cover
Contact Name
-
Contact Email
-
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
jmedscie@ugm.ac.id
Editorial Address
-
Location
Kab. sleman,
Daerah istimewa yogyakarta
INDONESIA
Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran
ISSN : -     EISSN : -     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 10 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 42, No 01 (2010)" : 10 Documents clear
The effect of mangan and lithium on peripheral blood mononuclear cell viability after exposure of narrowband ultraviolet B in psoriasis patients Sunardi Radiono, Merlin Hernanto Agnes Sri Siswati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (342.15 KB)

Abstract

Psoriasis is a chronic and recurrent inflammation skin disease characterized with hyperproliferation of keratinocytemediated by T cell lymphocytes. Climatotherapy (bathing and sunbathing) at Dead Sea is model therapy which iseffective for moderate and severe psoriasis. However there are group of psoriasis patients who are not responsiveto climatotherapy. The success of the model therapy was based on the influence of ultraviolet irradiation whichcauses depletion of lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells of the skin. Patients who are not respond toclimatotherapy shown to have higher level of mangan (Mn) and lithium (Li) serum than responsive patients. Manganand Li were suspected influenced the viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The aim of the study isto evaluate the effect of Mn and Li levels on the viability of PBMC in the serum of psoriasis patient after exposureof narrowband UVB (NB-UVB). The PBMC were isolated from 6 psoriasis patients using Histopaque. Then the cellsisolate wasincubated in RPMI medium with 0.02 to 0.08 μmol/LMn and 0.08 to 0.1 μmol/L Li for 3 days. After thatthe cells were irradiated once with 1/3 to 2 minimal erythem dose (MED) of NB-UVB. The PBMC viability wasmeasured 3 hours after irradiation with MTT assay and read with ELISA plate reader. The results showed thatincreased levels of Mn and Li or combination did not affect on the viability of PBMC at 1/3 to 1 MED UV-UVB. Butat higher irradiation dose (2 MED), the higher level of Mn and Li had negative affect in the viability of PBMC afterirradiation. It could be concluded that the Mn and Li level in the serum did not affect the viability of PBMC afterirradiation of NB-UVB. It was suggest that other cellular component that involved in the development of psoriasislesions, such as dendritic cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and keratinocyte, were associated with Mn and Li levels.Key words: psoriasis – mangan – lithium - peripheral blood mononuclear cell
Sensitivity and specificity test of fine needle aspiration biopsy in determining thyroid nodule diagnosis Teguh Aryandono, Ahmad Aryono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.363 KB)

Abstract

Based on guideline of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist, fine needle aspiration (FNA) is believedas effective method to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodule. At Dr. Sardjito Hospital,during2004 – 2008 there were 12 cases of false negative from 14 cases of thyroid malignancy. The high false negativevalue raised question about the role of FNA in determining thyroid nodule diagnosis. The purpose of this study is tofind out sensitivity and specificity of FNA in determining thyroid nodule diagnosis at Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta.Patients underwent FNA and surgery for thyroid nodule were collected between January 2004 until December2008. The result of FNAwas compared to histopathological result then sensitivity and specificity test were performedrespectively. The fine needle aspiration was conducted to 120 patients. It consist of 23 men and 97 women, mostly41 – 50 years old. The results of FNA were four of malignancy, 74 of benign, and 42 of follicular neoplasm.Histopathological result showed malignant in 23 patients and benign in 97 patients. The FNA at Dr. Sardjito Hospitalshowed 14.29%of sensitivity, 96.86%of specificity, 50%of PPV, 83.78% of NPV, 4.55 of LR +0.884 of LR-,18.92% of prevalence, and 86.49% of accuracy. The thyroid FNA at Dr. Sardjito Hospital showed low value ofsensitivity and high value of specificity. Futhermore, the thyroid FNA showed minimal role in determining thyroidnodule diagnosis.Keywords : thyroid nodule-diagnosis-fine needle aspiration-sensitivity-specificity
Plasma iron, zinc, and copper levels in heart disease patients in Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta ASM Sofro, Pramudji Hastuti, Lukman Endro HAH Asdie, Tri Hartati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (194.665 KB)

Abstract

Heart disease is a major cause of death in both men and women in industrialized countries. In fact, many individuals,who develop heart disease, have normal cholesterol and blood pressure levels. It suggests that other risk factorsmay also play a role. Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) may promote CHD by increasing lipid peroxidation andcausing oxidant-induced damage in various organs. These minerals are essential as cofactors for functional enzymesin the body. The hypothesis that Fe and Cu depletion protects against ischemic heart disease has generated significantdebate, but this hypothesis cannot be rejected until stronger evidence that high Fe stores increase the incidence ofCHD or death from myocardial infarction is proven. This research was aimed to find out the levels of Fe, Cu, and Znplasma as risk factors for heart disease patients, compared with those in hyperlipidemic patients and controls. Inthis study, we examined the Fe, Zn and Cu levels in plasma of CHD patients, hyperlipidemic patients, and healthycontrols by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Thirty five CHD patients, 31 hyperlipidemic patients, and 26healthy controls. Age, body weight, body height, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure of each group were notsignificantly different (p>0.05). There were higher cholesterol and lower HDL-C levels in CHD patients comparedwith those in hyperlipidemic patients and controls. Therewere significantly higher triglyceridemia level in hyperlipidemicpatients compared to those in CHD patients and controls. Iron level in CHD patients were not significantly differentthan those in hyperlipidemic patients and controls. Zinc level in CHD patientswere not significantly different comparedwith those in controls, but in hyperlipidemic patients, they were significantly lower than those in CHD patients andcontrols. Copper level in CHD and hyperlipidemic patients were significantly lower than those in controls. In thisresearch, it could be concluded that the decrease in Cu level might be one of the risk factors of CHD.Keywords : iron-zinc-copper-heart disease-risk factor
Cytotoxic selectivity of MJC0.3 and MJC0.5, acidic ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from Mirabilis jalapa L. leaves against various cancer cell-lines Retno S. Sudibyo, Sismindari Mae Sri Hartati, Adhyatmika
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (333.216 KB)

Abstract

Mirabilis jalapa L. contains basic (MJ30) and acidic (MJC) Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs). Further purificationof MJC has been found two RIPs, MJC0.3 and MJC0.5. This study is aimed to prove the cytotoxic selectivity ofMJC0.3and MJC0.5against many cancer cell-lines and normal cell line. The two RIPs, MJC0.3and MJC0.5were testedtheir cytotoxic effect on 8 human cancer cell lines and normal cell using MTT assay compared with MJC protein.The highest cytotoxic activities of MJC0.3and MJC0.5were against EVSA-T followed by T47D, HeLa,WiDR, SiHa,Raji, NS1, andMCF7, with the IC50 of 59.3, 102.4, 162.9, 190.5, 249.5, and 304.5 μg/mL, respectively for MJC0.3and 32.8, 75.5, 86.0, 108.3, 346.7, and 220.06 μg/mL, respectively for MJC0.5. Based on these IC50 values,MJC0.3 and MJC0.5 were specific to EVSA-T and T47D, whereas they were not selective against Raji and SiHa(SI<10.0). It can be concluded that he acidic RIPs isolated from M. jalapa L. leaves was potential to be developedas anticancer agents for breast cancer.Key words: acidic RIPs – M. jalapa L.- cytotoxic selectivity - cancer cell lines.
The frequency of non tuberculosis mycobacteria among isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium isolates and the pattern of resistance to antituberculosis drugs Praseno, Ning Rintiswati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (186.066 KB)

Abstract

Non tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) could be the causative agents of various clinical infections, especially inimmunocompromised individuals. However, frequency of this bacteria among Mycobacterium isolates is not yeknown. Morover, their pattern of resistance to antituberculosis drugs has not been reported. The aim of the study isto determine the frequency of NTM among isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium isolates and the pattern of resistanceto antituberculosis drugs. The clinical isolates of isoniazid-resistant mycobacteria collected from several laboratoriesin Java were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and followed by drug sensitivity testing. Identification ofNTM was based on standard microbiological test: colony morphology, duration of growth, acid fast staining, andbiochemical test (niacin test and nitro benzoic acid medium test). All isolates were resistant to rifampicin, 81.20%were streptomycin resistant, and half of them were resistant to ethambutol. Pattern of resistance to the secondline antituberculosis drugs (ciprofloxacin, kanamicin, and ofloxacin) was variable with the range of 37,5%to 62,5%.In conclusion, almost all NTM isolates were resistant to rifampicin and streptomycin, whereas more than half ofisolates were resistant to the second line drugs (ciprofloxacin, kanamicin, and ofloxacin).Key words: NTM- isoniazid resistant- pattern of resistance – antituberculosi drugs
The protective effect of sunscreens against ultraviolet B-induced immunosuppression. A study on Langerhans cell depletion Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Flora Ramona SP Fajar Waskito
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3379.687 KB)

Abstract

Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation can act as immunosuppressant by inducing an epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) depletionwhich could be inhibited by topical sunscreen. Several kinds of sunscreens with various SPF (Sunscreen ProtectionFactor) are now available. The minimal SPF which able to inhibit the immunosuppressive effect of UVB amongpeople with skin photo-type IV has not been established yet. The aim of this study is to determine the minimal SPFcapable to inhibit UVB-induced immunosuppression among people with skin photo-type IV. A simple experimental(post test only experimental) study was conducted among 5 people’s circumsized foreskins with Fitzpatrick’s skinphoto-type IV. Each of them was divided into equal 5 pieces of 0.5 cm2. Each of three pieces of skin was treated bysunscreen SPF 15, SPF 30, and SPF 50, a single piece of skin was treated with placebo, and all of them then weretreated by a single 100 mJ/cm2 of UVB 30 minutes later. A rest single piece of skin was used as control. After 24hours of incubation in incubator of 37O C and 5% CO2, all of them then was fixed by buffer formalin, blocked byparaffin, cut in 2mm of thickness, and then stained with anti CD 1a antibody with AEC as chromogen and Mayer’shematoxylin as counterstaining. The number of LC was counted by Image J Analysis programmed and the mean ofLCwere analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test dan Mann-Whitney test. There were very significantly different of themean number of LC between UVB placebo group and control group (p < 0.01). Compared to the control group,mean number of LC among SPF 30 and SPF 50 treated groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). Sunscreenwith SPF 15 had LC number lower than control group significantly (p<0.05). The lowest SPF for preventing UVBinduced LC depletion among people with skin photo-type IV was 30.Key words : UVB - immunosupression – sunscreens – SPF -CD1aexpression
Systematic review: better or (otherwise) misleading for clinical decision? Hardyanto Soebono, Muhammad Bayu Sasongko
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (191.744 KB)

Abstract

Systematic review is a method to combine multiple sources of evidence through an explicit and reproducible way ofliterature search and critical appraisal of the quality of included studies, with or without mathematical methods tosynthesis these information. Since this method was first introduced more than centuries ago, systematic review hasbeen increasingly popular and widely used particularly in the area of medicine. Systematic review is often veryuseful to physicians to help supporting the clinical decision making and significantly reducing their time to seek forappropriate evidence. However, despite its reproducible and systematic steps to substantially minimize the presenceof biases, physicians should still be aware that systematic review is not completely biases resistant. Inclusion ofpoor quality studies, heterogeneity, and publication or other reporting biases are commonly evident in systematicreview that may hinder the quality of the conclusion. This review summarizes the core principals of systematicreview and its potential biases, and discusses when the systematic review is useful or needing careful attention.Key words: treatment-scientific evidence- meta-analysis- critical appraisal-outcomes
Effects of ferro sulphate and carbon tetrachloride in liver of rat Ngadikun, Ngadikun Ngadikun
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4285.654 KB)

Abstract

Ferro sulphate (FeSO4) overload and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are chemical hepatocarcinogen. Ferro sulphatedisrupts the redox balance of the cell and generates chronic oxidative stress by which modulates signaling networksrelated to malignant transformation. Meanwhile CCl4 induces hepatic damage in lipid peroxidation and decreasesactivities of antioxidant enzymes and generation of free radicals. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect ofa pause of chemical hepatocarcinogen induced in Rattus norvegicus rats. Twomonths old adultmaleRattus norvegicusrats weighing around 110–191 g were used. The ratswere divided into three groups. In group I (n=3), no-treatmentcontrol; in group II (n=3), rats were fed 3.5%FeSO4 in the diet together with 0.1 ml/ kgBWCCl4 administered bygavage per os 5 days a week for 3 weeks. However, in group III (n=3), rats were administered by chemicalhepatocarcinogen like group I then continued with no-treatment for 2 weeks (a pause of 2 weeks was inserted).Body weight were determined per week. At the end of the experiment, rats were fasted overnight, and then 3.0 mlof blood was drawn from the rats from the vena orbitalis in EDTA-tube and then sacrificed. Liver and body weight ofrats were determined for each group. Plasma was prepared to biochemical estimation of different parameters liketotal protein (TP), non-functional plasma enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GT) by biochemical test kits in SYNCHRON CX® System(s). The livertissuewas used for histological and immunohistochemical assessment. All datawere analyzedwith one-way ANOVA,p<0.05 for the statistical comparison of groups in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) programs in MicrosoftWindowsXP.According to the research results of the body weight on treated group gained significantly less body weight thancontrol group (p= 0.00). Liver weight at the end of the experiment were significantly decreased in treated groupcompared to control (p=0.00); but Liver/ Body weight ratio were significantly increased in treated group comparedto control (p=0.00). The blood plasma were significant differences in the values of TP and GT (p = 0.00 and0.00), but the values of AST, ALT, and ratio of AST to ALT were not significant differences (p=0.62, 0.67, and0.26 respectively). Histopathological studies of the liver section of treated group showed the damage of the livercells. In the group of a pause of chemical hepatocarcinogen induced in rats were no major morphological changeswere observed compared to group that administered for 3 weeks, except for decreased steatosis level. An overalldecrease in vacuoles at the group of a pause suggested a changemetabolismand toxin depletion over time. Furthermore,p53 immunohistochemistry on 9 cases revealed no p53 mutations or protein overexpression. It was concluded thatp-53 mutation was not detected in Rattus norvegicus rats that induced hepatocarcinogenic agent FeSO4 3.5%andCCl4 0.1 ml/ kg BW for 3 weeks and hepatic injury still encountered in a pause of chemical hepatocarcinogeninduced showed that the recovery was not complete.Key words: pause of chemical hepatocarcinogen induced - Rattus norvegicus - liver tissue - total protein - nonfunctionalplasma enzymes
The protective effect of sunscreens against ultraviolet B-induced immunosuppression. A study on Langerhans cell depletion Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Flora Ramona SP Fajar Waskito
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3379.687 KB)

Abstract

Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation can act as immunosuppressant by inducing an epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) depletionwhich could be inhibited by topical sunscreen. Several kinds of sunscreens with various SPF (Sunscreen ProtectionFactor) are now available. The minimal SPF which able to inhibit the immunosuppressive effect of UVB amongpeople with skin photo-type IV has not been established yet. The aim of this study is to determine the minimal SPFcapable to inhibit UVB-induced immunosuppression among people with skin photo-type IV. A simple experimental(post test only experimental) study was conducted among 5 people’s circumsized foreskins with Fitzpatrick’s skinphoto-type IV. Each of them was divided into equal 5 pieces of 0.5 cm2. Each of three pieces of skin was treated bysunscreen SPF 15, SPF 30, and SPF 50, a single piece of skin was treated with placebo, and all of them then weretreated by a single 100 mJ/cm2 of UVB 30 minutes later. A rest single piece of skin was used as control. After 24hours of incubation in incubator of 37O C and 5% CO2, all of them then was fixed by buffer formalin, blocked byparaffin, cut in 2mm of thickness, and then stained with anti CD 1a antibody with AEC as chromogen and Mayer’shematoxylin as counterstaining. The number of LC was counted by Image J Analysis programmed and the mean ofLCwere analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test dan Mann-Whitney test. There were very significantly different of themean number of LC between UVB placebo group and control group (p < 0.01). Compared to the control group,mean number of LC among SPF 30 and SPF 50 treated groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). Sunscreenwith SPF 15 had LC number lower than control group significantly (p<0.05). The lowest SPF for preventing UVBinduced LC depletion among people with skin photo-type IV was 30.Key words : UVB - immunosupression – sunscreens – SPF -CD1aexpression
Comparison of serum aminotransferase between gas and gasless laparoscopy cholecystectomy Agus Barmawi, Imam Sofii Hendro Wartatmo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 42, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (181.342 KB)

Abstract

Carbondioxide (CO2) insufflations in laparoscopy with gas will increase intraabdominal pressure that influences thehemodynamic, lungs, and kidneys. One of important hemodynamic changes is temporary reduction of hepatic bloodflowbecause of pneumoperitoneum. Pressure caused by pneumoperitoneumcan influence ischemia degree of hepaticcell and cause hepatic enzymes increase. Enzyme that includes in hepatic enzyme is aminotransferase,which consistsof: transaminase (AST) or glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase serum and alanine transaminase (ALT) or glutamicpyruvic transaminase serum. Laparoscopy method by lifting abdomen wall (gasless laparoscopy) without CO2insufflations can decrease the damaging effects of high intraabdominal pressure. This research was an experimentalresearch with single blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) plan, with observation of symptomatic cholelithiasis patientswho underwent cholecystectomy laparoscopic cholecystectomy with gas or CO2 (pneumoperitoneum) or withoutgas (gasless). Hepatic function tests were then held at 24 hours and 72 hours after operation. Research subjectswere symptomatic cholelithiasis patients who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples needed were 24people in each group. The independent variable was patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis who underwentcholecystectomy laparoscoped with gas compared to those being cholecystectomy laparoscoped without gas. Thedependent variable was aminotransferase enzyme value before operation, and 24, 72 hours postoperation. The datawere analyzed using Kolmogorov Smirnov, independent t-test, pair t-test, and MannWhitney test. It was obtained21 cases for men (43.75%), 27 cases for women (56.25%). The average age of the group laparoscopy with gaswas 47.16±10.76 years old and the group laparoscopy without gas was 45.3±11.48 years old (p>0,05). Theaverage values of AST and ALT 24 hours postoperation of the group laparoscopy without gas were 21.9±7.6 U/L(increase 24%) and 26.3±5.2 U/L (increase 46%) compared to 65.8±18.4 U/L (increase 206%) and 62.8±14.3U/L (increase 280%) in the group laparoscopy with gas (p< 0,05). The average values of AST and ALT 72 hourspostoperation of the group laparoscopywithout gaswere 24.7±8.3 U/L (increase 33%) and 28.9±7.3 U/L (increase17%) compared to 71,5±28,6 U/L (increase 250%) and 75.8±16.9 U/L (increase 360%) in the group laparoscopywith gas (p< 0,05). In conclusion, there were significantly increases of serum aminotransferase values (AST andALT) in cholecystectomy laparoscopy with gas compared to in cholecystectomy laparoscopy without gas.Key words: cholecystectomy laparoscopy – pneumoperitoneum - gasless – serum aminotransferase

Page 1 of 1 | Total Record : 10


Filter by Year

2010 2010


Filter By Issues
All Issue Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19 Vol 52, No 3 (2020) Vol 52, No 2 (2020) Vol 52, No 1 (2020) Vol 51, No 4 (2019) Vol 51, No 3 (2019) Vol 51, No 2 (2019) Vol 51, No 1 (2019) Vol 50, No 4 (2018) Vol 50, No 3 (2018) Vol 50, No 2 (2018) Vol 50, No 1 (2018): SUPPLEMENT Vol 50, No 1 (2018) Vol 49, No 4 (2017) Vol 49, No 3 (2017) Vol 49, No 2 (2017) Vol 49, No 1 (2017) Vol 48, No 4 (2016): SUPPLEMENT Vol 48, No 4 (2016) Vol 48, No 3 (2016) Vol 48, No 2 (2016) Vol 48, No 1 (2016) Vol 47, No 4 (2015) Vol 47, No 3 (2015) Vol 47, No 2 (2015) Vol 47, No 01 (2015) Vol 46, No 04 (2014) Vol 46, No 03 (2014) Vol 46, No 02 (2014) Vol 46, No 01 (2014) Vol 46, No 04 (2014) Vol 46, No 03 (2014) Vol 46, No 02 (2014) Vol 46, No 01 (2014) Vol 45, No 04 (2013) Vol 45, No 03 (2013) Vol 45, No 02 (2013) Vol 45, No 01 (2013) Vol 45, No 04 (2013) Vol 45, No 03 (2013) Vol 45, No 02 (2013) Vol 45, No 01 (2013) Vol 44, No 02 (2012) Vol 44, No 01 (2012) Vol 44, No 02 (2012) Vol 44, No 01 (2012) Vol 43, No 02 (2011) Vol 43, No 01 (2011) Vol 43, No 02 (2011) Vol 43, No 01 (2011) Vol 42, No 01 (2010) Vol 42, No 01 (2010) Vol 41, No 04 (2009) Vol 41, No 03 (2009) Vol 41, No 02 (2009) Vol 41, No 01 (2009) Vol 41, No 04 (2009) Vol 41, No 03 (2009) Vol 41, No 02 (2009) Vol 41, No 01 (2009) Vol 40, No 04 (2008) Vol 40, No 03 (2008) Vol 40, No 02 (2008) Vol 40, No 01 (2008) Vol 40, No 04 (2008) Vol 40, No 03 (2008) Vol 40, No 02 (2008) Vol 40, No 01 (2008) Vol 39, No 04 (2007) Vol 39, No 03 (2007) Vol 39, No 02 (2007) Vol 39, No 01 (2007) Vol 39, No 04 (2007) Vol 39, No 03 (2007) Vol 39, No 02 (2007) Vol 39, No 01 (2007) Vol 38, No 04 (2006) Vol 38, No 01 (2006) Vol 37, No 04 (2005) Vol 37, No 03 (2005) Vol 37, No 02 (2005) Vol 37, No 01 (2005) Vol 37, No 04 (2005) Vol 37, No 03 (2005) Vol 37, No 02 (2005) Vol 37, No 01 (2005) Vol 36, No 4 (2004) Vol 36, No 3 (2004) Vol 36, No 2 (2004) Vol 36, No 1 (2004) Vol 36, No 4 (2004) Vol 36, No 3 (2004) Vol 36, No 2 (2004) Vol 36, No 1 (2004) Vol 35, No 4 (2003) Vol 35, No 3 (2003) Vol 35, No 2 (2003) Vol 35, No 4 (2003) Vol 35, No 3 (2003) Vol 35, No 2 (2003) Vol 34, No 04 (2002) Vol 34, No 03 (2002) Vol 34, No 02 (2002) Vol 34, No 01 (2002) Vol 34, No 04 (2002) Vol 34, No 03 (2002) Vol 34, No 02 (2002) Vol 34, No 01 (2002) Vol 33, No 04 (2001) Vol 33, No 03 (2001) Vol 33, No 02 (2001) Vol 33, No 04 (2001) Vol 33, No 03 (2001) Vol 33, No 02 (2001) Vol 31, No 04 (1999) Vol 31, No 03 (1999) Vol 31, No 02 (1999) Vol 31, No 01 (1999) Vol 31, No 04 (1999) Vol 31, No 03 (1999) Vol 31, No 02 (1999) Vol 31, No 01 (1999) Vol 30, No 03 (1998) Vol 30, No 02 (1998) Vol 30, No 01 (1998) Vol 30, No 03 (1998) Vol 30, No 02 (1998) Vol 30, No 01 (1998) Vol 29, No 04 (1997) Vol 29, No 03 (1997) Vol 29, No 02 (1997) Vol 29, No 01 (1997) Vol 29, No 04 (1997) Vol 29, No 03 (1997) Vol 29, No 02 (1997) Vol 29, No 01 (1997) Vol 28, No 04 (1996) Vol 28, No 03 (1996) Vol 28, No 02 (1996) Vol 28, No 01 (1996) Vol 28, No 04 (1996) Vol 28, No 03 (1996) Vol 28, No 02 (1996) Vol 28, No 01 (1996) Vol 27, No 04 (1995) Vol 27, No 03 (1995) Vol 27, No 02 (1995) Vol 27, No 01 (1995) Vol 27, No 04 (1995) Vol 27, No 03 (1995) Vol 27, No 02 (1995) Vol 27, No 01 (1995) Vol 26, No 03 (1994) Vol 26, No 02 (1994) Vol 26, No 01 (1994) Vol 26, No 03 (1994) Vol 26, No 02 (1994) Vol 26, No 01 (1994) Vol 25, No 04 (1993) Vol 25, No 03 (1993) Vol 25, No 02 (1993) Vol 25, No 01 (1993) Vol 25, No 04 (1993) Vol 25, No 03 (1993) Vol 25, No 02 (1993) Vol 25, No 01 (1993) Vol 24, No 04 (1992) Vol 24, No 03 (1992) Vol 24, No 02 (1992) Vol 24, No 01 (1992) Vol 24, No 04 (1992) Vol 24, No 03 (1992) Vol 24, No 02 (1992) Vol 24, No 01 (1992) Vol 23, No 04 (1991) Vol 23, No 03 (1991) Vol 23, No 02 (1991) Vol 23, No 01 (1991) Vol 23, No 04 (1991) Vol 23, No 03 (1991) Vol 23, No 02 (1991) Vol 23, No 01 (1991) Vol 22, No 04 (1990) Vol 22, No 03 (1990) Vol 22, No 02 (1990) Vol 22, No 01 (1990) Vol 22, No 04 (1990) Vol 22, No 03 (1990) Vol 22, No 02 (1990) Vol 22, No 01 (1990) Vol 21, No 04 (1989) Vol 21, No 03 (1989) Vol 21, No 02 (1989) Vol 21, No 01 (1989) Vol 21, No 04 (1989) Vol 21, No 03 (1989) Vol 21, No 02 (1989) Vol 21, No 01 (1989) Vol 20, No 04 (1988) Vol 20, No 03 (1988) Vol 20, No 02 (1988) Vol 20, No 01 (1988) Vol 20, No 04 (1988) Vol 20, No 03 (1988) Vol 20, No 02 (1988) Vol 20, No 01 (1988) Vol 19, No 04 (1987) Vol 19, No 03 (1987) Vol 19, No 02 (1987) Vol 19, No 01 (1987) Vol 19, No 04 (1987) Vol 19, No 03 (1987) Vol 19, No 02 (1987) Vol 19, No 01 (1987) Vol 18, No 04 (1986) Vol 18, No 03 (1986) Vol 18, No 02 (1986) Vol 18, No 01 (1986) Vol 18, No 04 (1986) Vol 18, No 03 (1986) Vol 18, No 02 (1986) Vol 18, No 01 (1986) Vol 17, No 03 (1985) Vol 17, No 02 (1985) Vol 17, No 01 (1985) Vol 17, No 03 (1985) Vol 17, No 02 (1985) Vol 17, No 01 (1985) Vol 16, No 04 (1984) Vol 16, No 02 (1984) Vol 16, No 01 (1984) Vol 16, No 04 (1984) Vol 16, No 02 (1984) Vol 16, No 01 (1984) Vol 15, No 03 (1983) Vol 15, No 02 (1983) Vol 15, No 03 (1983) Vol 15, No 02 (1983) Vol 13, No 04 (1981) Vol 13, No 03 (1981) Vol 13, No 02 (1981) Vol 13, No 01 (1981) Vol 13, No 04 (1981) Vol 13, No 03 (1981) Vol 13, No 02 (1981) Vol 13, No 01 (1981) Vol 12, No 04 (1980) Vol 12, No 03 (1980) Vol 12, No 02 (1980) Vol 12, No 01 (1980) Vol 12, No 04 (1980) Vol 12, No 03 (1980) Vol 12, No 02 (1980) Vol 12, No 01 (1980) Vol 10, No 04 (1978) Vol 10, No 03 (1978) Vol 10, No 02 (1978) Vol 10, No 01 (1978) Vol 10, No 04 (1978) Vol 10, No 03 (1978) Vol 10, No 02 (1978) Vol 10, No 01 (1978) Vol 9, No 04 (1977) Vol 9, No 03 (1977) Vol 9, No 02 (1977) Vol 9, No 01 (1977) Vol 9, No 04 (1977) Vol 9, No 03 (1977) Vol 9, No 02 (1977) Vol 9, No 01 (1977) Vol 8, No 04 (1976) Vol 8, No 03 (1976) Vol 8, No 02 (1976) Vol 8, No 01 (1976) Vol 8, No 04 (1976) Vol 8, No 03 (1976) Vol 8, No 02 (1976) Vol 8, No 01 (1976) Vol 7, No 04 (1975) Vol 7, No 03 (1975) Vol 7, No 02 (1975) Vol 7, No 01 (1975) Vol 7, No 04 (1975) Vol 7, No 03 (1975) Vol 7, No 02 (1975) Vol 7, No 01 (1975) Vol 6, No 04 (1974) Vol 6, No 03 (1974) Vol 6, No 02 (1974) Vol 6, No 01 (1974) Vol 6, No 04 (1974) Vol 6, No 03 (1974) Vol 6, No 02 (1974) Vol 6, No 01 (1974) Vol 5, No 04 (1973) Vol 5, No 03 (1973) Vol 5, No 02 (1973) Vol 5, No 01 (1973) Vol 5, No 04 (1973) Vol 5, No 03 (1973) Vol 5, No 02 (1973) Vol 5, No 01 (1973) More Issue