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Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 34, No 03 (2002)" : 8 Documents clear
Human behavior and its effect on oral biology: biocuitural observation Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Human behavior, tradition, habit, and culture are closely associated with human biological condition, their health and sickness. Thus, humans habits and activities mimic in their health and sickness. Among human cultural traditions reviewed are coca-leaf chewing, betel-nut chewing, tobacco chewing, irradiation treatment in cancer patients, tooth-tool use related to task activities, tooth cleaning and palliative purposes, and gum chewing. Many literatures have shown that humans activities and habits have impact on their oral biology, ranging from gingival recession, hyperkeratosis of buccal mucosa, cervical-root caries on molar teeth, desquamation of tongue, approximal grooves, and leucoplakia on the oral mucosa. This review suggests that understanding a disease process requires knowledge of humans activities and cultural tradition due to the close association of culture and biology, behavior and health.Key words: habit, teeth, oral, biology, health
The glucose uptake velocity and ability of target tissue cells in the elderly men (in vivo) Wasilah Rochmah, Wasilah Rochmah
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Age is one of the impaired glucose tolerance risks. Impaired glucose tolerance may be caused by the decrease of pancreatic B cells insulin secretion, or by the decrease of target tissue cell glucose uptake. Glucose tolerance tests which were conducted in the elderly, showed that plasma insulin concentrations at 120th minute were still higher than at minute-0 (at fasting time), while blood glucose levels were still high. It generated an impression that insulin inefficiency exist in the elderly.Objective: To reveal that the cause of insulin inefficiency in the elderly is due to the decrease of target tissue cell glucose uptake velocity and/or in decrease uptake ability.Methods: Elderly men subjects and young men comparable controls were given 130mU/kg L8M/hour insulin and 20g% dextrose infusion, while blood glucose level have to be maintained in euglycemic situations (euglycemic clamp test). In 30 minutes with stable blood glucose level, the amount of 20% dextrose infusion were calculated as glucose uptake in 30 minute (euglycemic clamp time). From this results the glucose uptake velocity and ability (glucose uptake ability = ratio between glucose uptake velocity and plasma insulin concentration = insulin sensitivity index) between the elderly and the young men were compaired by t-test.Results: Euglycemic clamp tests were conducted to 4 elderly men of 65-74 years old, and 4 young men of 21-30 years old as controls. The results showed that the velocity of glucose uptake by the target tissue cells in those elderly men were significantly (p<0.05) lower (10.08 f 2.34 mg/kg LBM/min.) than young men group (17.78 ± 5.49 mg/kg LBMlmin.). One elderly men showed the lowest difference (0) of insulin sensitivity index compared to one control subject. In the remaining three (75%) subjects the average of insulin sensitivity index (0.11 f 0.03) showed a significant difference (p<0.05) compared to young men group 10.19 f 0.04).Conclusions: The result of this study indicated that the cause of insulin inefficiency in the elderly men was due to the decrease of glucose uptake velocity and ability.Key words: impaired glucose tolerance - pancreas B cells insulin secretion - velocity of glucose uptake ability of glucose uptake - euglycemic clamp technique.
The efficacy of vaginally compared to orally administered misoprostol in inducing labor in term early ruptured membrane Hariadi, Hariadi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Misoprostol is now widely used as an agent for the induction of labor, although the effectiveness of its use in premature rupture of the membrane is questionable.Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of vaginal versus oral administration of misoprostol for induction of labor in term pregnancy with premature rupture of the membranes.Study Design: A retrospective cohortMaterials and Method: The study was conducted at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta from January 1999 to November 2001. Data were taken from medical record. The inclusion criteria were gestational age of 37 weeks not yet in labor with premature rupture of membranes, singleton gestation, cephalic presentation, reactive fetal heart pattern, and Bishop score s 4. The pregnancy that is complicated by diseases were excluded. Vaginal administration of misoprostol was considered as the exposed group while oral administration was as control. Misoprostol 50 mg had been at six hours interval, for maximal dose of 200 pg. Variable outcomes were effectiveness, duration of induction, mode of delivery, side effects, and newborn asphyxia. Data were processed with SPSS for Window version 10.0, t-Test, chi-square test, relative risk, and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Result: During the period of three years, there had been 249 cases of premature rupture of membranes that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria consisting of 88 cases exposed group and 88 cases of control. The success rate of the vaginal misoprostol was 80.70% compared to 87.50% in the oral misoprostol with p > 0.05. The cesarean rate from vaginal misoprostol and oral misoprostol were 8.00% versus 3.40% respectively (RR 2.23 and 95% CI 0.62-8.73), the rate of asphyxia in the newborn was 29.50% versus 26.10% (RR 1.13 and 95% CI 0.70-1.82). The rate of side effect, hyperstimulation, was 5.70% versus 1.10% (RR 5.00 and 95% CI 0.60-41.93) in the vaginal group. The length of induction vaginal and oral misoprostol were 10.00 ± 4.86 and 9.76 ± 4.56 hours. There was one case of cesarean section followed with hysterectomy due to urine atony in the vaginal group.Conclusion: The success rate of vaginal misoprostol induction was slightly lower than oral, but it was not statistically significant, as well as the incidence of the first minute of asphyxia. The interval between the administration of drug to complete dilatation in the vaginal and oral group was not different. The rate of cesarean section and hyperstimulation was higher in the vaginal group.Key words: misoprostol - oral and vaginal - effectiveness - premature rupture of membranes - neonatal .asphyxia
Marine Sponge Jaspis sp, A Potential Bioactive Natural Source against Infectious diseases Puji Astuti, Puji Astuti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: The high incidence of microbial infection and the emergence of drug resistant and multidrugresistant microbes as well as the lack of any current chemotherapy augmented the necessity to search for new and better antimicrobial drug. Marine invertebrates are known as rich sources of compounds with unique chemical structures and pronounced chemical and biological activities, which suggests potential value as lead structures for the development of new pharmaceuticals.Objective: This study aims to screen potential antiinfective of sponges extracts collected from Barrang Lompo island and report on their antibacterial and antifungal properties.Methods: Testing for anti-infective agents was conducted using dilution method. Nutrient Agar was used as the testing media and nutrient broth for the inoculation of microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coil and Salmonella thypi were used as the testing bacteria and Candida albicans for the testing fungi. Chloramphenicol was used as positive control for antibacterial testing and ketocozaole for antifungal testing.Results: From the 11 acetone extracts tested, BL-02, BL-09, BL-10 and BL-12 was found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms and the extract of BL-10 was found to be the most active. Bioautography results suggest that the polar fractions were responsible for the growth inhibition.Conclusion: the polar fraction of acetone extract of BL-10 was considered to be potential compounds for further characterization as anti infective agents.Key words: screening, sponge, antibacteria, antifungi
The diagnostic accuracy of clinical and blood examination for sepsis in potentially infected neonates Ari Mulyani, Ari Mulyani
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Neonatal sepsis remains a diagnostic challenge due to its nonspesific symptoms. Blood culture examination which is considered to be the gold standard, sometimes it is still a problem because takes time to get the result, expensive and not every health facility is able to perform.Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical symptoms, hematologic findings and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in neonatal sepsis.Methods: Samples were taken from potentially infected neonates admitted to the Maternal-Perinatal Unit of Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, between December 1st, 2000 to March 31st, 2001 using at least one of the criteria: prematurity (15,000/pL), premature rupture of the membrane (>24 hours), thick and cloudy amniotic fluid. Clinical symptoms, total white blood cell count, total neutrophil count, platelet count, CRP, and blood culture as gold standard were examined.Results: Among 99 neonates who were enrolled in this study, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical symptoms were 79.3%, 75.7%, 57.5%, and 89.9%, respectively; leukopenia/leukocytosis were 27.6%, 85.7%, 44.4%, and 74.1%, neutropenia/neutrophilia were 41.4%, 71.4%, 37.5%, and 74.6%, thrombocytopenia were 79.3%, 51.8%, 40.4%, and 85.7%, positive CRP were 58.6%, 78.6%, 53.1%, and 82.1%. Parallel test (clinical manifestation, thrombocytopenia, and CRP) increasing sensitivity up to 89.7%. Specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio were 44.3%, 40%, 91.2%, and 1.6, respectively. Serial test (CRP, clinical manifestation, and thrombocytopenia) increasing the spesificity up to 88.6%. Sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 58.6%, 68%, and 83.8%, respectively, likelihood ratio was 5,1.Conclusion: Clinical sepsis, thrombocytopenia and CRP were sufficiently accurate as diagnostic test for sepsis in potentially infected neonate. Using parallel test increased the sensitivity, where negative finding reveals no sepsis. Serial test increased specificity. There was high probability of having sepsis, if the result was positive.Key words : Neonatal sepsis - clinical symptoms - hematologic findings - C-reactive protein
The first 24 hour bilirubin level as a predictor of hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term newborns. Rina Triasih, Rina Triasih
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: The practice of early discharge in healthy term newborns results in difficulty for recognition, follow-up and early treatment of hyperbilirubinemia, the most common cause of readmission in term newborns.Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the ability of first 24 hours total and unbound bilirubin levels in predicting hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term newborns in the first week of life. Methods: The first 24 hours and 5th day of total and unbound bilirubin were measured in 84 healthy term newborns. The total bilirubin level was measured spectrophotometrically whereas unbound bilirubin level was determined by peroxidase-oxidation method. Hyperbilirubinemia was defined as serum total bilirubin of a 12.9 mg/dL or serum unbound bilirubin of a 0.5 mg/dL after 24 hours of life.Results: A correlation between first 24 hours and 5th day of total bilirubin was found (r= 0.53) with a regression equation: Y (total bilirubin day 5) = 4.69 + 1.15 X (total bilirubin first 24 hours). In unbound bilirubin (r= 0.31), the regression equation was Y (unbound bilirubin day 5) = 0.13 + 0.95 X (unbound bilirubin first 24 hours). The relative risk of newborns whose first 24 hours total bilirubin of a 4.5 mg/dL and becoming hyperbilirubinemia was 12 (95% CI = 2.9 - 48.4), and newborns whose unbound bilirubin of a 0.09 mg/dL was 9.5 (95% CI = 1.2-77.4).Conclusions: Total bilirubin level a 4.5 mg/dL in the first 24 hours can predict the occurance of hyperbilirubinemia in the first week of life inthe term newborns.Key word: fullterm newborn, hyperbilirubinemia, prediction, total bilirubin, unbound bilirubin
Secondary sexual characteristics development pattern in elementary school male students in the municipality of Yogyakarta Daniel Susatyo Wirawan, Daniel Susatyo Wirawan
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Twenty two point two percent of Indonesian population are adolescents, and 50.9% of them are male. The development characteristics during puberty are growth spurt, sexual maturation, and secondary sexual development, and these characteristics are affected by nutritional status, health care and social economic status.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between nutritional status and social factors with the development of secondary sexual characteristics, sexual maturation, and the average age of spermache in YogyakartaDesign: Cross sectional studyMaterial and Methods: One thousand two hundred and sixty three male students enrolled using a proportional population multi stage random sampling were included in this study from all elementary school students in the Municipality of Yogyakarta. Nutritional status was assessed by z-score for weight for age, height for age, and body mass index (BMI). The age of spermache, secondary sexual characteristics, and social factors was obtained by standard questionnaires.Result: Based on z-score value, most of the subjects were wellnourished (84.3%), and normal height (85.3%). Based on BMI most of the students were wasted (62.8%). The average age of spermache in wellnourished, and normal height students were younger than those undernourished, and this difference was statistically significant (p < .001). There was no statistically difference in the development of secondary sexual characteristics between wellnourished and undernourished students, either based on z-score or BMI. Most of the subjects who were exposed to pornography, either pictures (OR 2.20 95% CI 1.31-3.69) or videos (OR 2.09 95%Cl 1.29-3.38) had more spermache than those without experienced. Most of the students (71.74%) were in level 1 of sexual maturity rating (SMR1) based on Tanner scale. There was a relationship between nutritional status based on BMI and sexual maturity rating (p= .007). Conclusions: Nutritional status influenced spermache, and earlier age of spermache, also sexual maturity. Pornography exposure affected spermache.Key words: male students - secondary sexual characteristics - spermache - nutritional status - pornography
Transplantation of preserved human amniotic membrane for perforated bacterial corneal ulcer and persistent epithelial defects, Cases Study. Suhardjo, Suhardjo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 34, No 03 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Human amniotic membrane has anti-adhesive properties and is felt to promote epithelization and decrease inflammation. Fresh human amniotic membrane transplantation has been shown to be effective in the reconstruction of the corneal surface in the setting of persistent epithelial defects, sterile corneal ulcerations, and partial limbal stem cell deficiency.Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report two cases of perforated bacterial corneal ulcer and one case persistent epithelial defect treated by preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation and to determine whether preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation can be used as an alternative method for treating perforated bacterial corneal ulcer.Methods: Observed human amniotic membrane transplantation was performed on 2 eyes of 2 patients with perforated bacterial corneal ulcer and one case with persistent epithelial defect of different causes. The amniotic membrane was placed on the surface of the cornea in overlay and secured by interrupted 10.0 nylon sutures to the surrounding conjunctiva.Results: There was significant improvement of the visual acuity in case 3 with persistent epithelial defect. Despite absence of improvement of the visual acuity in cases 1 and 2, the epithelization occurred in all patients and the perforated ulcers healed. As a wound dressing, human amniotic membrane has a number of benefits: in both patients the decreased inflammatory reaction, diminishes pain and increases the ocular mobility, and may help in prediction of readiness for grafting.Conclusion: Preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation may be considered as an alternative method for treating perforated bacterial corneal ulcer which is refractory to conventional treatment.Key words: amniotic membrane transplantation - decrease inflammation - perforated corneal ulcer -persistent epithelial defect - readiness for grafting.

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