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INDONESIA
AL KAUNIYAH
ISSN : 19783736     EISSN : 25026720     DOI : 10.15408/kauniyah
Core Subject : Science,
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi (p-ISSN: 1978-3736, e-ISSN: 2502-6720) is an Open Access Journal published by Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, and established since 2007. Since 2016 Al-Kauniyah has established a collaboration with the Association of Lecturer in Biology and Biology Education throughout the State Islamic Higher University (PTKIN) in Indonesia. Until 2015, Al-Kauniyah covered environmental biology solely, but since 2016 the journal has been extended to cover the entire field of biological science (bioscience). By publishing biannually, on April and October, Al-Kauniyah is intended to communicate original researches and current issues on the subject of biology. Since volume 9 issue 1 April 2016, Al-Kauniyah had been changes the layout. This journal warmly welcomes contributions from scholars of related disciplines. Manuscripts can be submitted to AL-KAUNIYAH
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Articles 124 Documents
AKTIVITAS ANTAGONISTIK BAKTERI SELULOLITIK ASAL RHIZOSFER KELAPA SAWIT (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ.) TERHADAP GANODERMA BONINENSE PAT. Nisa, Miratun; Aini, Fitratul; Maritsa, Hasna Ul
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.11704

Abstract

AbstrakPenyakit busuk pangkal batang pada kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) disebabkan oleh Ganoderma boninense Pat. Bakteri selulolitik dari rizosfer kelapa sawit dapat dijadikan agen hayati dalam menghambat pertumbuhan G. boninense. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri selulolitik dari rizosfer kelapa sawit dan menentukan efektivitasnya dalam menghambat pertumbuhan G. boninense. Tahap penelitian meliputi pengambilan sampel dari rizosfer kelapa sawit, isolasi, pemurnian, uji aktivitas selulolitik, dan uji daya hambat terhadap G. boninense serta identifikasi isolat bakteri yang potensial. Indeks selulolitik bakteri ditentukan dengan pewarnaan congo red 0,1%. Aktivitas penghambatan dilakukan dengan menentukan persentase daya hambat bakteri dalam menghambat G. boninense. Uji efektivitas dengan membandingkan hasil uji T pada taraf 5%. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa dari rizosfer kelapa sawit diperoleh 19 isolat bakteri selulolitik dengan indeks selulolitik tertinggi 4,38 pada isolat LBS1. Berdasarkan uji T dari efektivitas bakteri selulolitik terhadap G. boninense menunjukkan 6 isolat bakteri (LBS3, LBS4, DBS1, DBS7, SBS2 dan SBS6) memiliki nilai efektif atau berpotensi sebagai antagonis dengan persentase daya hambat tertinggi sebesar 40,17% isolat DBS1 yang merupakan genus Flavobacterium.  Harapan kedepannya, bakteri selulolitik yang diperoleh dapat dijadikan agen biokontrol terhadap G. boninense.Abstract Basal stem root disease in oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is caused by Ganoderma boninense Pat. infection. Cellulolytic bacteria from rhizosphere can be used as agents to inhibit G. boninense growth as pathogenic fungi. Purpose of the research is to obtain cellulolytic bacteria from oil palm tree rhizosphere and to determine their effectiveness in inhibiting G. boninense growth. The research stages included sampling from the oil palm tree rhizosphere, isolation, purification, cellulolytic activity test and dual culture test against G. boninense and identification of effective isolates. The cellulolytic index of bacteria was determined by congo red 0.1%. Antagonistic test was conducted to determine persentation of isolate bacteria in inhibit G. boninense and effectiveness test by comparing result of T test at the level 5%. The results showed that there are 19 isolates of cellulolytic bacteria from oil palm tree rhizosphere with highest cellulolytic index 4.38 (isolates LBS1). Based on T test of the effectiveness cellulolytic bacteria against G. boninense showed 6 isolates (LBS3, LBS4, DBS1, DBS7, SBS2, and SBS6) had effective values or potential antagonists with highest percentage inhibition 40.17% isolate DBS1 genus of Flavobacterium. Hope that in the future, cellulolytic bacteria obtained can be used as biocontrol agents for G. boninense.
PERTUMBUHAN HOYA CORONARIA SPP. DARI HUTAN KERANGAS PADA BERBAGAI INTENSITAS CAHAYA Robika, Robika; Henri, Henri
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.13686

Abstract

AbstrakHabitat alami Hoya coronaria di Pulau Bangka adalah di hutan kerangas yang miskin hara, kondisi mikroklimat yang ekstrem dan rawan gangguan kebakaran hutan. Evaluasi adaptasi morfologi dan fisiologis enam varietas H. coronaria di luar habitat alaminya perlu dilakukan untuk mendukung upaya konservasi Hoya. Percobaan dirancang dan dilaksanakan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan terdiri dari 2 faktor. Faktor pertama: intensitas cahaya terdiri dari tiga taraf, yakni 15 klux (naungan 75%), 23 klux (naungan 50%), dan 59 klux (tanpa naungan). Faktor kedua yakni varietas H. coronaria berdasarkan variasi warna bunga yang terdiri dari enam taraf (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, dan V6). Intensitas cahaya tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap variabel panjang ruas, jumlah ruas, jumlah buku, dan kandungan klorofil pada enam varietas H. coronaria yang diamati. Intensitas cahaya berpengaruh nyata terhadap variabel panjang batang, diameter batang, dan jumlah daun enam varietas Hoya. Semua varietas H. coronaria menunjukkan mampu tumbuh pada kisaran intensitas cahaya 15?59 klux. Namun, respon pertumbuhan yang ditunjukkan oleh keenam varietas berbeda-beda. Lima varietas menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang relatif stabil pada berbagai perlakuan intensitas cahaya, sedangkan satu varietas yaitu V2, menunjukkan adanya perlambatan pertumbuhan pada intensitas cahaya rendah. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa, keenam varietas Hoya lebih tepat dibudidayakan pada lokasi yang lebih banyak terkena cahaya.Abstract Hoya coronaria's natural habitat on Bangka Island is in nutrient-poor heath forests, extreme microclimate conditions and prone to forest fires. Evaluation of the morphological and physiological adaptations of six H. coronaria varieties their natural habitat outside needs to be done to support Hoya's conservation efforts. The experiment was designed and carried out using a factorial complete randomized design with treatment consisting of 2 factors. The first factor is the light intensity consists of three levels namely: 15 klux (75% shade), 23 klux (50% shade), and 59 klux (without shade). The second factor is H. coronaria variety based on flower color different which consists of six levels (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, and V6). The intensity of the light did not significantly affect the variable length, segment number, number of node and chlorophyll content in the six varieties of H. coronaria observed. Light intensity significantly affected the variable length of the stem, stem diameter and number of leaves of six Hoya varieties. All H. coronaria varieties were shown to be able to grow in the range of light intensities of 15?59 klux. However, the growth response shown by the six different varieties. Five varieties showed relatively stable growth in various light intensity treatments, while one variety, V2, showed a slowing down of growth at low light intensity. The results of this study suggest that, the six Hoya varieties are more precisely cultivated in locations where more light is exposed.
COVER AL-KAUNIYAH: JURNAL BIOLOGI VOL. 13 NO. 1 APRIL 2020 Vol. 13(1) 2020, Cover
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16431.534 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.15461

Abstract

PENGARUH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG) TERHADAP KADAR KUERSETIN KULTUR KALUS CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM RAMAT PADA KONDISI PENCAHAYAAN BERBEDA Setiawati, Tia; Zazuli, Syifa Fauzia; Annisa, Annisa; Nurzaman, Mohamad; Irawan, Budi
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3713.676 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.13688

Abstract

AbstrakKrisan (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) mengandung senyawa kuersetin dengan efek farmakologi yang sangat luas. Penambahan polyethilene glycol (PEG) dapat dimanfaatkan untuk meningkatkan produksi metabolit sekunder secara in vitro. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh PEG terhadap pertumbuhan kalus krisan dan kadar kuersetin 3-O-rhamnosida pada pencahayaan yang berbeda. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Eksplan kalus berumur 45 hari setelah tanam (HST) disubkultur pada media MS + 4 ppm 2,4-D dengan penambahan PEG dalam lima taraf konsentrasi yaitu 0, 10, 20, 30, dan 40 ppm. Kultur diinkubasi pada kondisi gelap dan terang. Parameter yang diamati adalah warna, tekstur, ukuran, berat basah, dan berat kering kalus serta kadar kuersetin 3-O-rhamnosida. Data kuantitatif dianalisis menggunakan Analisis Varians dan Uji Jarak Berganda Duncan (? 5%), sedangkan data kualitatif dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kalus pada kondisi terang berwarna cokelat dan cokelat kehijauan, sedangkan pada kondisi gelap berwarna putih kecokelatan. Perlakuan 10 ppm PEG menghasilkan berat basah dan berat kering kalus tertinggi baik pada kondisi terang maupun gelap berturut-turut 1,97 g dan 2,92 g; 0,94 g dan 1,09 g. Kadar kuersetin 3-O-rhamnosida tertinggi pada kondisi gelap dan terang terdapat pada perlakuan 10 ppm PEG berturut-turut  1,72 µg/g berat kering (BK) dan 2,59 µg/g BK.Abstract Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. contains quercetin with very broad pharmacological effects. The addition of PEG can be used to increase the production of secondary metabolites using in vitro method. This study aimed to determine the effect of PEG on the growth of Chrysanthemum callus and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside content in different lighting conditions. The experimental design used was a Completely Randomized Design. After 45 days, callus were subcultured on MS medium + 4 ppm 2,4-D which PEG was added in five concentration levels (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 ppm). Culture was incubated in dark and light conditions. Parameters observed were color, texture, size, wet weight and dry weight of callus, also quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside levels. Quantitative data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance and Duncan's Multiple Distance (? 5%). Qualitative data was analyzed descriptively. The results showed that in light condition, the callus has brown and greenish brown color, whereas in dark, it has brownish white color. The 10 ppm PEG treatment produced the highest fresh weight and dry weight in both light and dark conditions of 1.97 g and 2.92 g, 0.94 g and 1.09 g, respectively.The highest quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside content  in dark and light conditions were founded in 10 ppm PEG treatment of 1.72 µg/g dry weight (DW) and 2.59 µg/g DW.
STRUKTUR UKURAN DAN TINGKAT PEMANFAATAN IKAN LENCAM (LETHRINUS LENTJAN LACEPEDE, 1802) PERAIRAN ARAFURA DI PROBOLINGGO Pane, Andina Ramadhani Putri; Nurulludin, Nurulludin; Widiyastuti, Heri; Suman, Ali
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2883.015 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.14419

Abstract

AbstrakPenangkapan ikan di perairan Arafura banyak dilakukan oleh nelayan dari Pulau Jawa diantaranya Jakarta, Probolinggo, Pati, dan Indramayu. Nelayan dari Probolinggo yang menangkap ikan di perairan Arafura (WPP 718) menggunakan alat tangkap jaring dan pancing rawai dengan tujuan utama adalah ikan demersal, yaitu kakap (Lutjanus spp.), kerapu (Epeniphelus spp.), lencam (Lethrinus lentjan.), dan lainnya. Pemanfaatan ikan demersal terutama ikan lencam (Lethrinus lentjan) yang terus-menerus akan memicu terjadinya perubahan stok populasi ikan di perairan, sehingga diperlukan analisa ilmiah sebagai dasar pengelolaan perikanan. Tujuan dari analisa ilmiah ini untuk menjadi nilai kontrol dalam pengawasan jumlah eksploitasi ikan dan bahan pengkajian stok ikan lencam (Lethrinus lentjan). Penelitian dilakukan Februari hingga Desember 2017 di TPI Mayangan Probolinggo. Struktur ukuran ikan 23?65 cmFL dengan dominan pada ukuran 50 cmFL dengan ukuran pertama kali tertangkap (Lc) 44,5 cmFL. Laju pertumbuhan (K) 0,32 per tahun dengan panjang asimtotik 74 cmFL. Tingkat kematian karena penangkapan (F) lebih tinggi daripada tingkat kematian alami (M) dan tingkat eksploitasi E = 0,57%, yang berarti telah terjadi overfishing. Pengurangan eksploitasi sebesar 14%, dan penetapan ukuran layak tangkap serta ukuran legal diperdagangkan dapat menjadi upaya dalam dalam menjaga populasi ikan lencam.Abstract Fishing in Arafura waters is mostly done by fishermen from Java, including Jakarta, Probolinggo, Pati, and Indramayu. Fishermen from Probolinggo who catch fish in Arafura waters (FMA 718) use fishing nets and longline fishing with the main purpose being demersal fish, namely snapper (Lutjanus spp.), Groupers (Epeniphelus spp.), Lencam (Lethrinus lentjan) and others. Exploitation of demersal fish, especially lencam fish (Lethrinus lentjan) which will continually trigger changes in fish population stock in waters, so the scientific analysis is needed as a basis for fisheries management. The purpose of this scientific analysis is to become a control value in monitoring the amount of fish exploitation for fish stock assessment  (Lethrinus lentjan). The study was conducted from February to December 2017 at TPI Mayangan Probolinggo. The size structure of fish 23?65 cmFL with a dominant size of 50 cmFL with the length at first capture (Lc) 44.5 cmFL. Growth rate (K) 0.32 per year with an asymptotic length of 74 cmFL. The fishing mortality (F) is higher than the natural mortality (M) and the exploitation level E = 0.57%, which means overfishing has occurred. The 14% reduction in exploitation and the determination of catch size and legal size of trade can be an effort in maintaining fish populations.
INDEX COVER Cover, Index
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 12, No 2 (2019): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (20.093 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v12i2.13095

Abstract

UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BAWANG HITAM (BLACK GARLIC) DENGAN VARIASI LAMA PEMANASAN Agustina, Eva; Andiarna, Funsu; Hidayati, Irul
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2343.029 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.12114

Abstract

AbstrakSenyawa radikal dalam tubuh sangat reaktif terhadap sel-sel, sehingga dapat menyebabkan berbagai penyakit. Senyawa yang mampu menangkal radikal bebas disebut antioksidan. Bawang hitam diketahui mengandung senyawa aktif fenolik dan turunannya sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai antioksidan. Penelitian tentang penggunaan bawang hitam sebagai antioksidan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan waktu pemanasan (15, 25, dan 35 hari) terhadap aktivitas antioksidan pada ekstrak bawang hitam. Bawang hitam diperoleh dengan cara memanaskan bawang putih selama 15, 25, dan 35 hari. Bawang hitam selanjutnya diekstraksi dengan pelarut metanol dengan metode maserasi. Filtrat hasil ekstraksi dipekatkan dengan rotary evaporator untuk mendapatkan ekstrak bawang hitam. Ekstrak bawang hitam diuji fitokimia untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa aktif. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak bawang hitam ditentukan dengan metode penangkalan radikal 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Hasilnya menunjukkan ekstrak bawang hitam memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat dengan nilai IC50 masing-masing 15 hari yaitu 2,41 µg/mL; 25 hari yaitu 2,93 µg/mL; 35 hari yaitu 2,27 µg/mL. Nilai IC50 <10 ?g/mL menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bawang hitam dengan waktu pemanasan 15, 25, dan 35 hari memiliki potensi antioksidan yang sangat kuat. Waktu pemanasan yang paling optimum dalam penangkalan radikal bebas adalah ekstrak bawang hitam dalam waktu pemanasan 35 hari, karena banyak terdapat kandungan senyawa flavonoid, tanin, sterol, dan saponin.Abstract Radical compounds in the body are very reactive to cells that can cause various diseases. Compounds that are able to ward off free radicals are called antioxidants. Black garlic are known to contain phenolic active compounds and their derivatives so that they can be used as antioxidants. Research on the use of black garlic as an antioxidant aims to determine the difference in heating time (15, 25, and 35 days) on the antioxidant activity of black garlic extract. Black garlic are obtained by heating the garlic for 15, 25, and 35 days. The black garlic is then extracted with methanol solvent by maceration method. The extracted filtrate was concentrated with a rotary evaporator to obtain the black garlic extract. Black garlic extract was tested for phytochemistry to determine the content of active compounds. The antioxidant activity of black garlic extract was determined by the radical deterrence method 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The results showed that the onion extract had a very strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 15 days each of 2.41 µg/mL; 25 days which is 2.93 ?g/mL; 35 days which is 2.27 µg/mL. IC50 values <10 ?g/mL indicate that the black garlic extract with a heating time of 15, 25, and 35 days has a very strong antioxidant potential. The most optimum heating time in deterring free radicals is black garlic extract within 35 days of heating because there are many compounds containing flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins.
INVENTARISASI DAN POTENSI JAMUR MAKRO DI KAWASAN TAMAN NASIONAL UJUNG KULON BANTEN Noverita, Noverita; Ilmi, Fauziah
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (312.444 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.12564

Abstract

AbstrakTaman Nasional Ujung Kulon (TNUK) adalah salah satu kawasan lindung terletak di Kabupaten Pandeglang, Banten. Di kawasan ini terletak Desa Ujung Jaya. Formasi hutan di kawasan ini sangat bervariasi, dengan keanekaragaman plasma nutfah yang cukup tinggi, sehingga sangat memungkinkan ditemukan jamur makro. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan data jenis-jenis jamur makro dan data potensi baik sebagai bahan pangan, bahan obat, dan sebagai mikoriza. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode jalur, yaitu dengan mengamati dan mencatat sampel di sepanjang jalur penelitian, yang meliputi kawasan hutan sekitar permukiman, kawasan mangrove, dan kawasan permukiman penduduk. Hasil penelitian didapatkan sebanyak 98 spesies jamur makro di TNUK, dengan sebaran sebanyak 56 spesies di kawasan permukiman,  31 spesies di kawasan hutan, dan 32 spesies di kawasan mangrove. Jamur makro yang ditemukan didominasi phylum Basidiomycota 92 spesies, sementara phylum Ascomycota hanya 4 spesies dan sisanya 2 spesies dari kelompok jamur lendir (phylum Myxomycota). Sebanyak 28 spesies sebagai bahan pangan, 56 spesies sebagai bahan obat, dan 5 spesies sebagai mikoriza.Abstract Ujung Kulon National Park (TNUK) is a protected area located in Pandeglang Regency, Banten. Located in this area is Ujung Jaya village. Forest formations in this region is very varied, with a fairly high diversity of germplasm so that it is possible to find macro fungi. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on macro fungi and potential data as food ingredients, as medicinal ingredients, and as mycorrhizae. The method used in this study is the path method, which is by observing and recording samples along the research path, which includes forest areas around settlements, mangrove areas, and residential areas. From the results, 98 species of macro fungi were found in Ujung Kulon National Park, from which 56 species were found in residential areas, 31 species in forest areas and 32 species in the mangrove area. Macro fungi found were dominated by phylum Basidiomycota, as many as 92 species, the rest were Ascomycota phylum as many as 4 species and phylum Myxomycota (slime mold), as many as 2 species. A total of 28 species as food ingredients, 56 species as medicinal ingredients, and 5 species as mycorrhizae.
INDEKS MITOSIS PUCUK DAUN HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS L. VARIASI SINGLE PINK PADA BEBERAPA VARIASI WAKTU Iriani, Nur Annisa; Dwiranti, Astari; Salamah, Andi
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2099.219 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.9454

Abstract

AbstrakHibiscus rosa-sinensis L. atau kembang sepatu merupakan tanaman hias yang memiliki banyak manfaat dan merepresentasikan sifat poliploidi. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui Indeks Mitosis (IM) dan jumlah kromosom pucuk daun H. rosa-sinensis pada beberapa variasi waktu. Indeks Mitosis dan waktu pengambilan pucuk sangat diperlukan untuk studi kromosom karena pada tahap tersebut karakter-karakter kromosom dapat diamati dengan jelas dan mudah dihitung. Waktu pengambilan pucuk yang dilakukan yaitu pada 08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00 WIB. Pembuatan sediaan kromosom dilakukan menggunakan metode squash menggunakan pewarna Aceto-orcein. Tahapan perlakuan meliputi perendaman pucuk daun di dalam air dingin selama 3 jam, fiksasi dalam larutan Carnoy selama ±24 jam, dan hidrolisis dalam larutan HCl 5N selama 30 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai IM tertinggi meristem pucuk daun H. rosa-sinensis variasi single pink besar muncul pada pukul 10:00 sebesar 94%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa waktu sampling yang optimal untuk analisis kromosom H. rosa-sinensis L. variasi single pink besar adalah pukul 10:00 dengan jumlah kromosom 2n= ca. 69-111.  Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan dasar untuk studi kromosom selanjutnya serta acuan untuk sampling variasi lainnya.Abstract Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is an ornamental plant that has many benefits and represents the character of polyploidy. The purpose of this study is to find out the Mitotic Index of leaf shoots Hibiscus rosa-sinensis on several shoots sampling times. The Mitotic Index and the timing of shoots sampling time are very necessary for chromosome studies because at this stage chromosomes characters can be clearly observed and easily calculated. Period time of collection the leaf shoots is from 08:00 AM to 16:00 PM, with two hours interval each at 08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00 . The chromosome preparation was carried out by using the squash method and aceto-orcein staining. The treatment steps included soaking the leaf shoots in cold water for 3 hours, fixation in Carnoy solution for ± 24 hours, and hydrolysis in 5N HCl solution for 30 minutes. The results showed that chromosomes were clearly visualized during the phase with the highest Mitotic Index.  In addition, the percentage of Mitotic Index was found to be in line with the percentage of cells in late prophase. Among several sampling time variations, the highest Mitotic Index of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf shoots appeared at 10:00 at 94% with the chromosome numbers of 2n= ca. 69-111. According to the data obtained, it is concluded that 10 AM is the most optimum sampling time that can be used as the basic information for further chromosome studies.
KEANEKARAGAMAN SERANGGA MUSUH ALAMI PADA TANAMAN CABAI DI DESA WIYORO, KECAMATAN BANGUNTAPAN, KABUPATEN BANTUL, YOGYAKARTA Putra, Ichsan Luqmana Indra; Utami, Listiatie Budi
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 13, No 1 (2020): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2266.153 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v13i1.12253

Abstract

AbstrakCabai merupakan tanaman yang banyak ditanam masyarakat. Selain dapat dikonsumsi, cabai juga dapat dijual untuk tambahan penghasilan. Perawatan tanaman cabai dewasa ini banyak menggunakan pestisida, padahal terdapat agen biologi yang dapat digunakan dengan lebih efektif dan ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghitung tingkat keanekaragaman dan mengetahui jenis serangga musuh alami yang terdapat pada lahan cabai di Desa Wiyoro, Kecamatan Banguntapan, Kabupaten Bantul, Yogyakarta. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan perangkap sumuran (pitfall trap), nampan kuning berisi larutan detergent dan jaring serangga. Jaring serangga diayunkan sepanjang bedengan tanaman cabai secara vertical. Luas area pengamatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 20 x 100 m. Pemasangan nampan kuning dan pitfall dipasang sebanyak 15 buah untuk masing-masing jebakan. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan sebanyak 8 kali dalam 2 bulan. Hasil yang didapatkan berupa 7 ordo serangga sebagai musuh alami pada lokasi penelitian. Jumlah famili paling banyak ditemukan berasal dari ordo Hymenoptera 23 famili dan terendah Dermaptera dan Strepsiptera (1 famili). Spesies paling banyak sebagai musuh alami adalah Paratrechina longicornis. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah ordo serangga yang ditemukan sebagai musuh alami pada lokasi penelitian berjumlah 7, dengan jumlah famili terbanyak dari ordo Hymenoptera. Famili dengan jumlah individu terbanyak sebagai musuh alami adalah Formicidae dari Hymenoptera.Abstract Chili is one of the most widely planted plants. Besides being able to consumed, it also can be sold for additional income. Nowadays treatment on chili uses a lot of pesticides, even though there are biological agents that can control pest more effectively and environmentally friendly. This study aims to count the diversity index and determine species of natural enemy found in chili fields in Wiyoro, Banguntapan, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Sampling used insect nets, yellow pans, and pitfall. Insect nets were swung along the beds of chillies vertically. The area of this research was 20 x 100 m. Yellow trays and pitfalls were installed 15 units for each trap. Sampling was done 8 times in 2 months. The results that obtained were there were 7 orders of insects that became natural enemies at the research site, with the most number of families was Hymenoptera with 23 families and the lowest were Dermaptera and Strepsiptera with 1 family. The most commonly found species that act as natural enemies are Paratrechina longicornis. The conclusion of this study was the order of insects found as natural enemies at the research site were 7, with the largest number of families was in Hymenoptera. Family with the highest number of individuals as natural enemies was Formicidae from Hymenoptera.

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