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Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 30, No 03 (1998)" : 16 Documents clear
Prognosis Epilepsi Harsono, Harsono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Prognosis is defined as the chance of recovery from a certain condition. Strictly, in epilepsy this means the chance of terminal remission once a patient has established a pattern of recurrent epileptic seizures. Questions concerning duration of treatment and long-term prognosis in childhood epilepsy are often raised by parents whose children are starting therapy with antiepileptic drugs. Many studies have focused on those issues and have examined the risk factors for poor prognosis as well as the risk of recurrence of seizures. The wide variation found in the risk of recurrence among those who have had a first seizure seems to be explained by differences In study design or differences in the characteristics of the study groups. In addition, the study of the prognosis of epilepsy has been confounded because of the fact that epilepsy is an expression of so many different underlying etiologies and syndromes.Prognosis of epilepsy should be informed clearly to the patients and/or parents. The clear information will improve the patient compliance in taking medication for a long time.Key Words : prognosis of epilepsy - remission - antiepileptic drugs - risk factors - recurrent epileptic seizures
The effect of megadosis of iron consumption on the absorption of zinc and copper in rat (Rattus rattus) determined in situ Sukarti Moeljopawiro, Sukarti Moeljopawiro
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Oral administration of iron pill must be at an accurate dosis because high consumption of iron could impair the absorption of other minerals especially bivalent metals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of megadosis consumption of iron on the absorption of zinc and copper. The inorganic minerals were used in this study. The amount of mineral absorption was determined in situ. Forty male weanling rats were used in, this study. Rats were divided into 8 groups of 5, two groups for each treatment. Four ratios of Fe, Zn and Cu were used in this study (Fe : Zn : Cu = 5 : 1 : 1; 10 : 1 : 1; 20 : 1 : 1 and 50 ; 1 : 1). The amount of mineral absorption was determined using in vivo intestinal perfusion, and two perfusion rates were used 0.5 ml/minute and 0.33 ml/minute. It was found that high iron consumption (50 : 1 : 1) could impair the zinc absorption at perfusion rate of 0.33 ml/minute and no zinc absorption occur at perfusion rate of 0.5 ml/minute. However, this high iron consumption did not influence the copper absorption both at perfusion rate of 0.5 ml/minute and 0.33 ml/minute. It can be concluded that high consumption of iron could impair the zinc absorption but not copper absorption.Key words : iron - zinc - copper - mineral absorption - in situ perfusion
An increased susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to tetracyclin during exposure to rifampicin Hera Nirwati, Hera Nirwati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

acterial resistance to antibiotics has been an important problem worldwide. Discoveries and clinical use of new antibiotics have always been followed by emergence of strains of bacterial resistant to the antibiotics in question within relatively short period of time. Various efforts have been attempted to overcome the problem, one of which being the use of two or more different antibiotics in combination. In this study the effect of rifampicin on alternation of susceptibility of S. aureus to tetracycline was evaluated. Sixty seven isolates of tetracycline resistant S. aureus determined by standard disk diffusion method of Kirby-Bauer were collected during the period from August 1997 to January 1998. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC = KHM) values of rifampicin for this isolates were determined by broth dilution method. MIC of tetracycline for each isolate was determined while the bacteria were exposed to rifampicin at sub MIC. At the same time determination of the MIC was also performed without exposing the bacteria to rifampicin and this procedure served as control. Results showed that 91% (61 of 67) rifampicin - exposed isolates have increase susceptibility to tetracycline as reflected by the decrease of MIC values. It is concluded that there is synergistic effects of tetracycline and rifampicin on S. aureus. The number of isolate with increased susceptibility to tetracycline during exposure to rifampicin was statistically significant (p < 0.05).Key Words : rifampicin - Staphylococcus aureus - susceptibility - tetracycline
Human immunodeficiency virus infection in children, special aspects Sunarto, Sunarto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus infection in children and infants has some different characteristics compared to that in adults, including the transmission, the clinical manifestations and the clinical course. Many factors are associated with the vertical transmission, among others are maternal antigen p24 level, viral load, CD4+ -cell number, zidovudine therapy, and the presence of anti-Gp 120. Growth and development failure, interstitial pneumonia, and hepatomegaly are found in almost all pediatric AIDS. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) has a high frequency in vertical AIDS. Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCP) as early complication occurs in about 10% of children with AIDS and has high mortality. Gastrohepatobillary dysfunction caused by various opportunistic microorganisms are common; disaccharidase intolerance also frequently occurs. The longer the children alive the higher the cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic abnormalities are found in 90% of vertical AIDS. The clinical course and the prognosis of vertical infection is associated with the maternal virus load, symptomatic HIV and p24 antigenemia, the lower the CD4+ cells in the mother, and the characteristic of the virus. The increased p24 antigenemia in the first 6 months of life, the opportunistic infections, and the progressive neurologic disease are related also to bad prognosis. Laboratory based diagnosis of HIV infection in infants is difficult especially due to the presence of maternal antibody. A number of tests is now under studies to find reliable and practical diagnostics, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of liquid or dried blood samples. IgA and other practical kit tests. HIV infected children show lower response against vaccinal antigens than normal infants. Anyhow, vaccination with killed vaccines is recommended for all HIV infected infants, including diphtheria, tetanus, killed polio. HIV infected children show response against H. influenzae vaccine. The advantages of BCG vaccination are weighted against the disadvantages. Varicella and hepatitis-B vaccine effectivity need further studies.Key words: pediatric HIV - vertical transmission - clinical manifestation - prognostic factor - laboratory diagnostics - recommended vaccination
The prevention of the occurence of ultraviolet B (UVB) induced hypoxanthine guanidine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) mutant cells by several commercial sunscreens An in vitro study Noor Ikhtiyati, Noor Ikhtiyati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

This study was aimed at comparing the effect of three different SPF (Sun Protecting Factors) of sunscreens in the prevention of UVB (Ultraviolet B) Induced mutant fibroblast cells. The study was done using a simple experimental study design. Three commercially sunscreens were coated on the plate cover surface of fibroblast culture wells. Fibroblasts were isolated from ten young boy foreskins and subcultured in 3 to 5 passages. Mutagenic transformation was done by Irradiation with 6.5 J/m2 Coerman Solarium CTL 3111 as a source of UVB. In addition there were two groups which were unprotected for control group and untreated with UVB for counting cumulative population doubling ratio (cpd). Three days after UVB irradiation, the culture, except for an unirradiated group, were incubated in HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanidine phosphoribosyl transferase) enriched medium, and fibroblast which survived in those medium considered as mutant cells. Cpd was calculated based on cell multiplication of the untreated group. The ratio of mutant cell population (mcp) is quantified by dividing the number of mutant cells with cpd. The difference of mean mcp between three subgroup of sunscreens and unprotected group was analyzed with Students t test, and the difference of mean mcp among three subgroup of sunscreens was analyzed with ANOVA. The result showed that the mean mcp of sunscreen covered cultures were lower compared to the uncovered cultures and the higher SPF had lower mean of mcp significantly (P). Therefore sunscreen was proven to protect the induction of HGPRT mutant fibroblast although the protection was not totally, and the higher SPF sunscreen showed higher protection.Key words : sunscreens - SPF - UVB - HGPRT gene mutation - fibroblast culture.
Syringomyelia and its treatment - A case report Siti Musfiroh, Siti Musfiroh
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Syringomyelia is a chronic progressive degenerative disorder of the spinal cord, characterized clinically by brachial amyotrophy and segmental sensory loss of dissociated type. Pathologically shows cavitation in the central parts of the spinal cord, usually at the cervical region but extending upward into medulla oblongata and pons or downward into the thoracic or even the lumbar segments. This disorder doesnt product weakness of the limb. The early symptom, was weighty and stiffness of the neck, and painful of the right arm. After four years her right shoulder was pain too and there was anesthesia, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging we knew that she had syringomelia in the carvical area. She became exellent outcome after shunting. Conclusion : the case was the shoulder arm syndrom case with segmental anesthesia which was becoming worst, it should be suspecious of syringomelia and it must be treated by establishing shunt.key word : syringomyelia - brachial amyotrophy - anesthesia - magnetic resonance imaging.
The pattern of bacterias causes pneumonia on Sardjito General Hospital January 1, 1990 - December 31, 1994 Barmawi Hisyam, Barmawi Hisyam
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Pneumonia has high morbidity and mortality. The clinical classification of Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) and Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) and the empirical treatment have beneficial means to prevent the severity of the disease. A retrospective study had been conducted, by evaluating the medical record of the patients hospitalised in the Department of Internal Medicine Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, January 1, 1990 -December 31, 1994. There were 221 cases of pneumonia, the major frequency on range 45-64 years old: 84 (38,01%), men/women ratio: 1.5 : 1. The CAP was more than HAP: 200 (90,50%) vs 21 (9,50%). Bacterias causes CAP: Streptococcus alpha 36 (29,75%), Staphylococcus aureus 28 (23,14%) and Klebsiella pneumonia 27 (22,31%). While the bacteria cause of typical HAP: Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (100%), mixed bacterias causes HAP: Streptococcus alpha 3 (33,33%), Staphylococcus aureus 3 (33,33%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae 2 (22,22%). There were no difference the pattern of bacterias causes CAP or HAP.Key Words : the pattern of bacteria - typical bacteria - mixed bacterias - CAP - HAP
Correlation of amodiaquine sensitivity to chioroquine and quinine against plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Soesanto Tjokrosonto, Soesanto Tjokrosonto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Amodiaquine, a 4-aminoquinoline derivative has been introduced since decades ago, and yet the. use remains debatable for its side effects. Chioroquine, the least side effect of antimalarials possessing similarity in pharmacokinetic properties has been less attractive due to the development of resistance worldwide. The return to amodiaquine is debatable. Comparison of the level of sensitivity of 42 isolates to amodiaquine and chloroquine using in-vitro microtesting has been carried out. Amodiaquine was shown to be more sensitive to the isolates as compared to chloroquine. The reasonably high correlation with chloroquine (r=0.62; p<0.05) has referred the alternative treatment of chloroquine resistant falciparum to amodiaquine despite of side effects. The study concluded that amodiaquine remains an alternative drug to chioroquine resistant falciparum malaria in vitro.Key words: falciparum malaria - amodiaquine - chioroquine - quinine - in vitro
Correlation of amodiaquine sensitivity to chioroquine and quinine against plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Soesanto Tjokrosonto, Soesanto Tjokrosonto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (91.862 KB)

Abstract

Amodiaquine, a 4-aminoquinoline derivative has been introduced since decades ago, and yet the. use remains debatable for its side effects. Chioroquine, the least side effect of antimalarials possessing similarity in pharmacokinetic properties has been less attractive due to the development of resistance worldwide. The return to amodiaquine is debatable. Comparison of the level of sensitivity of 42 isolates to amodiaquine and chloroquine using in-vitro microtesting has been carried out. Amodiaquine was shown to be more sensitive to the isolates as compared to chloroquine. The reasonably high correlation with chloroquine (r=0.62; p<0.05) has referred the alternative treatment of chloroquine resistant falciparum to amodiaquine despite of side effects. The study concluded that amodiaquine remains an alternative drug to chioroquine resistant falciparum malaria in vitro.Key words: falciparum malaria - amodiaquine - chioroquine - quinine - in vitro
Prognosis Epilepsi Harsono, Harsono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 30, No 03 (1998)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Prognosis is defined as the chance of recovery from a certain condition. Strictly, in epilepsy this means the chance of terminal remission once a patient has established a pattern of recurrent epileptic seizures. Questions concerning duration of treatment and long-term prognosis in childhood epilepsy are often raised by parents whose children are starting therapy with antiepileptic drugs. Many studies have focused on those issues and have examined the risk factors for poor prognosis as well as the risk of recurrence of seizures. The wide variation found in the risk of recurrence among those who have had a first seizure seems to be explained by differences In study design or differences in the characteristics of the study groups. In addition, the study of the prognosis of epilepsy has been confounded because of the fact that epilepsy is an expression of so many different underlying etiologies and syndromes.Prognosis of epilepsy should be informed clearly to the patients and/or parents. The clear information will improve the patient compliance in taking medication for a long time.Key Words : prognosis of epilepsy - remission - antiepileptic drugs - risk factors - recurrent epileptic seizures

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