concluded that neutron flux from the core would not impart burn up effect onto the irradiated fuel stored at the storage rack in the reactor pool.
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND MOLE RATIO ON THE SYNTHESIS YIELD OF RHENIUM-TETROFOSMIN Widyastuti, W; Gunawan, A.H.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.380

Abstract

Technetium-99m (99mTc) tetrofosmin is widely used in nuclear medicine as a diagnostic agent for myocardial perfusion and as a tumor imaging agent. As a parenteral preparation it requires an evaluation of its pharmacokinetics and stability in-vivo. Since 99mTc has a short half-life and is only available in very low concentrations, it is impossible to characterize its chemical properties and presence in the body. Due to this reason, only technetium-99 (T1/2 = 5 × 105 years), which is available in macro quantities, or natural rhenium can be used for this purpose. In this study rhenium-188 (188Re) tetrofosmin will be synthesized and applied, because non-radioactive Re can be easily obtained. Synthesis and radiochemical purity analysis of carrier-added 188Re-tetrofosmin were carried out as a model to study the in-vivo stability of technetium-99m tetrofosmin. Rhenium-188 was used as a tracer to identify the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. Rhenium gluconate was synthesized first prior to the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. The quality of labeling for both rhenium gluconate and rhenium tetrofosmin was analyzed using paper- and thin-layer chromatography, respectively. Rhenium gluconate can be synthesized with high labeling yield within 1 hour, whereas rhenium tetrofosmin was synthesized both in room temperature and in an elevated temperature with various tetrofosmin-to-rhenium mole ratios.The results showed that heating at 95oC led to a higher yield of more than 90% within 30 minutes. Rhenium tetrofosmin could be produced in high radiochemical purity using an excess of tetrofosmin with mole ratio of 2000. It is concluded that rhenium tetrofosmin could be synthesized through the formation of rhenium gluconate, and a higher yield could be obtained in a shorter time by heating process. Received: 04 October 2014; Revised:14 April 2015; Accepted:15 April 2015
RADIO PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF GINSENG EXTRACT IN GAMMA-RAYS INDUCED CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGES OF HUMAN LYMPHOCYTE Syaifudin, M.; Young Song, Jie-; Sil Lee, Yun-; Mo Kang, Chang-
Atom Indonesia Vol 34, No 1 (2008): January 2008
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2008.89

Abstract

Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng and subsequently referred as ginseng, posses various biological properties as an anticancer and antioxidant agent. Ginseng also approved effective against radiation effects through its immunomodulating actions in whole body irradiated mouse. But its protective effects on radiation induced DNA damage are not thoroughly investigated, mainly in human. This experiment aimed to assess the effects of ginseng at 2 working doses in suppressing radiation effects of human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) i.e. chromosome aberration and micronuclei yields. The treatment times were 24 hours before, subsequently (0 hour) or 3 hours after and irradiation with gamma rays at doses of 0.5 - 2.0 Gy (dose rate of 3.16 Gy/min). Treated and untreated blood cultivation and metaphase spreading technique was done according to standard procedures. Results showed that without ginseng treatments, radiation significantly increased dicentrics and micronuclei frequencies. Different with the results in mouse study, however, our results indicated that none of the experimental concentrations of ginseng crude water extract tested had an effect on baseline chromosomal aberration and micronuclei (MN) yields in PBL. A protective effect was only seen in chromosome aberration yields of sample irradiated with 2.0 Gy and treated with ginseng 3 h post irradiation rather than 24 h pre-irradiation in one volunteer. Opposite results that ginseng suspected to be a weak radiosensitizer was found in some cases. This may be due to discrepancies exist in route of treatment and its fundamental mechanisms of protective action between both studies. Even though in general it was not effective, the possible mechanism involved in radioprotective influence of ginseng is discussed.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ATOM INDONESIA VOL 45 NO 2 cvr, cvr
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 2 (2019): August 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.974

Abstract

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPRESSION OF P70S6K WITH RADIOTHERAPY RESPONSE IN CERVICAL CANCER Kurnia, I.; Siregar, B.; Alatas, Z.; Ramli, I.; Kurjana, T.; Andriono, A.; Tobing, M.D.L.; Hernowo, B.S.; Kisnanto, T.; Lusiyanti, Y.; Tetriana, D.; Soetopo, S.
Atom Indonesia Vol 42, No 1 (2016): April 2016
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2016.478

Abstract

There are many important prognostic factors in advanced stage cervical cancer primary treated with radiotherapy. Besides clinical factors, many biomarkers have been studied in relation with radiotherapy response. The p70s6k is a biomarker which plays a significant role in cell proliferation. Increased levels of p70s6k are also associated with drug resistance in cancer. In the present study, the relationship between the expression level of p70s6k before treatment and the radiotherapy response in cervical cancer was determined. Immunohistochemical staining of p70s6k, MIB-1, and p53 was conducted in microscopic slide from 21 cancer tissue biopsies before treatment with radiotherapy. After the treatment had completed early radiotherapy response was observed by pelvic control method. The results showed that p70s6k is partly highly expressed (61.9%, 13/21) and partly low expressed (38.1%, 8/21) in the cancer cells. They also show that there is no statistically significant differences on AgNOR mean, MIB-1, and p53 indices in the different degrees of p70s6k expression (p?0.05). Higher expression levels of p70s6k is more strongly associated with good radiotherapy response compared to lower ones (p=0.05). In conclusion, the level of p70s6k expression before treatment has an association with radiotherapy response.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ATOM INDONESIA VOL 45 NO 3 ack, ack
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 3 (2019): December 2019
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.1026

Abstract

DEVELOPMENT OF 99MO/99MTC GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION OF MEDICAL RADIONUCLIDE 99MTC USING A NEUTRON-ACTIVATED 99MO AND ZIRCONIUM BASED MATERIAL (ZBM) AS ITS ADSORBENT Saptiama, I.; Lestari, E.; Sarmini, E.; Lubis, H.; Marlina, M; Mutalib, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 42, No 3 (2016): December 2016
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2016.531

Abstract

Molybdenum produced from fission of U-235 is the most desirable precursor for 99Mo/99mTc generator system as it is non-carrier added and has high specific activity. However, in the last decade there has been short supply of 99Mo due to several constrains. Therefore, there have been many works performed for development of 99Mo/99mTc generator system using 99Mo which is not produced from either LEU or HEU. This report deals with development of 99Mo/99mTc generator system where zirconium-based material (ZBM) is used as adsorbent of neutron-activated 99Mo. The system was prepared by firstly irradiating natural Mo in the G. A. Siwabessy reactor to produce neutron-activated 99Mo. The target was dissolved in NaOH 4N and then neutralized with 12 M HCl. The 99Mo solution was then mixed with a certain amount of ZBM followed by heating at 90°C for three hours to allow the 99Mo adsorbed on ZBM. The 99Mo-ZBM (9.36 GBq of 99Mo was Mo/ 4.2 g ZBM) was packed on a fritz-glass column. This column was then fitted serially with an alumina column for trapping 99Mo breakthrough. The columns were then eluted daily with saline solution for up to one week. The yield of 99mTc was found to be between 53.7 ? 74% (n= 5). All 99mTc eluates were clear solutions with pH of 5. Breakthrough of 99Mo in 99mTc eluates was found to be 0.031 ± 0.019 ?Ci 99Mo/ mCi 99mTc (n= 5) which was less than the maximum activity of 99Mo allowed in 99mTc solution (< 1 µCi 99Mo/mCi 99mTc). Aluminum breakthrough in 99mTc eluates was found to be less than 10 ppm. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc in form of Na99mTcO4 was > 99%. Radiolabeling of this 99mTc towards methylene diphosphonate (MDP) kit gave a radiolabelling efficiency of 99%. In summary, a new 99Mo/99mTc generator system that used neutron-activated 99Mo and ZBM as its adsorbent has been successfully prepared. The 99mTc produced from this new 99Mo/99mTc generator system attained the quality of 99mTc required for medical purposes.Received: 23 Februari 2016; Revised: 13 July 2016; Accepted: 17 July 2016
PRELIMINARY NEUTRONIC DESIGN OF HIGH BURNUP OTTO CYCLE PEBBLE BED REACTOR Setiadipura, T.; Irwanto, D.; Zuhair, Zuhair
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.350

Abstract

The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR) which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO) cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor design in general, is improving the nuclear fuel utilization which is shown by attaining a higher burnup value. This study performed a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt OTTO cycle PBR with high burnup while fulfilling the safety criteria of the PBR design.The safety criteria of the design was represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. The maximum burnup value was also limited by the tested maximum burnup value which maintained the integrity of the pebble fuel. Parametric surveys were performed to obtain the optimized parameters used in this study, which are the fuel enrichment, per-pebble heavy metal (HM) loading, and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum design with burnup value of 131.1 MWd/Kg-HM was achieved in this study which is much higher compare to the burnup of the reference design HTR-MODUL and a previously proposed OTTO-cycle PBR design. This optimum design uses 17% U-235 enrichment with 4 g HM-loading per fuel pebble.Received: 04 October 2014; Revised: 26 February 2015; Accepted: 27 February 2015
MONTE-CARLO SIMULATION OF Γ-RAY AND FAST NEUTRON RADIOLYSIS OF LIQUID WATER AND 0.4 M H2SO4 SOLUTIONS AT TEMPERATURES UP TO 325OC Sunaryo, G.R.; Jintana, M.; Gerin, JPJ.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.73

Abstract

Monte-Carlo simulations were used to study the radiolysis of liquid water at 25-325oC when subjected to low linear energy transfer (LET) of 60Co ?-ray radiation and fast neutrons of 2 and 0.8 MeV. The energy deposited in the early stage of 60Co ?-ray irradiation was approximated by considering short segments (~150 ?m) of 300 MeV proton tracks, corresponding to an average LET of ~0.3 keV/?m. In case of 2 MeV fast neutrons, the energy deposited was considered by using short segments (~5 ?m) of energy at 1.264, 0.465, 0.171, 0.063 and 0.24 MeV. 0.8 MeV fast neutrons were approximated by 0.505, 0.186, 0.069 and 0.025 MeV protons. The effect of 0.4 M H2SO4 solution on radiolysis was also studied by this method for both 60Co ?-rays and 0.8 MeV fast neutrons. The simulated results at the time of 10-7s after irradiation were obtained and compared with the available experimental results published by other researchers to be in excellent agreement with them over the entire temperature ranges and radiation sources studied. Except for g(H2) that increase with temperature rises, the general behaviors of higher radical products and lower molecular products at higher temperatures were obtained. The LET effect is also validated by this study, showing that the increase in LET would yield higher molecular and lower radical products. Studies on 0.4 M H2SO4 solutions also show good agreement between the computed and experimental data for ?-ray irrradiation: the presence of 0.4 M H+, except for g(H2) that gives lower value at 25oC and higher value at 325oC, gives the higher values for radicals and g(H2O2) at 25oC and lower values at 325oC, compared with that for neutral water. The computed data show good agreement with the experimental data for 0.4 M H2SO4 solutions induced by 0.8 MeV fast neutrons, except for g(H2) and g(H?) that gives good agreement up to 50oC, then the opposite tendencies with the further temperature rises. However, the simulated fast neutron radiolysis on acidic demonstrates similar tendencies on temperature dependence with that for simulated 60Co ?-radiolysis, but in different magnitude. For better understanding, more experimental data for fast neutrons are needed, especially under the acidic conditions. Received: 20 November 2009; Revised: 06 April 2011; Accepted: 12 April 2011
AN EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON NUSSELT NUMBER OF NATURAL CIRCULATION FLOW IN TRANSIENT CONDITION BASED ON THE HEIGHT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HEATER AND COOLER Juarsa, M.; Witoko, J.P.; Giarno, G; Haryanto, D.; Purba, J.H.
Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2018.876

Abstract

A better understanding on the phenomenon of natural circulation flow for cooling systems is necessary prior to improving the safety of nuclear power plant, not only in normal operation but also in accident conditions. One way to understand this phenomenon is by analyzing the Nusselt number in various geometrical dimensions through experimentation. The purpose of this study is to understand natural circulation phenomenon in transient condition by varying height differences between heater and cooler. To achieve this purpose, an experiment apparatus called NC-Queen was developed and arranged to enable three variations of height differences between heater and cooler, i.e., 1.4 m, 1.0 m, and 0.3 m. It is made of a stainless steel tube with a diameter of 1 inch, arranged in rectangular shape 6.4 m in length, and uses water as coolant. The initial temperature of the heater was set at 90 °C. The Nusselt number was obtained by calculating the flow rate as a function of transient temperature. The results confirm that height differences affect thermal properties and flow region based kinetics characteristics of water. In initial condition, decreasing height difference from 1.4 m to 1.0 m resulted in flow rate reduction of 16.7 %, while decreasing height difference from 1.4 m to 0.3 m resulted in a 39.1 % flow rate reduction. In final condition, the flow rate reductions were 75 % and 82.6 %, respectively. Meanwhile, in initial condition, the Nusselt number for height difference reduction from 1.4 m to 1.0 m and from 1.4 m to 0.3 m decreased by 30.5 % and 74.6 %, respectively, while for final condition, the Nusselt number decreased by 11.9 % and 67.4 %, respectively. The new constants in relationship between Nusselt number and the height difference are a = 20.06 and   b = 0.56. The dominance of turbulent flow provides a good safety margin with indications of the large amount of heat released.

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