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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 36, No 4 (2004)" : 7 Documents clear
The effect of moderate intensity physical exercise on the body fat percentage in elderly women Santosa Budiharjo, Santosa Budiharjo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 36, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Postmenopausal women tend to increase the body fat percentage. A decline in estrogen level cause decrease in lipolytic process.Objective: To know the effect of moderate intensity physical exercise on body fat percentage in elderly women.Method: Pretest and posttest control design. A total amount of thirty, healthy women, 60-70 years old, was divided into three groups. The first group was treated by exercise three times a week, the second group was treated by exercise two times a week and the third group was a control group. The exercise used was D series of fitness dance for elderly created by PERWOSI Yogyakarta which is a low impact aerobic dance with moderate intensity (70-79 % maximal heart rate), 40-54 minutes/day for eight weeks.Result: The result showed that the first group revealed a significantly decrease in body fat percentage (p< 0.05). The second group revealed decrease no statistically significant in body fat percentage (p> 0.05), however there was a significant correlation between the duration of exercise and the body fat percentage (r = -0.9042).Conclusion: The low impact aerobic dance with moderate intensity, 40-54 minutes/day, three times a week, for eight weeks decreased body fat percentage.Key words: moderate intensity low impact aerobic dance - excercise frequency - body fat percentage -elderly women
Role and psychological dependenci arrangement of opioid by type of reseptor opioid Arif Nurrochmad, Arif Nurrochmad
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 36, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Opioid receptor can be classified as p., 8, and K-opioid receptor that widely expressed in the CNS. The development of selective receptor agonist and cloning of each receptor have contributed greatly to our increasing knowledge of the neuropharmacological profile of each opioid receptor type. This review focuses on the functional interaction among these opioid receptor types that contribute to opioid dependence especially in psychological dependence. Several lines of evidence provide arguments to support substantial roles for p-opioid receptors and the possible involvement of 8-opioid receptors in the development of physical and psychological dependence on morphine. Many studies have pointed to the mesolimbic dopaminergic system projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens as a critical site for the initiation of psychological dependence on opioids. It is important to note as the broad existence of opposing interaction between p/8-, and K-receptors in the central nervous system. The activation of Kopioid receptors leads to the suppression of unpleasant p.- or 8-mediated side effects such as withdrawal and rewarding effect. Considering the functional interaction among opioid receptor types, the co-administration of morphine-like compounds with K-receptor agonists lead suppressing the side effects of p-opioid receptor agonist that benefit for the pain management.Key words: Opioid receptor - receptor types - psychological dependence - morphine
Nasal mucocelia transport of chronic rhinitis patients before and after gurah. Supomo Sukardono, Supomo Sukardono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 36, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Bacground: " Gurah" is a traditional treatment for nasal and lower respiratory tract diseases or for establishing clearer voice, where the extract " Srigunggu" or "Sirgunggu" is used as nasal drop. The side effect of "gurah" on the mucocilliary system has not been known yet.Objective: The study was done to know the effects of "Gurah" on the mucocilliary transport, in chronic rhinitis patients.Method: The study was performed by pretest-posttest design.The study was performed at "Gurah" location of Kyai Hisyam, Giriloyo, Wukirsari, Imogiri, Kabupaten Bantul Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. The mucocilliary transport time of the subjects with chronic rhinitis were tested with saccharine method for three times i.e. on the second (Wt2) and the tenth day (Wt10) after "gurah". Procedure of the "gurah" was done by KH Hisyam himself, and the measurement of mucocilliary transport time was done by the author. The paired-t test was used to test the significant difference of the mucocilliary transport time between before and after "gurah".Result: On the second day after "gurah" there was significant difference of the mucocilliary transport time between before "gurah" and after "gurah" (P< 0.05), but on the tenth day after "gurah", there was no significant difference of the mucocilliary transport time (P>0.05).Conclusion: The mucocilliary transport time was prolonged significantly on second day after "gurah", but on the tenth day the mucocilliary transport time returned to the before gurah" value.Key word: "Gurah" - mucociliary transport time
Cost effectiveness of cotrimoxazole and ampicillin on urinary tract infection in children on direct medical aspect Dyah Harini, Dyah Harini
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 36, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the important diseases causing significant morbidity in infants and children. The true incidence of UTI in children is difficult to estimate because infection in infants and children can be asymptomatic. Delay in the treatment of UTI can lead to recurrent infection resulting in renal scarring or complication with urosepsis. Physicians use a large number of different antimicrobials and give them for widely varying durations to children and infants with suspected UTI. More standardized use of the most effective, best tolerated and least costly treatment regimens would have considerable benefit both in reducing morbidity and health care costs.Objective: The aim of this study is to compare of ampicillin compared to cotrimoxazole oral treatment in UTI childrens.Methods: This study was used clinical trial design. A total of 1-10 child patients in Dr. Sardjito Hospitalwith urinary tract infection older than 2 months age who enaolled in this study were randomly assigned to receive either ampicillin (57 children) or cotrimoxazole (53 children). Diagnosis was based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Laboratory diagnosis was established based on bacterial count and urine culture tests. The cure rates were assessed after seven day treatment based on clinical and laboratory evalua- tion. Chi-square test was applied to analyse the difference of clinical outcomes between ampicillin and cotrimoxazole groups. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyse the relationship of variable that influence the outcomes. Cost analysis accounted by direct cost (medical, length of stay, laboratory cost)between two groupsResult: Mean of the length of stay of cotrimoxazole patient was shorter than ampicillin patients. It was also found that E coli was the most frequent (45.4%) microbes detected in the urine culture. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity of the microbes to both antibiotics. The results indicated that cotrimoxazole showed significant differences in the effectiveness (p<0.05).Conclusion: Cotrimoxazole treatment on UTI is as effective as ampicillin. Cotrimoxazole costs cheaper.Key words: ampicillin- cotrimoxazole - cost- urinary tract infection- cure rate- urine culture- bacterialcount
Risk factors of neonatal mortality in Maternal Perinatal Installation Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta Tri Yanti, Tri Yanti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 36, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Neonatal mortality rate in Indonesia is still relatively high. There are many factors influencing the outcome of neonatal life. Identifying the risk factors is important to prevent neonatal mortality. The intervention could be done by avoiding or minimizing the risk factors.Objective: To know the risk factors of neonatal mortality in Maternal Perinatal Installation, Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta, and the contribution of these risk factors.Methods: One hundred and twenty three newborns in Maternal Perinatal Installation Dr Sardjito Hospital from 1 February 2003 to 28 February 2004 were enrolled in this study, consisting of 41 infants birth alive and all died during hospitalization, and 82 infants alive when discharged from the hospital as control. The data was taken from medical records. Cases were infants those died and control were infants alive when discharged from hospital, and then risk factors were identified.Result: The risk factors that significantly related to neonatal mortality in univariate analysis were sepsis (OR=4.26; 95%C1:1.9-9.4), prematurity (OR=3.26; 95%C1:1.5-7.2), low birth weight (OR =3.41; 95%C1:1.6-7.5), major congenital anomaly (OR =4.29; 95%C1:1.6-11.5), low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR 4.68; 95% CI:1.8-11.9) and hyalin membrane disease (OR =12.90; 95% C1:2.7-62.3). By multivariate analysis, in order of higher contribution, major congenital anomaly (OR =34.80; 95% C1:6.7-182.2), hyalin membran disease (OR =15.00; 95% C1:2.3-96.5), low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR=9.16; 95% C1:1.8-48.0), and sepsis (OR 6.04; 95% C1:1.9-18.9) were significantly related to neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Major congenital anomaly, hyalin membrane disease, sepsis neonatorum and low Apgar score at 5 minute were risk factors of neonatal mortality.Key words: neonatal mortality - sepsis neonatorum - low birth weight - major congenital anomaly - low Apgar score at 5 minute - hyalin membrane disease.
Role of Vitamin C on the viabilitys of the keratinocyte and HeLa cell with irradiation of UVB ray. Iryani Andamari, Iryani Andamari
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 36, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background:Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure is one of the external factors which can cause reduction of cell viabillity through photochemistry reaction and can be managed using antioxydant. Failures of DNA repair and apoptosis have some important roles in photocarcinogenesis.Objective: This research is aimed to know the effect of vitamin C on the viability of UVB irradiated keratinocytes and HeLa cells.Method: This research employed a simple experimental method. Two groups of cells used in this research were: Group I normal foreskin keratinocytes passage III, and Group II HeLa cells. Each group was divided into 25 sub-groups consisting of 2x104 cells each, treated with vitamin C at 0, 6, 12, 40, 200 µg/ml concentrations, and UVB irradiated (Phillips UVB TL4OW/12RS) at 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600 mJ/cm2 intensities. Each treatment was done in quintet. Viable cells were determined based on formazan blue reaction using ELISA-reader 550 nm 24 hours after treatment. The results were analyzed by independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate analysis using three-way analysis of variance,Result: Vitamin C at 6, 12, 40, and 200 ug/m1 concentrations significantly increased normal keratinocyte and HeLa cells viability which were not irradiated by UVB, statistically significant, compared to normal keratinocyte and HeLa cells which were not treated with vitamin C. HeLa cells, which were irradiated by UVB at 200, 400, and 800, 1600 mJ/cm2 intensities and treated with vitamin C at 6, 12, 40 and 200 ug/ ml concentrations, statistically significant in decreasing cell viability.Conclusion: Vitamin C at 200 µg/ml concentration, which was given to normal keratinocytes irradiated by UVB at 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mj/cm2 intensities used in this research showed its protection effect, thus enhancing the viability of the cell. Vitamin C 6, 12, 40 ug/ml, which were irradiated with UVB at 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mJ/cm2 intensities, did not show protection effect. HeLa cells were less resistant than normal keratinocytes to UVB irradiation at 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mj/cm2 intensities.Key words: vitamin-C, HeLa cell, keratinocyte, cell viability, UVB
Potency of Anticandida extract combine by in vitro and in vivo Ning Rintiswati, Ning Rintiswati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 36, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Antifungal agents are routinely used for the treatment of fungal infections. It is very likely however, that resistance of fungi to antifungal agents will emerge in the near future and the development new antifungal agent is very slow. To cope with the problem, it is important to search new antifungal agent from natural resources for yhe treatment of various diseases. It was also reported that bee honey has antibacterial property.Objective: To know the in vitro and in vivo effect of crude honey, aether-extracted honey and its residual part on Candida albicansMethods: Samples used in this experiment were crude honey, aether-extracted honey and residual part of extracted honey. Each sample was tested for its anticandidal activity with macrobroth dilution method using casein-yeast extract-glucose medium. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration were determined for each sample.Result: The result showed that extracted honey anticandidal effect in vitro at minimal inhibitory concentration was 0.3125% v/v and its residual was 25%, whereas crude honey has no inhibitory in vitro effect on Candida albicans. Minimal fungicidal concentration of extracted honey and its residual were 0.31255 and 50% v/v respectively. In vivo study showed that treatment group recovered faster than control group.Conclusion: Aether extracted honey and its residual have anticandidal activity in vitro. The extract have effect on recovery of candidal infected mice.Key words: Candida albicans - bee honey - antifungal-minimal inhibitory concentration - candidal infection recovery 

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