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Articles 6 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 46, No 04 (2014)" : 6 Documents clear
Antimicrobial activity of bioactive compounds isolated from Swietenia mahagoni (L) Jacq. against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mustofa, Handry Darussalam, Titik Nuryastuti, Mursiti,
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 04 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (107.331 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004604201402

Abstract

Widespread bacterial resistance has led to more difficult to treat infectious diseases with availableantibiotics. Therefore, new antibiotics are needed face of the growing antibiotic resistance. Swieteniamahagoni (L.) Jacq. is one of potential medicinal plants as a source new antibiotics. Five compoundshave been isolated from an ethanolic extract of S. mahagoni (L.) Jacq., however its antimicrobialactivity has not been investigated, yet. This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobialactivity of these compounds. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal BactericidalConcentration (MBC) were determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosastrains. Among five compounds tested, compound 3 (3,4,5,6,7-pentaethyl-1-methoxy-1H-indazole)and compound 4 (5-ethyl-6-methoxymethyl-2-methyl-1,2-dihydropyridine) were found to be activeagainst the bactrial strains tested with the MICs and MBCs values ranged from 50 to 100 μg/mL. Inconclusion, among five compounds isolated from S. mahagoni (L.) Jacq., compound 3 and 4showed moderate antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.
The relationship between serum malondialdehyde levels and severity of acne vulgaris on male Kristiana Etnawati, Aprilina Dwi Sulistyowati, Dwi Retno Adiwinarni,
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 04 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (105.308 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004604201403

Abstract

Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disorder characterized by seborrhea, microcomedones, comedones,papules, pustules, nodules and possibly scarring. The pathogenesis of acne is not completelyunderstood. Recent studies reported the possible role of reactive oxygen spesies (ROS) especiallylipid peroxides in mediating acne inflammation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of the final productsof the lipid peroxidation that commonly used as a lipid peroxidation marker. This study was conductedto evaluate the correlation between serum MDA levels and severity of acne on male patients. A total60 patients with acne who attended in Polyclinic of Department of Dermatology and Venereology,Dr Sardjito General Hospital and met the inclusion and exclusion were involved in the study. Thepatients were then classified using combined acne severity classification method into three group asmild, modrate and severe acnes. Blood sample were then taken from all subjects and serum MDAlevels were determined spectrophotometer. The mean serum MDA levels of severe acne group(1.85 ± 0.368 μmol/L) were significantly higher than that moderate acne group (0.79 ± 0.159μmol/L) (p = 0.000) and that mild acne group (0.52 ± 0.239 μmol/L) (p = 0.000). Moreover, themean MDA levels of moderate acne group were also significantly higher than that mild acne group(p = 0.002). Significantly positive correlation was observed between serum MDA levels and acnelesions total count (r = 0.714; p = 0.000). It can be concluded, there is positive relationshipbetween serum MDA levels and severity of acne vulgaris on male patients.
Sedative hypnotics use as the risk factor for fall incidents on geriatric patients Woro Rukmi Pratiwi, Christi Mambo, Jarir At Thobari,
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 04 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (145.202 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004604201404

Abstract

Fall incident is one of geriatric syndromes that cause an increasing public health burden worldwide.The risk factors for falls incidents on geriatric patients have been identified included medicationuse. Benzodiazepine is a sedative hypnotic that found to be associated with an increase fallincidents. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sedative hypnotics on the riskof fall incidents on geriatric patients. This was an observational study using cohort designinvolving 188 eligible geriatric patients comprising 94 patients who take sedative hypnotics and94 patients who not. All pasients then underwent a test for functional mobility and fall riskusing timed “up & go” test (TUG). The subjects who take ≤ 20 seconds to complete the TUG wasconsidered to have low risk for fall incidents, whereas those who take >20 seconds was consideredto have high risk for fall incidents. The results showed that the use of sedative hypnotics, sex,and number of drugs taken were associated with fall incidents on geriatric patients. Geriatricpatients who use sedative hypnotics were 2.41 times higher at risk of fall incidents than thosewho not use sedative hypnotics (95%CI;1.12-5.17; p=0.023). Geriatric patients who takealprazolam were 2.78 times higher at risk of fall incidents compared to those who not take(95% CI: 1.49-5.19; p=0.028). Furthermore, female geriatric patients were 3.29 times higher atrisk of fall incidents compared to male geriatic patients (95%CI: 1.58-6.88; p=0.001) and theuse of ≥ 4 kinds of drugs were 2.76 times higher at risk of fall incidents compared to the use of<4 kinds of drugs (95%CI:1.21-6.29; p=0.015). In conclusion, sedative hypnotics is found tobe a risk factor for fall incidents on geriatric patients.
Prognostic factors for frequent episodic asthma in children Noormanto, Sulaiman Hamid, Amalia Setyati,
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 04 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (81.017 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004604201405

Abstract

Asthma is a major health problem affecting millions of children worldwide. The prevalence of asthmain children tends to increase annually in the world. Therefore, identification of the prognostic factorsfor episodic asthma is important to perform early prevention of asthma attacks in children. Thestudy was performed to identify the prognostic factors for frequent episodic asthma in children. Thiswas a retrospective cohort study involving asthmatic children who attended the Emergency Unit orOutpatient Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. Theinclusion criteria were asthmatic children aged over 7 years, suffering from asthma over 2 years andgetting agreement from their parents as expressed by signed an informed consent. The exclusioncriteria were children with other chronic obtructive pulmonary diseases beside asthma and childrenwith cardiovascular diseases. Subjects were grouped into two groups i.e. Case Group and ControlGroup. The Case Group was children with frequent episodic asthma while the Control Group waschildren with infrequent episodic asthma. Prognostic factors for episodic asthma were then gatheredby giving a questionnaire to their parents. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationshipbetween prognostic factors and episodic asthma. A total of 94 subjects comprising 37 (36.4%)subjects with frequent episodic asthma and 57 (63.6%) subjects with infrequent episodic asthmawere involved in the study. Furthermore, response to initial theraphy was significantly associatedwith frequent episodic asthma (RR= 8.64; 95%CI= 0.47-2.50; p=0.001). Whereas, nutritionalstatus, patients age when asthma diagnosed, exclusive breastfeeding, maternal education, exposureof secondhand smoke and welfare were not (p>0.05). In conclusion, the initial therapy is prognosticfactors for frequent episodic asthma in children.
Low CD4+ T cell counts are not risk factor for Malassezia species infection in HIV/AIDS patients Agnes Sri Siswati, Epi Panjaitan, Satiti Retno Pudjiati,
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 04 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (105.761 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004604201401

Abstract

Human immunodefiiency virus (HIV) infection and aquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)cause a progressive depletion of CD4+ T cell populations accompanied by progressive impairmentof cellular immunity and increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Seborrheic dermatitisis one of the most common skin opportunistic infections on HIV/AIDS patients. Malasseziaspecies is bilieved as the causative of seborrheic dermatitis. The aim of the study was to evaluatelow CD4+ T cell counts as risk factor for Malassezia sp. infection in HIV/AIDS patients. This wasan observational study with cross-sectional design conducted on HIV/AIDS patients who attendedin Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Culture ofMalassezia sp. was conducted in Department of Microbiology and classified as high (>100 CFU/tape) and low (<100 CFU/tape) density colonies. CD4+ T cell counts were measured in Departmentof Clinical Pathology and classified as high (>200 cells/mm3) and low (<200 cells/mm3) CD4+ Tcell counts. A total of 83 subjects with HIV/AIDS comprising 54 (65.1%) males and 29 (34.9%)females aged 20 - >60 years were involved in the study. The number of Malassezia sp. colonyon subjects with high and low CD4+ T cell counts were 31.55 ± 26.21 and 25.2 ± 33.89 CFU/tape, respectively. No significantly relationship between between CD4+ T cell count and Malasseziasp. colony number was observed in the study (p=0.607; 95%CI=0.04-5.19; RP=0.452). Inconclusion, low CD4+ T cell counts is not risk factor for Malassezia sp. infection in HIV/AIDSpatients.
Drinking water quality analysis after 22 deaths in LaeMaromas, North Sumatera Maruli Pandjaitan,, Abraham Simatupang, Seruni Kusuma Udyaningsih Freisleben,; Hans-Joachim Freisleben, Christel Westerhausen,
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 04 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (102.022 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004604201406

Abstract

The case of 22 deaths in LaeMaromas, North Sumatera suspected due to water contamination bynearby metal mining was brought by local citizens to the Church-supported non-governmentalorganization (NGO) Persekutuan Diakonia Pelangi Kasih (PDPK). The patients’ clinical symptomswere fever, shivering, shaking chills, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting. In June 2011, ateam from the District Health Department analysed the drinking water quality, especiallymicrobiological contamination. Members of PDPK asked the German-Indonesian MedicalAssociation to conduct a second complete water analysis with focus on heavy metal content.Six water samples from four different wells in LaeMaromas and two from Sopokomil and Bongkaraswere analysed according to international water quality standards. Taste, odour, colour, and turbiditywere determined by organoleptic and photometric methods. Temperature and pH were measuredwith a calibrated thermometer and pH-meter. Total dissolved solids were determined gravimetrically,hardness as CaCO3 content. Inorganic anions and nitrogen compounds were measured by titration.Contamination with Eschericia coli and coliform bacteria, organic compounds and detergents wasdetermined according to standard methods. Heavy metals were measured by atomic absorptionspectroscopy. The pH of the water (4.5-6.5) was below standard (6.5-8.5). Heavy metals werewithin the allowed concentrations. All samples from LaeMaromas contained high counts coliformbacteria /E. coli with a peak of 1600 counts/100 mL and high organic compound level of 63 mg/Lin LaeMaromas III. Most probably, the 22 deaths were caused by drinking water contamination withcoliform bacteria rather than by heavy metals or other chemicals.

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