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Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 29, No 03 (1997)" : 8 Documents clear
Serological examination using lipoarabinomannan antigen for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis Ning Rintiswati, Ning Rintiswati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is still an important public health problem, especially in the developing countries. Efforts have been made to overcome the problem. However, tuberculosis control program has not yet been satisfactory. This is due to various factors which might affect the development of the disease, including poverty, lack of understanding about the disease, relatively long period of time needed for treatment as well as increasing number of resistant strain against antimycobacterial drugs. One of the most important ways in controlling tuberculosis is case finding. An acurate and reliable diagnostic kit is also needed to establish the diagnosis. In this study we evaluated sensitivity and specificity of lipoarabinomannan as antigen for serological examination (Mycodot) in patients suspected of having tuberculosis. Using culture of sputum as gold standard, we observed that the sensitivity and specificity of Mycodot were 50% and 70.59%, respectively. This sensitivity was much lower than that of previous study. Interestingly, we found that 47,55% of suspected cases were negative for all three different examinations (acid fast, culture and Mycodot). With respect to this finding it is suggested that better and proper microbiological examination is required to diagnose patient with suspected tuberculosisKey words: Tuberculosis - Lipoarabinomannan - Mycodot - Acid fast - Mycobacterial Culture
The effect of combined timolol maleat and p/locarpine acetazolamide on the decrease of intraocular pressure in the treatment of primary glaucoma Sutrisno, Sutrisno
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The study was aimed to compare the effects of combination of timolol maleat 0.5% and pilocarpine 2% to acetazolamide 250mg in the treatment of a primary glaucoma. We studied 13 patients with open angle glaucomas and 11 patients with closed angle glaucomas. This study was carried out in a randomized double blind clinical trial. The patients were divided into two groups, A and B. Group A consisted of patients treated with 250 mg acetazolamide t.i.d. and the group B was treated with combination of 0.5% timolol maleat b.i.d. and 2 % pilocarpine q.i.d. This one-day treatment was stopped and seven days later the treatment was interchanged between the two groups. The intraocular pressures were measured just before and two hours after the treatment. The mean decrease of 10P in group A was 17.042 ± 14.212mmHg and that of group B was 17.873 ± 9.005 mmHg. There was statistically no significant difference (p=0.804) between two groups. The mean decrease of 10P in primary open angle glaucoma in group A was 8.685 ± 6.389 mmHg and that of group B was 15.054 ± 5.994 mmHg. Statistically there was significant difference (p = 0.014). The mean decrease of 10P In primary closed angle glaucoma in group A was 26.918 ± 14.748mmHg and that of group B was 21.205 ± 10.993 mmHg. Statistically there was no significant difference (p = 0.3162). In conclusion, there was no significant difference between the use of acetazolamide 250mg q.i.d. the combination of timolol maleat 0.5% b.i.d. and pilocarpine 2% q.i.d. in reducing the 10P of primary glaucoma.Key words: primary glaucoma - lop decrease - acetazolamide - timolol maleat - pilocarpine.
Antiviral activity of Momordica charantia: a preliminary study on in vitro anti herpes simplex virus Praseno, Praseno
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Traditional medication has been used by Indonesian people since long time ago and still continuing up to the present time. Many of them proved to be effective in curing various diseases. In this study an in vitro activity of Momordica charantia againts Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 has been evaluated by standard method of plaque reduction assay. The aim of this study is to determine whether traditional medicine we are searching has an antiviral activity. The results showed that total inhibition of plaque formation on HSV 2-infected Vero cell line was achieved at concentration of 8% v/v of crude extract, whereas the concentration of 1% v/v was capable of reducing the number of plaques by approximately 50% (inhibitory dose50= ID50). These results were very interesting as even with only small amount of crude extract we could get ID50. We expect that much lower concentration will be required to obtain ID50 if we use purified extract in the assay. Further studies are needed to elucidate other properties of the extract, including its in vivo antiviral activity, possible effect on other viruses, and mechanism of action.Key words: antiviral activity - herpes simplex virus - Momordica charantia - traditional medicine - plaque reduction assay
Histoplasmosis prevalence among medical students of the faculty of Medicine Islamic University of North Sumatera and the association between pet animal and histoplasmin test. Azhar Tanjung, Azhar Tanjung
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

A cross sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Islamic University of North Sumatera (FK MU) Medan with the population of 169 medical students. It was found that the prevalence of histoplasmosis was 13.61% and there was no correlation between the gender with the histoplasmin test reactivity. The most precipitating factor of the prevalence for the positive histoplasmin test was pet animal. The other precipitating factors were found such as in bat, cave adventure and contact with wood environment. There was significant association between pet animal and the reactivity of histoplasmin test. In conclusion, the prevalence of histoplasmosis with moderate category is found in the young adult population group. The pet animal has significant possibility as the precipitating factors and its role is needed for further attention.Key words : histoplasmosis - histoplasmin test - prevalence - young adult - pet animal.
Adherence to HEp-2 cells and 0 Serotypes diversity of indigenous enteropathogenic Escherichia coll. Sri Budiarti, Sri Budiarti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coil (EPEC) is bacteria which causes diarrhea! diseases especially in children. Sixty-nine children with diarrheal disease from Purwodadi Central Java, Depok, Ciamis and Ciawi West Java also Sambas, West Kalimantan have been detected to the presence of EPEC bacteria. The prevalence of EPEC bacteria in each area were 46%, 66%, 68%, 46%, and 50% respectively. All of isolates have been tested for their ability of adherence to HEp-2 cells and 0 serotype. The results showed that 0 86 and 0111 were present in all sampling area but 0142 was only found in Depok and Ciamis Central Java at high percentages. There was no correlation between the ability of adherence to HEp-2 cells and serotype diversity.Key words: diarrhea - children - 0 Serotype - enteropathogenic Escherichia coil - HEp-2 cells.
The effect of various traditional Indonesian face powders on the prevention of UVA and UVB skin pigmentation Elly Moedijatmini, Elly Moedijatmini
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Key words: traditional face powders - sunscreen - UVA - UVB - pigmentation.
The effect of extract andropogon zizanioides urban roots as a repelent to Aedes Aegypti mosquito Mahardika Agus Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus Wijayanti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the viral infections transmitted by mosquitoes that still remains a health problem in Indonesia. Attempts to overcome this disease through experimental studies, in order to get rapid and right diagnosis, specific treatment and vaccine development have not been satisfactory. The main vector of DHF are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. Self protection againts mosquito bites could be done by using repelent. Lorosetu (Andropogon zizanioides urban) is a plant belonging to one family of fragrant grass, usually used as a soap fragrance or supplementary medication. Its root is commonly used to chase insect In the wardrobe. The aim of this study was to Investigate the effect of A. zizanioides Urban extract as a repelent to A. aegypti mosquito in the laboratory. In this study, time series observation using various concentration of extract A. zizanioides Urban as a repelent to A. aegypti was done. The result analized by Spit-plot and T-test showed that 25% extract of A. zizanioides Urban roots has the effect as a repelent within one hour, while the 50% and 100% concentration have the effect within two hours.Key words: Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever - Aedes aegypti - root extract - Andropogon zizanioides Urban root - repellent
Confidence interval in the analysis of clinical signicance Sunarto, Sunarto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 29, No 03 (1997)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

In the clinical study researchers want to answer the most important question whether a new therapy is better than the old one. Many researchers continue to frame the question in terms of null hypothesis and answer the question in terms of P value. The null hypothesis itself is typically not plausible, and even in a study where the null hypothesis was plausible, our concern is typically not only limited to the issue of whether or not the treatment has any effect but we also want to know how much the impact. In the study which the researcher pressed the P value into service as an indicator of effect size, it, lends itself to misinterpretation because it combines information about the magnitude of an effect with information about the precision with which that effect is estimated. By contrast, confidence intervals (Cis) focus ones attention on an estimate of a more meaningful parameter (e.g. the rate difference) and, as a separate matter, on the precision of the estimate. The CI is a range of values that is likely to cover the true but unknown value (the extremely low up to the extremely high value of e.g. rate difference, mean difference, and Odds Ratio) if we measure the value many times on samples using the same method. Cis in a clinical trial where the result is statistically significant we might find that it is of no clinically Importance (in a very large sample). On the other hand, the effect of a treatment might be statistically not significant but In fact it is of clinical importance (in a small sample). Cl Is affected by sample size: the larger the sample size the narrower the interval of Cl. The interval Is also affected by the standard error and hence by standard deviation and the confidence level we claim. The higher the confidence level (90%, 95% or 99%, arbitrarily 95% Cl is commonly used) the wider the confidence interval. In case that the 95% Cl does not include zero value (in mean or proportion difference) or one (in Odds ratio or relative risk) it also reflects statistical significance (p<0.05) with a = 5%. A sample size that is enough in terms of power might not be enough in terms of precision due to the confidence Interval level we choose.Key Words : P value - confidence interval - clinical importance - sample size - statistical significant

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