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Articles 405 Documents
Comparison of Antioxidant and Antiaging Activities Between Dragon Fruit (Hyloceureus polyrhizus (F.A.C. Weber) Britton & Rose) Rind Extract and Kaempferol Viany, Lisma; Rizal, Rizal; Widowati, Wahyu; Samin, Buter; Kusuma, Rita; Fachrial, Edy; I Nyoman, Lister Ehrich
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 51, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v51n3.1715

Abstract

Aging involves progressive physiological changes of the body, including skin dysfunction and death which can be accelerated by the presence of free radicals. Compounds with potential antioxidants and antiaging are contained in various fruits, including dragon fruit (Hyloceureus polyrhizus (F.A.C. Weber) Britton & Rose). This study aimed to compare the antioxidant and antiaging activities of dragon fruit rind extract (DFRE) and Kaempferol. The antioxidant and antiaging activities were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenger and inhibitory activity assay of tyrosinase, respectively and was conducted at the Biomolecular and Biomedicine Research Center, Aretha Medika Utama, from August to November 2018. Data acquired were then analyzed using ANOVA, followed by Post Hoc Test using Turkey HSD test with a confidence level of 95% (α=0.05). Phytochemical assay was also conducted to determine the content of active ingredients in thedragon fruit rind extract. Phytochemical test result showed that DFRE contained flavonoids, tannins, phenols, triterpenoids, and alkaloids compounds. Both DPPH scavenging and tyrosine inhibition assay indicated that Kaempferol compound also had antioxidant and antiaging activities. The IC50 values of DFRE and Kaempferol antioxidant activities were 164.98 μg/mL and 83.30 μg/mL, respectively, while the IC50 values of tyrosinase inhibition activity of DFRE and Kaemferol were 88.46 μg/mL and 59.34 μg/mL, respectively. DFRE had antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibition activities thus can be used as an alternative antiaging and antioxidant agents. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan dengan Antitirosinase Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Naga (Hyloceureus polyrhizus (F.A.C. Weber) Britton & Rose)Aging atau penuaan adalah proses kompleks yang ditandai dengan penurunan progresif fungsi fisiologis tubuh, termasuk kulit yang diikuti oleh disfungsi dan kematian kulit. Faktor-faktor yang dapat mempercepat proses penuaan dini di antaranya radikal bebas dan gaya hidup yang tidak sehat. Buah-buahan banyak mengandung senyawa yang berpotensi sebagai antioksidan dan antiaging, salah satu di antaranya adalah buah naga. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui potensi antioksidan dan antiaging ekstrak kulit buah naga (EKBN) yang dibandingkan dengan senyawa kaempferol (SK) sebagai pembanding. Penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi uji fitokimia untuk mengetahui kandungan bahan aktif pada kulit buah naga, uji pemerangkapan DPPH, dan uji penghambatan tirosinase dan dilakukan di Pusat Penelitian Biomolekul dan Biomedis, Aretha Medika Utama, dari Agustus hingga November 2018. Data lalu dianalisis menggunakan analisis varians (ANOVA) satu arah (one way) Hasil penelitian uji fitokimia menunjukkan EKBN mengandung golongan senyawa, flavonoid, tanin, fenol, triterpenoid, dan alkaloid serta tidak mengandung golongan senyawa saponin, steroid, dan terpenoid. Senyawa kaempferol memiliki aktivitas antioksidan melalui pemerangkapan DPPH dan aktivitas antiaging melalui penghambatan tirosinase yang lebih baik dibanding dengan EKBN. Aktivitas antioksidan dilihat dari nilai IC50 EKBN sebesar 164.98 μg/ml dan SK sebesar 83.30 μg/mL. Aktivitas penghambatan tirosinase memiliki nilai IC50 EKBN masing-masing sebesar 88.46 μg/mL dan IC50 SK sebesar 59.34 μg/mL. EKBN memiliki aktivitas antioksidan dan penghambatan tirosinase sehigga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai alternatif bahan antiaging dan antioksidan. 
Comparison of Antioxidant and Anti-hyaluronidase Potentials of Pineapple Core Extract (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) and Luteolin Jusri, Ridza; Widodo, Wahyu Setia; Widowati, Wahyu; Armansyah, Adek; Sormin, Delores Elisabeth; Fachrial, Edy; Lister, I Nyoman Ehrich
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v51n2.1629

Abstract

Skin aging processes are divided into chronological aging and premature aging. Premature aging is generally caused by free radicals, from both air pollution and photoaging. Natural compounds from plant extracts are among sources of antioxidants and anti-hyaluronidase which have the ability to prevent antiaging. One of the potential fruits related to antioxidant and antiaging activities is Anana scomosus. A. comosus has a number of phenolic compounds with biological activities. One of the main phenolic compounds in A. comosus is luteolin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiaging potentials of Pineapple Core Extract (PCE). This study was conducted at the Biomolecular and Biomedicine Research Center, Aretha Medika Utama from August to November 2018. Analysis of antioxidants from PCE and luteolin was carried out using H2O2 scavenging activity assay. The antiaging assay was carried out through inhibition of hyaluronidase enzyme, one of the important enzymes in the aging process. Luteolin had lower IC50 value of H2O2 scavenging activity of around 24.12±3.13 μg/ml, which was better than CPE with IC50 of 304.56±3.76μg/mL. The results of hyaluronidase inhibition activity assay showed that luteolin compound had a lower IC50 value of 67.38±3.99 μg/mL when compared to PCE with an IC50 value of 161.15±1.05 μg/mL. Hence, Luteolin has higher antioxidant and anti-hyaluronidase activities than PCEPerbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Antihialuronidase Ekstrak Bonggol Buah Nanas (EBN) dengan Senyawa LuteolinTerdapat dua jenis proses penuaan kulit, penuaan kronologis dan penuaan dini. Penuaan dini umumnya disebabkan oleh radikal bebas, baik dari polusi udara maupun photoaging. Penggunaan antioksidan dan antihialuronidase untuk mencegah proses penuaan telah banyak diketahui. Ananascomosus merupakan salah satu tanaman yang memiliki potensi sebagai antipenuaan dan antioksidan karena mengandung sejumlah senyawa fenolik yang memiliki berbagai aktivitas biologis. Salah satu senyawa fenolik utama dalam A. comosus adalah luteolin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi potensi antioksidan dan anti-aging dari Ekstrak Bonggol Nanas (EBN) dan senyawa pembandingnya yaitu luteolin . Penelitian ini dilakukan di Biomolecular and Biomedicine Research Center, Aretha Medika Utama dari Agustus hingga November 2018. Pengujian antioksidan dari EBN dan luteolin  dilakukan menggunakan uji pemerangkapan H2O2. Uji antipenuaan dilakukan melalui uji penghambatan aktivitas hialuronidase, salah satu enzim penting dalam proses penuaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Luteolin  memiliki nilai IC50 aktivitas pemerangkapan H2O2lebih rendah sekitar 24.12±3.13 μg/ml lebih baik daripada EBN dengan IC50 sebesar 304.56±3.76μg/mL. Hasil uji aktivitas penghambatan hialuronidase, senyawa luteolin  memiliki nilai IC50 lebih rendah, yaitu sebesar 67,38±3,99 μg/mL dibanding dengan EBN nilai IC50 161,15±1,05μg/mL. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa senyawa pembanding luteolin  memiliki aktivitas antioksidan dan antihialuronidase yang lebih tinggi daripada EBN. 
Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence And Its Association with Bacterial Load Sputum in Newly Diagnosed TB Patients Lubis, Melviana; Sinaga, Bintang Yinke Magdalena; Lubis, Nita Andriani
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 52, No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (558.813 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v52n1.1937

Abstract

Vitamin D plays a role in innate and adaptive immune functions, and its deficiency has become a risk factor for TB infection. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newly diagnosed TB patients and to examine the relationship between vitamin D levels and sputum smear positivity that reflects bacterial load. This is a cross-sectional study conducted at several primary health care facilities in Medan and Deli Serdang from November 2015 to June 2016. As many as 86 subjects adult TB patients with positive smear sputum who had not received therapy or had at most 1 week on therapy were recruited. Sputum examination were interpreted using IUATLD (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease) grading scale. Serum 25 (OH) vitamin D level was estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and interpreted as deficiency (<20 ng/ml), insufficiency (20–29 ng/ml), or optimum (30–100 ng/ml). The association between vitamin D level and positivity level of AFB sputum was analyzed using Spearman correlation test. The prevalence of VDD in new pulmonary TB patients with positive smear sputum was 17.4%.  There was a weak relationship between vitamin D level and positivity level of  AFB sputum (p = 0.014), with a correlation coefficient of (-0.264). Many of newly diagnosed TB patients had vitamin D deficiency despite the fact that Indonesia is an equatorial area with sufficient sunshine throughout the year. This study shows vitamin D indeed affect bacterial load and a low 25 (OH) vitamin D level is associated with higher bacterial load. Prevalensi Defisiensi Vitamin D pada Pasien TB Paru Baru dan Hubungan dengan Derajat Kepositifan Sputum Basil Tahan AsamVitamin D berperan dalam imunitas bawaan dan adaptif. Kekurangan vitamin D merupakan faktor risiko terinfeksi TB. Penelitian ini bertujuan menggambarkan prevalensi defisiensi vitamin D pada pasien TB baru dan mengetahui hubungan kadar vitamin D dengan derajat kepositifan sputum yang mencerminkan kepadatan bakteri. Penelitian potong lintang ini dilakukan di beberapa Puskesmas di wilayah Medan dan Deli Serdang pada November 2015 hingga Juni 2016. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 86 pasien TB dewasa dengan sputum basil tahan asam (BTA) positif, yang belum atau maksimal 1 minggu mengkonsumsi obat. Pemeriksaan sputum dinilai menggunakan skala IUATLD. Kadar vitamin D serum 25 (OH) dinilai dengan metode ELISA dan diklasifikasikan menjadi defisiensi (<20 ng/mL), insuffisiensi (20–29 ng/mL), optimum (30–100 ng/mL). Hubungan kadar vitamin D dengan tingkat kepositifan sputum BTA dilakukan dengan uji korelasi Spearman. Prevalensi VDD pada pasien TB paru baru dengan sputum positif adalah 17,4%. Terdapat  hubungan antara kadar vitamin D dan tingkat kepositifan sputum BTA (p=0,014), dengan koefisien korelasi (-0,264). Banyak pasien TB paru baru yang mengalami kekurangan vitamin D, meskipun Indonesia berada di khatulistiwa dengan kecukupan sinar matahari sepanjang tahun. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa vitamin D berhubungan dengan kepositifan sputum dan kadar vitamin D yang rendah berhubungan dengan kepadatan bakteri yang lebih tinggi.
Distribution of VDR Gene Polymorphisms Bsm-I rs1544410 and Apa-I rs7975232 among HIV/AIDS Patients from West Java Hendro, Hendro; Sahiratmadja, Edhyana; Indrati, Agnes Rengga; Maskoen, Ani Melani
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 52, No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v52n1.1680

Abstract

Vitamin D receptor, encoded by VDR gene, mediates vitamin D functions by not only regulating calcium metabolism and homeostasis but also in regulating immune response. Polymorphisms in VDR gene may increase the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to explore the distribution of VDR polymorphisms among HIV sero-positive patients in West Java. A cross-sectional study was performed, recruiting 96 patients infected with HIV and VDR polymorphisms were analyzed. The genotype distributions of Bsm-I among HIV-infected patients were 2.2%, 18.5%, and 79.3% for BB, Bb, and bb, respectively whereas the distributions of Apa-I were 54.4%, 38.9%, and 6.7% for AA, Aa and aa, respectively. The frequency of VDR polymorphisms in Bsm-I among HIV-infected patients in West Java were considered high for b allele (88.6%), and in contrast for A allele in Apa-I that was 73.91%. Further studies involving healthy controls are needed to explore the VDR polymorphisms distribution in general population. Moreover, a cohort study, albeit challenging, is needed to further assess the association between VDR polymorphisms and the progression of HIV infection.Distribusi Polimorfisme gen VDR Bsm-I rs1544410 dan Apa-I rs7975232 pada Pasien HIV/AIDS di Jawa BaratReseptor vitamin D yang dikode oleh gen VDR mempunyai peranan penting terhadap fungsi vitamin D, tidak hanya dalam regulasi metabolisme dan keseimbangan kalsium namun juga berperan dalam meregulasi respon imun. Polimorfisme pada gen VDR ditengarai dapat meningkatkan progresivitas infeksi human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) menjadi acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui distribusi polimorfisme gen VDR pada pasien HIV di Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini melibatkan 96 pasien HIV dan dilakukan analisis polimorfisme gen VDR. Distribusi genotip Bsm-I pada pasien HIV di Jawa Barat adalah 2,2%, 18,5%, dan 79,3% untuk BB, Bb, dan bb, secara beurutan; sedangkan pada Apa-I adalah 54,4%, 38,9%, dan 6,7% untuk AA, Aa, dan aa. Frekuensi polimorfisme pada Bsm-I pada pasien HIV di Jawa Barat tergolong tinggi pada alel b (88,6%) dan berbanding terbalik pada dan Apa-I dengan alel A yaitu 73,91%. Penelitian lebih lanjut yang melibatkan individu kontrol diperlukan untuk mengetahui distribusi polimorfisme gen VDR pada populasi umum. Selain itu, studi kohort pada pasien HIV/AIDS diperlukan untuk menilai hubungan antara polimorfisme gen VDR terhadap progresivitas infeksi HIV.
Knowledge Improvement on Burn Injury Prevention and First Management after One-Day Health Promotion Event Hasibuan, Lisa; Soedjana, Hardisiswo; Hilmanto, Dany; Tarawan, Vita Murniati; Muliawan, Benny; Lubis, Putra Haqiqie Adnantama
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 51, No 4 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1796.304 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v51n4.1747

Abstract

Burns causes a significant number of mortality and morbidity globally with a higher number found in developing countries, such as Indonesia. A study conducted in Indonesia discovered that the majority of burns were caused by flame LPG-related (liquefied petroleum gas) burns (33%), which is understandable because LPG is the main cooking fuel used in Indonesian homes. Since the first management of burn will influence the outcome of burn injuries, health promotion efforts to improve knowledge, attitude, and practice to prevent burns and to provide first aid for burn are considered important to reduce burn-related morbidity and mortality. This was a descriptive study conducted in Babakan Sari Sub-district, Antapani, Bandung, Indonesia which involved a one-day community health promotion event as the intervention. The aim of this study was to compare the level of knowledge regarding burn prevention and first management before and after a one-day community health promotion event. As many as 61 respondents were recruited through purposive sampling and these respondents were asked to fill out a pre-event questionnaire consisting of questions regarding demographic data and knowledge on burn prevention and management. Demographic data collected showed that 31% of participants had experienced burns; 100% of participants used 3kg LPG gas tank in their home; 98% of participants had never been taught on how to handle an emergency situation or how to arrange an evacuation route; and 100% of participants felt that their neighborhood did not provide facilities for burn management. A post-event questionnaire was distributed after the one-day health promotion event, which was conducted in October 2018, and the results were compared with the pre-event questionnaire results. A significant improvement of knowledge was seen, as evident from the increase of a median score from 2.0 before the event to 9.0 after the event (p<0.001). In conclusion, despite the fact that all participants of this study used 3kg LPG gas tank, they do not have proper knowledge regarding prevention or management of burns and that a one-day health promotion event can increase this knowledge significantly. Thus, an effective community health promotion program should be implemented at the community level in Indonesia, especially for areas where the majority of residents use 3 kg LPG gas tank, in order to reduce the incidence of burns due to 3 kg LPG tank explosion.Peningkatan Pengetahuan Melalui Penyuluhan Mengenai Pencegahan dan Penanganan Dini pada Luka BakarLuka bakar merupakan sebuah masalah yang menyebabkan morbiditas dan mortalitas tinggi di negara berkembang, termasuk Indonesia. Mayoritas luka bakar (33%) diakibatkan oleh api dari ledakan tabung gas LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) 3 kg dan mayoritas rumah tangga menggunakannya. Pelaksanaan penyuluhan mengenai pencegahan dan penanganan awal diharapkan dapat menurunkan angka morbiditas dan mortalitas akibat luka bakar. Penelitian deskriptif ini bertujuan membandingkan tingkat pengetahuan tentang pencegahan luka bakar dan manajemen pertama sebelum dan setelah acara promosi kesehatan Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kelurahan/Desa Babakan Sari, Antapani, Bandung pada bulan Oktober 2018 untuk mengedukasi dan meningkatkan pengetahuan responden. Dari total 61 responden (45 wanita dan 16 pria) dengan mayoritas responden berusia di atas 60 tahun (45.9%), didapatkan 32.8% responden pernah mengalami luka bakar, 100% responden menggunakan gas LPG 3 kg, 98% peserta tidak pernah mendapatkan penyuluhan mengenai penanganan luka bakar, dan 100% peserta merasa tidak ada fasilitas penanganan kebakaran di wilayah mereka. Pengetahuan responden dinilai sebelum dan sesudah dilakukan penyuluhan dan didapatkan peningkatan secara signifikan dan bermakna (p<0.001). Simpulan, meskipun semua responden yang menggunakan tangki gas LPG 3 kg tidak memiliki pengetahuan yang memadai pencegahan atau pengelolaan luka bakar, penyuluhan ini efektif dapat menurunkan angka kejadian luka bakar.
The Correlation Between Neutrophil-lymphocyte Count Ratio and Procalcitonin in Septic and Septic Shock Jonathan, Jonathan; Pradian, Erwin; Zulfariansyah, Ardi
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 51, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (135.35 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v51n3.1642

Abstract

Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in patients with infection. Procalcitonin is one of the laboratory parameters that is used to differentiate between thesystemic inflammatory responses caused by pathogens and non-pathogens. Neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) is one of the simple laboratory parameters used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between NLCR and procalcitonin for sepsis and septic shock patients. A cross-sectional prospective correlational analysis study was perfromed on 36 sepsis and septic shock patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung General Hospital during September 2017–May 2018. Statistical analysis was performed using Rank Spearman’s and Mann Whitney test. Both procalcitonin and NLCR increased in sepsis and septic shock patients. Procalcitonin level was significantly different in sepsis and septic shock groups (p<0.05), albeit insignificant difference in NLCR (p>0.05). NLCR was significantly higher in gram positive bacteria patient group (p<0,05); however, the difference was not seen for procalcitonin level (p>0.05). Correlation test found a significant positive correlation between SOFA score and procalcitonin (R=0.557 and p<0.01) and no correlation between SOFA score and NLCR (R=0.117 and p>0.05). There was no correlation between NLCR and procalcitonin for sepsis and septic shock patients (R=0.122 and p>0.05). Therefore, no correlation was found between NLCR and procalcitonin for sepsis and septic shock patients.Korelasi antara Rasio Hitung Neutrofil-Limfosit dan Prokalsitonin pada Pasien Sepsis dan Syok SepsisSepsis merupakan salah satu penyebab kematian terbanyak pada pasien infeksi. Pemeriksaan prokalsitonin merupakan salah satu parameter untuk membedakan bahwa respons inflamasi sistemik disebabkan oleh patogen atau non-patogen. Parameter laboratorium lain yang lebih sederhana adalah rasio hitung neutrofil-limfosit (neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio/NLCR). Tujuan penelitian ini mengetahui korelasi antara NLCR dan prokalsitonin pada pasien sepsis dan syok sepsis. Penelitian analisis korelasional prospektif ini dilakukan dengan desain potong lintang terhadap 36 pasien sepsis dan syok septik yang dirawat di ICU Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung periode September 2017–Mei 2018. Analisis statistik menggunakan Uji Rank Spearman dan Mann Whitney. Kadar prokalsitonin dan NLCR meningkat pada pasien sepsis dan syok septik. Kadar prokalsitonin berbeda secara signifikan pada kelompok sepsis dan syok septik (p<0,05), perbedaan tidak terlihat untuk NLCR (p>0,05). NLCR secara signifikan lebih tinggi pada bakteri gram positif daripada bakteri gram negatif (p<0,05), perbedaan tidak terlihat pada kadar prokalsitonin (p>0,05). Uji korelasi menunjukkan korelasi positif yang signifikan antara skor SOFA dan prokalsitonin (R=0,557; p<0,01) dan tidak terdapat korelasi antara skor SOFA dengan NLCR (R=0,117; p>0,05). Tidak terdapat korelasi antara NLCR dan prokalsitonin pada pasien sepsis dan syok septik (R=0,122; p> 0,05). Simpulan: tidak terdapat korelasi antara NLCR dan prokalsitonin pada pasien sepsis dan syok septik.
Rituximab Iodination Procedure for Radioiodinated Rituximab (131I-Rituximab) Preparation Ramli, Martalena; Hidayat, Basuki; Sutari, Sutari; Setyowati, Sri; Susilo, Veronica Yulianti
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1864.956 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v51n2.1595

Abstract

Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody which has specific for CD20 antigen expressed by pre-B and mature B-cells. Radiolabelled Rituximab, 131I-Rituximab, has been sucessfully used for treatment of B-Cell NHL. Due to its short shelf-life, 131I-Rituximab is commonly freshly prepared in hospitals prior to its used.  This study aimed to validate rituximab iodination procedure for 131I-Rituximab preparation in order to find the most suitable procedure to be applied in hospitals which intend to produce 131I-Rituximab in-house.  Three different methods of radiolabelling using three types of oxidizing agents, namely Iodobeads, Iodogen, and Chloramine-T were performed. Prior to the validation, radiochemical purity test and purification procedures were also validated as these procedures are critical for producing an acceptable quality of  I-Rituximab. In addition, the shelf-life of 131I-Rituximab was also studied. This study was conducted at the Centre for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical Technology, Serpong during the period of July 2015 to February 2018.  The results showed that the radiochemical purity test of 131I-Rituximab could be easily performed by using instance thin layer chromatography–silica gel (ITLC-SG) in the stationary phase and 85% methanol or saline in the mobile phase. Purification of 131I-Rituximab was conducted using a Sephadex G-25 M filled column with 0.1 M PBS, pH 7.2, as the eluent that was found to be quite reliable to give 131I-Rituximab with radiochemical purity of >95% and recovery of approximately 90%. Radiolabelling efficiency performed using Iodobeads was the lowest (60%) compared to that of Iodogen and Chloramine-T (80–90%). In addition, approximately 30% of  I was retained by Iodobeads and this procedure was time consuming(~ 1 hours). It is concluded that Chloramine-T and Iodogen are better than Iodobeads as the oxidizing agent for radiolabelling of Rituximab with 131I. The radiochemical purity of 131I-Rituximab is well maintained when stored at room temperature and in 4 °C temperature up to 6 hours.Validasi Prosedur Iodinasi Rituximab untuk Preparasi131 I-RituximabValidasi proseduri odinasi rituximab untuk preparasi131I-Rituximab telah berhasil dilakukan.  Validasi ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan prosedur yang paling sesuai yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk produksi131 I-Rituximabdi rumah sakit yang ingin memproduksi131 I-Rituximab di laboratorium mereka.  Tiga metode radiolabelling menggunakan 3 jenis oksidator Iodobeads, Iodogen, dan Chloramine-T telah divalidasi. Sebelum validasi ini, prosedur uji kemurnian radiokimia dan pemurnian divalidasi terlebih dahulu karena prosedur-prosedur ini sangat berpengaruh dalam penyediaan131 I-Rituximab dengan kualitas yang baik. Disampingitu, lama simpan131I-Rituximab juga dipelajari. Penelitan ini dilaksanakan di Pusat Teknologi Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka, Serpong, Juli 2015–Februari 2018. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa uji kemurnian radiokimia 131I-Rituximab dapat dilakukan dengan mudah menggunakan instance thin layer chromatography – silica gel (ITLC-SG) sebagai fasa diam dan metanol 85% atau larutan salin sebagai fasa gerak. Pemurnian131I-Rituximab menggunakan kolom Sephadex G-25 M dan0.1 M PBS pH 7,2 sebagai eluen dapat diandalkan dan memberikan131I-Rituximab dengan kemurnian radiokimia >95% dan sekitar 90% perolehan kembali. Efisiensi penandaaan menggunakan Iodobeads didapatkan paling (60%) dibanding dengan Iodogen dan Chloramine-T (80 – 90%). Di samping itu, sekitar 30% 131I hilang karena terikat pada Iodobeads dan prosedur ini memakan waktu yang panjang (~1 jam). Penandaan Rituximab 131I menggunakan Chloramine-T and Iodogen dapat disimpulkan lebih baik dibanding dengan menggunakan Iodobeads. Kemurnian radiokimia131I-Rituximab terjaga dengan baik pada penyimpanan selama 6 jam pada suhu kamar dan 4 °C.
IL-10 Promoter Polymorphism Distribution among HBsAg-Reactive and HBsAg-Nonreactive Blood Donors Kemal, Rahmat Azhari; Arfianti, Arfianti; Oktora, Reni; Gani, Bebe; Djojosugito, Fauzia Andrini; Winarto, Winarto
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 52, No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (694.508 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v52n1.1812

Abstract

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serves as a serological marker for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. People with HBV asymptomatic infection might readily donate blood due to the lack of clinical manifestations. Host immunity contributes to susceptibility and progression of infection. A polymorphism in IL-10 gene promoter, rs1800896, might contribute to host immunity. This study was conducted on May 2019 – January 2020 in Faculty of Medicine, University of Riau on  70 blood samples from donors  in the Indonesian Red Cross Pekanbaru. Out of these samples, 35 were reactive for HBsAg and 35 donors were nonreactive. Genotyping of rs1800896 was conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS-PCR). In total, The distribution of AA (74.3%), AG (24.3%), and GG (1.4%) genotypes revealed in this study seemed to be similar to genotype distribution among East and South-East Asian populations. While no significant difference was observed on age mean and gender distribution, a significant difference was identified in  genotype distribution between HBsAg status (p-value 0.028) with the percentage of AA genotype was higher among HBsAg-nonreactive donors (85.7%) compared to reactive donors (62.9%). More studies should be conducted to characterize HBsAg-reactive blood donors, including the donor characteristics and the viral genotypes. Such studies should contribute to hepatitis B management in Indonesia. Distribusi Polimorfisme Promoter IL-10 pada Donor Darah dengan HBsAg Reaktif dan Nonreaktif di Pekanbaru Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) merupakan penanda serologis infeksi virus hepatitis B (HBV). Individu dengan infeksi HBV asimptomatik dapat melakukan donasi darah karena tidak adanya gejala klinis. Imunitas inang berkontribusi pada kerentanan dan perkembangan infeksi. Polimorfisme pada promoter gen IL-10, rs1800896, dapat berkontribusi pada imunitas inang. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2019 – Januari 2020 di Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Riau. Sampel diambil adalah 70 darah donor dari Palang Merah Indonesia Pekanbaru, 35 sampel reaktif HBsAg dan 35 sampel nonreaktif. Genotipe rs1800896 dilihat berdasarkan Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS-PCR). Pada populasi studi ini, distribusi genotipe AA (74.3%), AG (24.3%), dan GG (1.4%) sesuai populasi Asia Timur dan Tenggara. Walaupun tidak terdapat perbedaan pada rerata umur dan distribusi jenis kelamin, penelitian ini menemukan perbedaan signifikan pada distribusi genotipe antar kelompok status HBsAg (p-value 0.028), yaitu persentase genotipe AA lebih tinggi pada kelompok donor dengan HBsAg nonreaktif (85.7%) dibandingkan kelompok reaktif (62.9%). Studi lebih lanjut perlu dilakukan untuk karakterisasi donor darah dengan HBsAg reaktif, termasuk gneotipe donor dan virus. Informasi tersebut diharapkan dapat bermanfaat pada manajemen hepatitis B di Indonesia.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES DECREASE FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 PATIENTS: USE OF INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE (IPAQ) IN RURAL AREA Putri, Mirasari; Persariningrat, Rd.Tiara Indah; Surialaga, Samsudin; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A. A.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 51, No 4 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v51n4.1765

Abstract

An increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2) has been observed from 1.1% in 2007 to 1.5% in 2018 with incidents occur in both urban areas and rural areas of Indonesia. Garut as one of the rural areas in Indonesia is the fourth district with the highest DM-2 incidence in West Java Province, Idnonesia. Physical activity is considered to affect the glycemic control and weight loss in DM-2 patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the physical activity level and blood glucose level in DM-2 patients in Garut, Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional observational analytic study on 46 DM-2 patients who were the members of the Garut Branch of the Indonesian Diabetes Association (PERSADIA), in May 2018. The physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) while the blood glucose level was measured using fasting blood glucose level test. Data were then analyzed using analysis of variance test. Results showed that most participants had a low level of physical activity (52.2%) while the lowest fasting blood glucose was obtained from patients with high physical activity (98.63±11.6), compared to those with moderate and low physical activity levels (123.43±20.16 and 164.21±19.04 mg/dL, respectively) with p=0.000 (p<0.05). Lifestyle changes, especially in the form of the lack physical activity, were seen alsonin the rural area in Indonesia. High physical activity level is the most effective measure to lower fasting blood glucose level in DM-2 patients. Aktivitas Fisik Menurunkan Kadar Glukosa Darah Puasa pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2: Menggunakan the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) di Rural AreaKejadian pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 (DM-2) pada tahun 2018 (1,5%) mengalami peningkatan dibandingkan tahun 2007 (1,1%), terjadi baik di daerah perkotaan dan pedesaan di Indonesia. Garut sebagai salah satu daerah pedesaan di Indonesia adalah salah satu kabupaten dengan insidens DM-2 terbesar keempat di Jawa Barat-Indonesia. Aktivitas fisik dianggap memengaruhi kontrol glikemik dan penurunan berat badan pada pasien DM-2. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan tingkat aktivitas fisik dengan kadar glukosa darah pada pasien DM-2 di Garut-Indonesia. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 46 pasien DM-2 yang tergabung dalam Persatuan Diabetes Indonesia (PERSADIA), cabang Kabupaten Garut, pada Mei 2018. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah analitik observasional dengan metode cross-sectional. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) sebagai alat untuk mengukur tingkat aktivitas fisik, selain itu dilakukan pengukuran kadar glukosa darah puasa. Data dianalisis menggunakan analysis of variance test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar peserta memiliki tingkat aktivitas fisik yang rendah (52,2%) dan glukosa darah puasa terendah diperoleh dari pasien dengan aktivitas fisik yang tinggi (98,63±11,6) dibandingkan dengan aktivitas fisik sedang dan rendah (123,43±20,16 dan 164,21±19,04 mg/dL), dengan p=0.000 (p<0,05). Perubahan gaya hidup terutama kurangnya aktivitas fisik juga terjadi di daerah pedesaan di Indonesia dan aktivitas fisik yang tinggi adalah tipe yang paling efektif menurunkan kadar glukosa darah puasa pada pasien DM-2.
COMPARISON OF HBA1C LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH TB-DM AND TB-NON DM Puetri, Nona Rahmaida; Hadifah, Zain; Nur, Abidah; Hanum, Sari
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 51, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (606.808 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v51n3.1753

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global problem that has not currently been resolved, due to it rapid transmission through droplet nuclei released when TB patients cough, sneeze, or even talking. One of the TB comorbidities is Diabetes Mellitus (DM) that makes it necessary to do HbA1c screening in patients with TB DM and TB non-DM to prevent further disease complications.This was a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study conducted in 2018 on a total sample of 248 TB-DM and TB non-DM patients in Aceh Besar District and Banda Aceh City, Indonesia with 29.8% of the subjects were TB-DM patients and the remaining 70.2% were TB Non-DM patients. The.HbA1c levels in TB patients varied, with the average HbA1c level of 10.738 in people with TB DM and 5.426 in TB non-DM. The HbA1c level in patients with TB DM was two times higher than in TB non-DM patients. Around 21% of TB patients who were not diagnosed with DM by health care workers showed an HbA1c level that was in line with the level in the DM category. Therefore, it is recommended that each TB patient undergoes screening HbA1c in order to prevent TB non-DMpatients from becoming TB DM patients.

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