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Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 29, No 02 (1997)" : 8 Documents clear
Immunological diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) method using and- VCA-EBV IgA Indrayani Purba, Indrayani Purba
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas (NPC) are the most frequent malignancy cases found at Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department. Patients are commonly admitted in a severe condition. The success of therapy depends on the early detection of the disease. The most frequently NPC is WHO III type. WHO II and III types have close relationship to EBV. One of the methods to detect an early stage of the disease is by sero-immunology examination for anti VCA-EBV-IgA (VCA-IgA) using IPA method. The results of this VCA-IgA examination in this study were compared to the clinical examinations of NPC and biopsies to observe an analytical performance in terms of reproducibility, diagnostic performance and comparison test (significance and correlation tests). The VCA-IgA examination has been performed at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital on 30 patients with clinical examination of NPC confirmed by biopsy, 30 normal subjects, 10 suspected KP patients, and 10 patients with positive ASTO. The results of this examination indicated that the reproducibility of VCA-IgA examination by IPA method is very good (Kappa = 81%). For diagnostic performance, a high sensitivity result is obtained (96%). There is no significant difference between the result of VCA-IgA examination with IPA method and NPC with clinical examination & biopsy (p > 0,05). It can be concluded that IgA anti VCA-EBV examination IPA method is useful in the early NPC diagnosis.Key Word : nasopharyngeal carsinoma - IgA anti VCA-EBV - immunoperoxidaseassay - analytic & diagnostic performance - reproducibility
Inappropriate use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute respiratory infections for the underfive children among general practitioners. Iwan Dwiprahasto, Iwan Dwiprahasto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the commonest illness in children and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. It comprises approximately 50% of all illness in children under five years. Unfortunately, most children are commonly treated inappropriately. A population based study involving all general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacies in Yogyakarta Special Province was carried out in June-July 1992 to provide data on antibiotic utilization for acute respiratory infection (ARI). One hundred and ninety one out of 207 GPs and all pharmacies participated in the study by completing structured form distributed during the study. Ninety three percent of patients with ARI seen by GPs were given antibiotic. Based on WHO criteria on ARI, only 7-14% of all patients were eligible to be given antibiotics. The most frequently used antibiotics for the underfives were ampicillin (38.8%) followed by cotrimoxazole (29.2%), amoxycillin (14.9%), and erythromycin (6.13%). Sixty three per cent of drug cost prescribed for the underfives children were accounted for by antibiotics. It can be concluded that inappropriate use of antibiotics was found in more than 75% patients under 5 years of age. In addition to poor indication for antibiotic use inappropriateness was also found in terms of dose, the length of antibiotic use, drug administration, and drug dosage form.Key words: ARI - innapropriate use of antibiotics - underfive children - general practitioners - prescribing pattern
Scleromalacia perforans after retinal detachment surgery. Angela Nurini Agni, Angela Nurini Agni
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

A 37 year old man suffering from scleromalacia perforans after retinal detachment surgery has been reported. The background whether this patient was suffering from autoimmune disorder or other systemic disease was not determined because of a lack of supporting examination to detect this condition. He underwent free sclera! buckle and scleral grafting followed by a combination of steroid and NSAID. The scleral graft remains stable; however, scleral thinning has been progressively occurring. All of ocular surgery must be accurately prepared. Identification of the risk of systemic disease must be taken, especially the autoimmune disorder. Evidences on the correlation of autoimmune disorder with scleritis after ocular surgery were known well. In conclusion, an accurate and complete information was needed for the patient in order to understand the real condition.Key words : Scleromalacia perforans - autoimmune disorder - graft - retinal ablation
The effect of immunization of mice with blood stage parasite against Plasmodium berghei infection Mahardika Agus Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus Wijayanti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Immunity against malarial infection is a very complex molecular and cellular interaction and represents a combination of both humoral and cell mediated mechanism. However, which mechanism contributes to the protection effect is still not clear. Immunization against Plasmodium berghei infection represents a suitable malarial model to study the host immune responses against malarial infection. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of immunization of Swiss mice challenged with P. berghei on the blast transformation, prepatent period, parasitemia and mortality of the host. The result showed that P. berghei infection in .Swiss mice was acute and fatal. All non-immunized mice died following challenge with 1 x 108 parasite on day 8 -10 post infection. Blast transformation of splenic lymphocyte was higher in immunized mice than in non-immunized mice. Immunization with P. berghei and adjuvant in Swiss mice could evoke partial immunity to homolog parasite. Longer prepatent period, reduced parasitemia and decreased mortality were observed in this group. Eighty percent of immunized mice survived from P. berghei infection.Key Words : malarial immunity - immunization - blast transformation - prepatent period - parasitemia -mortality
Hoffa fractures (corona/ fractures) of the femoral condyle. A case report Armis, Armis
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Hoffa Fracture is a fracture at femoral condyle caused by direct injury of the knee at flexion position; there fore the articular surface is broken. Distal fragment of fracture can be displaced or undisplaced. The Hoffa fracture is divided into three types according to prognostic implication. Type I, the intra articular fracture line reaches the supracondyle of the femur and some of the soft tissues still attached to the distal fragment. Type II, intra articular fracture without any attachment of the soft tissue to the distal fragment. and type III where the fracture line slight anteriorly and proximally to the condyle of the femur with some attachment of the soft tissues and ligaments to the distal fragment. A case of young motor cyclist who involved in collision against a bridge is reviewed. He has type I Hoffa fracture Which is equal to grade III B Gustilo classification system. The conservative procedure of open wound management and skeletal traction was adequate. The problem was that, the radiographic interpretation was difficult if the anterior part of the femoral condyle was intact, undisplaced or slightly displaced. Therefore CT-Scan and tomography were indicated. In type I and type III Hoffa fracture, some soft tissue structures remain attached to the distal condyle fragment and that there will be some blood supply to this fragment. However, in type II fracture the soft tissue may completely be unattached especially type II C and it could predispose to avascular necrosis or nonunion.Key Words : Fracture - intraarticular - femoral condyle - avascular necrosis - non-union
Effects of Meniran (Phyllanthus niiuii L.) Herbs-Hexane Extracts Against the Toxic Effect of Aflatoxin Br in The Liver of Rattus norvegicus Rats Wiryatun Lestariana, Wiryatun Lestariana
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

The principal objective of this study is to provide more extensive description of the chemopreventive effect of rneniran herbs-hexan extracts against the toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in the liver of Rattus norvegicus rats. The subjects consisted of sixteen male rats Rattus norvegicus in good general condition, 1 - 2 month old, with body weight around 62 - 68.5 grams, divided into 4 groups of four rats each. Water and ad libid were given to All of the groups of the rats. The first group was given 1 ml of emulsion of coconut oil. The second group was given 30 mg of meniran herbs-hexane extracts in 1 ml emulsion. The third group was given 15 g aflatoxin B, (AFB,) in 1 ml emulsion. The fourth group was given 30 mg of meniran herbs-hexane extracts and 15 g of AFB, in 1 ml of emulsion. Extract and AFBi were given orally by an aplicator for 16 weeks. By analysis of variance the results showed that the effect of meniran herbs-hexane extracts against the toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 demonstrated a significant effect (p < 0,01) in serum alanine aminotransferase (glutamic pyruvictransaminase). Aflatoxin B, increased serum alanine aminotransferase significantly (p < 0.001) in comparison with control (the group of rats treated with 1 ml emulsion and the group of the rats treated with 30 mg extracts). Histological feature in the group of rats treated with AFBi showed bad liver features compared to the other groups. There were altered foci in the hepatocytes (3/5) and the bile duct epithelial cells demonstrated hyperplasia as well as metaplasia (5/5). The group of the rats treated with meniran herbs-hexane extracts and AFB, showed normal hepatocytes and some of bile duct epithelial cells showed proliferation. The other groups of the rats respectively treated with coconut oil emulsion and meniran herbs-hexane extracts showed normal hepatocytes and bile ducts epithelial cells. It is concluded that meniran herbs-hexane extracts could be used to reduce aflatoxin B, toxicity in the rat liver.Keywords: Phyllanthus niruri L. herbs-hexane extracts - aflatoxin Bt - serum alanine aminotransferase - bileduct epithelial cells - hepatocytes - Rattus norvegicus
Nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) staining on fibrocystic change of the breast. Ahmad Ghozali, Ahmad Ghozali
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

In the past the fibrocystic change of breast was considered as a precancerous lesion, consequently the management of a fibrocystic patient was often overdone. Later, after thorough researches, it has been histologically (Page classification) proven that only small part of the changes have high risk to become invasive carcinoma. The leading factor which increases the risk is the grade of proliferation of the gland epithelia. AgNOR stain is a staining method to evaluate cell proliferation activity which has been proven as one of tools for the assessment of the prognosis of several malignant tumors including breast cancer. in this study the amount of AgNOR in fibrocystic change was studied based on Page classification. Nineteen fibrocystic cases classified by Page were stained with colloidal silver. NORs were counted manually. The mean of AgNOR of each classification, normal gland, and carcinoma was compared. There were significant differences of AgNOR count found between each classification, normal gland and carcinoma. The AgNOR count of non proliferative lesion were 2.074 ± 0.320, proliferative disease without atypia 2.416 ± 0.35, atypical hyperplasia 2.876 ± 0.249, normal gland 1.637 ± 0.330, and in carcinoma 4.407 ± 0.340. The result demonstrated that the AgNOR staining is a reliable marker for proliferation activity, and can differentiate atypical hyperplasia from carcinoma. The determination of AgNOR count can be done routinely to follow up and monitor the high risk lesions.Key words: fibrocystic change - Page classification - nucleolar organizer.
Mortality and morbidity patterns in measles cases admitted to the hospitals in Yogyakarta Djauhar Ismail, Djauhar Ismail
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 02 (1997)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

The case fatality rate of measles cases admitted to the hospitals in Indonesia in the period of 1973 -1989 varied from as high as 26.1% in Medan to 2.4% in Bali, with an average of 10.9% in all hospitals. In Indonesia, according to the National Household Health Survey 1985 , the province of Yogyakarta had the lowest of infant mortality and was ranked high for the coverage of measles immunization and also the medical facilities in this are is relatively easy to acces. The purpose of this study was to obtain the case fatality rates and the clinical characteristics of measles cases admitted to the hospitals in the province of Yogyakarta in the period of 1984 to 1990, leading to a comparison with data from other hospitals in Indonesia. This study comprised, a retrospective study during the period of 1984 - 1987 involving 5 hospitals in Yogyakarta municipality, and a prospective study during the period of 1988 - 1990 carried out in 9 hospitals in the province of Yogyakarta. The results showed that the percentage of under-five children suffering from measles admitted to the hospitals in the period 1984 - 1987 was higher compared to under-five children hospitalized in the period of 1988 - 1990 (60% versus 36%). Therefore, it can be concluded that there was a shift in the distribution of measles cases to older children. This was probably due to the coverage of measles immunization in Yogyakarta which was higher as compared with other places. Since younger children were already protected by immunization, a relatively more older cases were found in Yogyakarta. The case fatality rate of 0.4% (2 out of 472 cases) during the period of 1984 -1987 and 0.8% (3 out of 386 cases) during the period of 1988-1990 in Yogyakarta were much lower as compared with the data reported from other hospitals in Indonesia. Several factors such as the general health condition of the province of Yogyakarta, as well as the frequency and types of complications of the diseases and the nutritional status of the measles patients may explain the different mortality of measles patients in Yogyakarta compared that in other places in Indonesia.Key words : measles - morbidity - mortality - case fatality rate - immunization

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