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Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 37, No 03 (2005)" : 8 Documents clear
Comparison of the effectiveness between 2% and 4% nicotinamide gel in reducing melanin index Lisa Murtisari, Lisa Murtisari
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Nicotinamide is a safe agent inhibiting melanosome transfer in vitro therefore it can reduce skin pigmentation. Two percent nicotinamide cream combined with sunscreen as a lightening agent in-creases skin lightness in vivo. Measurement of skin colour changes can be performed by mexameter to measure melanin index (MI).Objective: This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2% and 4% nicotinamide gel as a lightening agent in reducing MI.Materials and Methods: This study was a double blind, randomized controlled trial involving 54 subjects. Two percent or 4% nicotinamide gel was applied on extensor right or left lower arm in each subject. MI was measured at week 0 and the end of week 1, 3, 5 and 7. MI in the evaluation weeks was compared to MI at week 0 in the 2% and 4% nicotinamide gel groups and was analyzed using paired-t test. MI decrease in the evaluation weeks between 2% and 4% nicotinamide gel groups were analyzed using independent t test. All statistical tests used a 5% and CI 95%.Result: Statistical analysis in the 2% nicotinamide gel group showed significant decrease in MI until week 7. However, in the 4% nicotinamide gel group there were significant MI decrease in the week 5 and 7. Statistical analysis showed significant decreased MI between 2% and 4% nicotinamide gel groups at week 1, 3, 5, 7.Conclusion: It was concluded that 4% nicotinamide gel had higher effectiveness compared to 2% in reducing MI as lightening agent.Key words: nicotinamide gel, melanin index, skin colour, lightening agent
Determinants of immunization coverage in Yogyakarta Province Syarifah Hanum, Syarifah Hanum
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Children and infant immunization are often viewed as the symbol of preventive medicine and health service. Furthermore, immunization coverage is often used as an indicator of health service achievement. Recognizing the determinants associated with infant and children immunization status is one of the efforts to increase immunization coverage.Objectives: To know the immunization coverage in Yogyakarta province and determinants associated with coverage and age on immunization.Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study on children 12-23 months of age living in Yogyakarta municipality and other four districts in Yogyakarta province. Subjects were selected using proportional probability multistage cluster random sampling from 30 clusters each representing rural and municipality as urban area.Results: The coverage in municipality as well as in urban areas exceed 90%. The coverge is too high to allow analysis on unimmunized children. We found no statistically significant difference of coverage between rural educational level and though there was a significant difference in parental educational level and occupation distance to nearest health center and age on immunization (p>0.05). There is a statistically significant difference between age on BCG and hepatitis B immunization with place of immunization (p<0.05).Conclusion: Immunization coverage in Yogyakarta province based on survey exceeded 90%. Determinant associated with age on immunization was place of immunization.Key words: immunization coverage - determinant - age on immunization. 
Influence of catheterization on the prostate specific antigen level in patient suffering from prostate disorder Osman Sianipar, Osman Sianipar
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: The increase of life expectancy may increase the number of patients suffered from prostate disorder. In Indonesia prostate cancer is in the top ten malignancies in men and is the second most frequent malignancies in urology clinics. Early detection may decreasies its fatality rate and increase the quality of life. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is clinically the most useful tumor marker; its serum level has positive correlation with the prostate cancer. Serum PSA level will also increase in inflammation, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and interventions like catheterization, digital rectal examination and biopsy.Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the catheterization effect for the result of PSA test in patients with prostate disorder.Methods: Subjects of study are all of patients who present symptoms related prostate. Venous blood samples are taken using aseptic technique then processed further to collect serum. Level of PSA is determined by ELISA technique from the serum. Study population is grouped according to result of histopathologist examination namely benign prostate hypertrophy, benign prostate hypertrophy with prostatitis, benign prostate hypertrophy with prostate intraepithelial neoplasm and prostate cancer. In addition, patients are also grouped into group that already catheterized and those who have not been catheterized before blood sample was taken. One-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used to analyse the effects.Result: Mean of PSA level in patients sufferring from benign prostate hypertrophy, benign prostate hypertrophy with prostatitis, benign prostate hypertrophy with prostate intraepithelial neoplasm respectively were 17.61 ng/mL, 17.33 ng/mL and 19.77 ng/mL. This was significantly different compared to those in the same group but without catheterization before blood collection. Mean of PSA level in prostate cancer patient was 38.3 ng/mL. It was not significantly different to those in prostate cancer patient but without catheterization before blood collection.Conclusion: Urine catheterization prior to determination of PSA level showed an effect to increase PSA level in the group of patients presenting complain of related prostate but it is not found in protate cancer patient.Key words: PSA - prostate disorder - prostate cancer - catheterization 
Risk factors of neonatal asphyxia on storm baby Novita Dewi, Novita Dewi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Neonatal asphyxia remains the main cause of neonatal mortality as well as permanent neurological abnormality. With informed consideration about risk factors, more than half fetuses who need resuscitation could be identified prior to birth.Objectives: The study was aimed to identify antepartum and intrapartum risk factors in neonatal asphyxia of full term babies.Study Design: Case control.Material and Method: Data were collected from medical record of babies hospitalized in Subdivision of Perinatology, Department of Child Health in Dr. Sardjito Hospital in January to December 2004. The risk factors of neonatal asphyxia were identified before and during delivery. Data were analized using chi square, bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: In multivariate analysis, antepartum factor which increases the risk of neonatal asphyxia was small for gestational of age (SGA) baby (OR: 3,43; CI 95%: 1,81-6,53). Intrapartum factors that increased the risk of neonatal asphyxia were meconium stained of amnion fluid (OR:  49,02; CI 95%: 12,34- 143,67), prolonged second stage of delivery (OR: 9,73; Cl 95%: 3,99-23,99) and Caesarean section delivery with general anesthesia (OR:  8,62; CI    95%: 2,16-34,44).Conclusion: SGA baby, meconium stained of the amniotic fluid, prolonged second stage of delivery and Caesarean section delivery with general anesthesia increased the risk of neonatal asphyxia in full term baby.Key words: risk factors - neonatal asphyxia - aterm babies
The Pahang and Kalimantan variant of nocturnally subperiodic form of Brugia Malayi (Nematoda:Filarioidea) the causative agent of filariasis. CrSiti Utari, CrSiti Utari
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Backgound: the nocturnally subperiodic form of B.malayi has been reported as health problem both in East Pahang, Semenanjung, West Malaysia and Kakap, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The filarial worm is transmitted mainly by the same mosquito vector ie Mansonia uniformis.Objectives: to detect any difference of microfilarial behavioral pattern in peripheral blood in East Pahang ang West Kalimantan endemic areas by statistically meta analysis on available data published by previous workers.Methods: using Aikat and Das formula of statistical analysis.Results: B.malayi s microfilariae still tended to show nonperiodically in East Pahang and periodically already those found in West Kalimantan.Conclusion: nocturnally subperiodic form of B.malayi shows as different variant (subsubspecies) of those found in East Pahang, Malaysia and West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Key words: B. Ma/ayis microfilaria - nocturnally subperiodic - nocturnally periodic                  - nonperiodic - metaanalysis
Potential risk of adverse event in patients undergo elective urologic surgery Ratih Wulansari, Ratih Wulansari
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Almost all medical treatment may pose risk. The risk of adverse event in patients undergoing surgery is higher than those who undergo non surgical intervention. The incidence of adverse event varies from 3.7% in the US to 16.7% in Australia. Basically, most of the adverse events are preventable. It is therefore recommended to implement clinical risk management in health care services. Objective: To identify risk of adverse event among patients undergo elective urologic surgeryMethod: A cross sectional study was carried out to collect prospective data on patients underwent elective urologic surgery at Tabanan General Hospital between August-September 2005. Data on the risk of adverse event were identified since patients were admitted to Hospital, underwent pre-op preparation and surgical procedure. Follow up was carried out until 30 days after surgical procedureResult: Seven major potential risks were identified, i.e.(1) pre-operative stay> 3 days (28.85%);(2) patients risks for surgery (44.23%); (3) prophylactic antibiotic were given > 2 hours before surgery (88.46%); (4) ASA > (82.69%); (5) preoperative hair removal > 2 hours before surgery (86.53%); (6) use of intravenous line more than 24 hours (26.92%); and (7) use of urine cathether > 6 days (25%). It is found that pre-operative stay > 3 days was significantly related to the occurrence of adverse event.Conclusion: Pre-operative stay > 3 days contributed significantly in the occurrence of adverse event among patients underwent elective urologic surgery. However, other risk factors were not significantly related to adverse event due to small sample size.Key words: elective urologic surgery - risk - clinical risk management - clinical governance 
The Korean and Indonesian variant of nocturnally periodic form of Brugia malay! (Nematoda:Filarioidea) the causative agent of filariasis. FA Sudjadi, FA Sudjadi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Backgound: The nocturnally periodic form of B.malay/ was reported as health problem both in Cheju, Korea and Bireuen, Aceh, Indonesia. The filarial worm was transmitted respectively by Ae.togoi in Korea and An.barbirostris in Indonesia.Objectives: To know any difference of microfilarial behaviour in peripheral blood by meta-analisis on available data published by previous workers.Methods: Using Aikat and Das formula of statistical analysis.Results: B.malayi s microfilariae tend to present at peripheral blood at day time among cases in Cheju, Korea more than those in Bireuen, Aceh, IndonesiaConclusion: B.malayis microfilariae in Cheju, Korea still had tendency to show                  (nocturnally) subperiodicmore than those in Bireuen, Aceh. Key words: filariasis      - B.ma/ayis microfilaria variant        - nokturnally periodic      - nocturnally subperiodic
Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent on Sprague-Dawley rats liver glutathione S-transferases activity Sudibyo Martono, Sudibyo Martono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 03 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Glutathion S-transferase (GST) is a group of multifunction isoenzymes playing a role as katalisator in releasing inflammatory mediators prostaglandin and leukotrien. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) such as pentagamavunon-0 (Pgv-0), piroxicam, and mefenamic acid have antiinflammatory effect. Aim of study: The study was to know the effect of pentagamavunon-0 (Pgv-0), piroxicam and mefenamic acid on GST.Materials and methods: The effects of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID.) piroxicam, mefenamic acid, and pentagamavunon-0 (Pgv-O) in vitro on mu and pi classes of Sprague-Dawley rats liver glutathione S-transferases (GST)-activity was studied. GST-activities was measured spectrophotometrically on the conjugation reaction between glutathione (GSH) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (for representing the mu class of GST) or etachrynic acid (for representing the pi class of GST). The potency of inhibitory effect was stated as IC50 value (the concentration of inhibitor resulting in 50 % inhibition of GST-activity).Results: The result showed that piroxicam inhibited strongly the mu class of GST-activity with IC60 value of 42.66 mM and inhibited weakly the pi class of GST-activity with IC50 value of 100.79 mM. Mefenamic acid inhibited weakly the mu and pi classes of GST-activity with IC50 values of 107.09 and 275,0 mM (extrapolated), respectively. In this research, Pgv-0 was found to be the strongest inhibitor of the mu class of GST-activity with IC50 value of 3.91 mM and did not inhibit the pi class of rats liver GST-activity.Conclusions: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the three NSAIDs studied, all showed the inhibitory effects of mu class of GST-activity in decreasing order of Pgv-0, piroxicam, and mefenamic acid. Three of them did not or very weakly inhibited the pi class of rats liver GST-activity.Key words: NSAIDs - glutathione S-transferase - pentagamavunon-0 - 1,2-dikloro-4-nitrobenzene - etachrynic acid. 

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