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Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 31, No 01 (1999)" : 16 Documents clear
The difference in perception on the importance of sex education for adolescence between elderly and adolescence Soewadi, Soewadi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Sexual life is important in the life of a person, i:e. the interaction between male and female. An adequate knowledge of sex helps one to avoid a variety of problems in living, helps prevent sexual dysfunctions among other disorders, adds enjoyment of sex itself, and probably enhances life in numerous other ways. However, modern societies restrict and control the sexual behavior and expression of the young, so that the sex instinct does not prepare young person for a successful sex life.Objective: To identify the difference in perception of the importance of sex education among adolescence between elderly and adolescence.Subjects: The study was carried out in Yogyakarta among elderly (retired person) and adolescence (students in the first year of their undergraduate study).Methods: The study was undertaken using structured questionnaires distributed to subjects selected using simple random sampling.Study design: cross-sectional survey. Statistical analysis: Chi-square technique.Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the group of elderly subjects and adolescence according to the perception of the importance of the sex education among adolescence (p<0.05).Conclusions: there is a relationship between age and the perception on the importance of sex education for adolescence.Key words: sexual education - elderly - adolescence
Filariasis caused by nonperiodic form of Brugia malayi among school children in the settlement of Dayak indigenous people and transmigrants in East Kalimantan FA Sudjadi, FA Sudjadi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: New filarial worm subspecies, i.e. nonperiodic form of Brugia malayi Lichtenstein, was recently reported from East Kalimantan in addition to the previously known subperiodic and periodic form of the species, which was endemic in some rural areas in Indonesia.Objectives: (1) To search new endemic areas of filariasis in the indigenous people and newcomers. (2) To know current status of the disease among schoolchildren in the study areas.Subjects: Schoolchildren in the settlement of Dayak indigenous people (Krayan and Kayungo villages) and transmigrants (Petung UPT: Girimukti and Petung villages), belonging to Long Ikis and Penajam subdistricts, the district of Pasir.Methods: Based on the microfilarial character of aperiodic, blood examinations by simple or concentration method on schoolchidren were carried out at day time within school hours in 1987/1988.Results: (1) Endemic areas of the B. malayi subspecies were discovered, not only in the villages where the schools were situated, but their vicinities as well, i.e. the school childrens home villages. The other schoolchildrens home villages found as endemic areas were Jemparing, Nipaulo, Olung, Sepingan around the Dayak settlements and Lawe-lawe, Tanjung Jumlai, Salakloang, Tunan around the UPT of Petung. (2) Higher microfilaremia rates were found in schools in Krayan (26,0% or 52/200 children) and Kayungo (14,8% or 16/108 children). In the transmigrant settlement, although the concentration methods of examinations were adopted, lower microfilaremia rates were recorded such in schools in the villages of Girimukti (6,9% or 34/490 children) and Petung (3,5% or 33/950 children).Conclusions: Day-time blood survey at school was proved to be a simple method to discover endemic areas of the nonperiodic form of B. malayi in East Kalimantan.Key words: B.ma/ayi - nonperiodic form - daytime examinations - school children
The result of combined cataract surgery with intra ocular lens implantation in advance primary glaucoma - A case report Suhardjo, Suhardjo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: The combined cataract surgery was a procedure by the creation of a new channel for aqueous outflow between the anterior chamber and sub-Tenons space and followed by extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intra ocular lens implantation. This procedure is relatively new, that the result need to be reported.Objectives: To report the result of combined cataract surgery with intra ocular implantation in advanced primary glaucoma.Methods: A 68-year-old man suffering from senilis cataract and advances glaucoma had combined surgery on the right eye. The combined surgery was effective to control intra ocular pressure, so the glaucaomatous defect was not worsening and visual acuity would be good. The target 10P was reduction of 20-30% 10P or closer to 15 mmHg.Results: The mean post operative intra ocular pressure was normal, but still needed antiglaucoma drugs. Visual acuity was 6/30 cc S + 1.50 cc S +1.50 / C-1.25 with axis 90 to 6/7.5 three months post operative and decreased to 6/15 with the same glasses three years later. With addition of S +3.00 the patient could read a newspaper, however the visual field was slightly worsened.Conclusions: Extra capsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber lens implantation combined with trabeculectomy can improve visual acuity and decrease intra ocular pressure.Key words : advanced glaucoma - combined surgery - target pressure - visual acuity - visual field - anti glaucoma drug.
Jamiat Haryono, Rusdi Lamsudin, Bambang Suryoatmojo - Assessing Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on patients with altered consciousness. Jamiat Haryono, Jamiat Haryono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Since its introduction in 1974, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has gained widespread acceptance around the world as a means of assessing the level of consciousness of patients with head injury. The reports have been widely accepted as evidence that the GCS is reliable when used by physicians and nurses.Objectives: To determine the interobserver agreement on GCS between doctor and nurse on assessing the altered consciousness.Methods: Thirty-seven patients with altered consciousness, who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta, were observers by a physician and a nurse. Each patient was assessed separately by the observers. Complete forms were not shown or discussed, but were collected and put in a sealed enveloped. Statistical analysis: The statistics used to measure the levels of agreement was based on the formula developed by Fleiss.Result: The agreement of all items was almost perfect (K range from 0.74 to 0.90; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The GCS was reliable as an objective tool for assessing altered consciousness.Key words : inter-rater agreement - Glasgow Coma Scale - consciousness
Effects of the dietary vitamin A against the effect of aflatoxin Hi on the vitamin A status of Rattus norvegicus rats Wiryatun Lestariana, Wiryatun Lestariana
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroetane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) are carcinogenic substances and significantly decreased liver vitamin A in the animal studies. Liver vitamin A is influenced by dietary vitamin A and the condition of the liver. Aflatoxin Bi is a carcinogenic substance like DDT, PCB and PBB. Aflatoxin Bi is the environmental exposures problem in several tropical countries and liver are the main organ targets of the carcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1.Objective: To provide more extensive description of the effects of dietary vitamin A (deficient, adequate, fourfold adequate) against the effect of aflatoxin Bi (AFB1) on the vitamin A status of rats.Methods: Vitamin A status of animals was demonstrated by concentrations of liver and serum vitamin A. The subjects consisted of fourty eight male Rattus norvegicus rats in good general condition, 1-2 months old with body weight around 62-68.5 grams, were randomly divided into 12 groups of four rats each. Rats in group I to VI which were killed at the start of the experiment and were used as the initial condition of liver and serum vitamin A concentrations for the rats in group VII to XII. Vitamin A-deficient diets were given to rats in group VII and VIII. Vitamin A-adequate diets were given to rats in group IX and X, while vitamin A-fourfold adequate diets were given to rats in group Xl and XII. Rats in group VIII, X and XII were orally treated by an aplicator with 15g of AFB1 in 0.2 ml of propylene glycol everyday for 16 weeks. While rats in group VII, IX and Xl were treated without AFB1.Results: By analysis of variance, the results showed that the effects of interaction of dietary vitamin A and AFB1 demonstrated a very significant effect (p<0.001) on liver vitamin A and significant effect (p<0.05) in serum vitamin A concentrations. Dietary vitamin A itself demonstrated a very significant effect (p<0.001) in serum and liver vitamin A concentrations. While AFB1 demonstrated a significant effect (p<0.05) in liver vitamin A and significant effect (p<0.001) on liver vitamin A concentarations.Conclusions: Vitamin A status of rats given aflatoxin Bi were not only influenced by dietary vitamin A but also by allatoxin Bi treatment.Key words: dietary vitamin A - aflatoxin Bi - serum vitamin A -liver vitamin A - Rattus norvegicus rats
Toxicity screening using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST) of some benalu species traditionally utilized to treat tumour in Indonesia. Mae Sri Hartati W, Mae Sri Hartati W
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background : Traditionally some benalu species were used to treat tumour in Indonesia. Some research report indicated the present of anti tumour activity, although its toxicity study by BST was not performed yet. It is necessary to observe the toxic level of the benalu leaves and whether they are safe to be consumed. Objectives : To determine the toxic level of species of benalu leaves (Dendrophtoe pentandra L. Miq. (1), Macrosolen tetragonus (bL) Miq. (2 and 7), Helixanthera parasitica Lour. (3), Dendrophtoe falcate (Lf.) Ettings (4), Dendrophtoe constricta Dans. (5), Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour). Tiegh. (6))Methods : The leaves of benalu were separately extracted with chloroform, followed by methanol. The chloform and methanol extracts toxicity level were screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST) at the dose of 1500, 1000 and 500 ug/mI. The level of the toxicity was determined by counting the death percentage of the Artemia saline larvae after 24 hours of adding the extract at the dose indicated. The extract was considered toxic when 100% A. saline larvae was killed at the dose < 1000 ug/ml, and the extract was mildl toxic when 100% death percentage was observed at the dose of 1500 ug/ml.Results : Practically all the chloroform extracts were non toxic since they were not able to kill 100% A. saline larvae at the dose of 1000 ug/mI. Although when the doses were raised to 1500 ug/mI, the 100% death percentage was still not obtained. Similarly, the methanol extracts were also non toxic at the dose of 1000 ug/ml. However, M. cochinchinensis (6) and M. tetragonus (7) were considered to be mild) toxic as their methanol extracts were able to kill 100% A. saline larvae when the dose was raised to 1500 ug/mI.Conclusion: The different test result (at 1500 ug/mI) shown by two methanol extracts of similar species M. tetragonus {2b (killed 52%) & 7b (100%)} should give an idea that the benalu are practically non toxic and save to be consumed for tumor treatment.Key words : toxicity screening, brine shrimp lethality test (bst) - benalu leaves - benalu hosts - anti tumor.
Testicular feminization syndrome in puberty. A Case Report Zain Alkaff, Zain Alkaff
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: It is important to diagnose testicular feminization due to other abnormalities with similar clinical findings which needs different treatments.Aim: To diagnose early testicular feminization syndrome by clinical findings, hormone levels, and chromosome analysis.Design: Review of reported cases.Setting: A university hospital. Patient: Phenotypic girl aged 9 years with abnormal external genitalia revealed large clitoris-like structure, normal labia majora, a blind vaginal pouch and no palpable uterus and adnexa. Results: The uterus and adnexa of the patient at ultrasonography and laparoscopy examination were proved to be absent. The serum testosterone concentration was not substantially increased and the karyotype was 46XY. Further examination found left testis in inguinal canal and the right one in labia majora. From biopsy it was found that both seminiferous tubules were in development phase mostly with spermatogonia, and several part in spermatocyte phase. The diagnosis was testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity syndrome). Conclusions: Cases of primary amenorrhea, incomplete external genitalia, and vagina agenesis/hypogenesis, are important to be early diagnosed by investigating the sex chromosome, gonads, sex hormone, genitalia, and sex psychology. Because of the increased risk of malignancy, an orchidectomy has to be performed.Key words : testicular feminization - normal male 46XY - female external genitalia - orchidectomy
Secretion of tumor necrosis factor and reactive oxygen intermediates from soluble antigens of Plasmodium falciparum stimulated-peritoneal mouse macro-phages Mahardika Agus Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus Wijayanti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Malarial infection is stil one of major health problems in the world. In Indonesia, malarial infection is especially caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodiun vivax. Host immune responses to malarial infection are complex mechanisms, including the humoral immunity by antibody and cellular immunity by T cells and activated effector cells. Macrophages as an effector cells kill malarial parasite by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanism. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are mediators produced by macrophages which represent as non-oxidative and oxidative killing respectively.Objectives: Understanding the secretion ability of tumor necrosis factor and reactive oxygen intermediates from soluble antigens of P. falciparum stimulated-peritoneal mouse macrophages.Method: In this. study, soluble antigens of P. fa/p/parum stimulated-peritoneal mouse macrophages were tested to produce TNF and ROI in vitro. Secretion of TNF was measured by MTT assay dan ROI by NBT reduction assay. Swiss mice were divided into two groups of 15 mice each. One group was stimulated by soluble antigens as experimental group and the other as control group.Result: Secretion of TNF and ROI by soluble antigens of P. falciparum stimulated-peritoneal mouse macrophages were significantly higher (p<0,01) than control group.Conclusion: Soluble antigens of P. falciparum could activate mouse peritoneal cells in vivo. Therefore, mouse macrophages provide a convenient system for investigating the human malarial soluble antigens.Key. words : Soluble antigens of Plasmodium fa/ciparum - Cellular Immunity - Macrophages – Tumor - Necrosis Factor - Reactive Oxygen Intermediate
The difference in perception on the importance of sex education for adolescence between elderly and adolescence Soewadi, Soewadi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (148.142 KB)

Abstract

Background: Sexual life is important in the life of a person, i:e. the interaction between male and female. An adequate knowledge of sex helps one to avoid a variety of problems in living, helps prevent sexual dysfunctions among other disorders, adds enjoyment of sex itself, and probably enhances life in numerous other ways. However, modern societies restrict and control the sexual behavior and expression of the young, so that the sex instinct does not prepare young person for a successful sex life.Objective: To identify the difference in perception of the importance of sex education among adolescence between elderly and adolescence.Subjects: The study was carried out in Yogyakarta among elderly (retired person) and adolescence (students in the first year of their undergraduate study).Methods: The study was undertaken using structured questionnaires distributed to subjects selected using simple random sampling.Study design: cross-sectional survey. Statistical analysis: Chi-square technique.Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the group of elderly subjects and adolescence according to the perception of the importance of the sex education among adolescence (p<0.05).Conclusions: there is a relationship between age and the perception on the importance of sex education for adolescence.Key words: sexual education - elderly - adolescence
Filariasis caused by nonperiodic form of Brugia malayi among school children in the settlement of Dayak indigenous people and transmigrants in East Kalimantan FA Sudjadi, FA Sudjadi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 01 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.509 KB)

Abstract

Background: New filarial worm subspecies, i.e. nonperiodic form of Brugia malayi Lichtenstein, was recently reported from East Kalimantan in addition to the previously known subperiodic and periodic form of the species, which was endemic in some rural areas in Indonesia.Objectives: (1) To search new endemic areas of filariasis in the indigenous people and newcomers. (2) To know current status of the disease among schoolchildren in the study areas.Subjects: Schoolchildren in the settlement of Dayak indigenous people (Krayan and Kayungo villages) and transmigrants (Petung UPT: Girimukti and Petung villages), belonging to Long Ikis and Penajam subdistricts, the district of Pasir.Methods: Based on the microfilarial character of aperiodic, blood examinations by simple or concentration method on schoolchidren were carried out at day time within school hours in 1987/1988.Results: (1) Endemic areas of the B. malayi subspecies were discovered, not only in the villages where the schools were situated, but their vicinities as well, i.e. the school children's home villages. The other schoolchildren's home villages found as endemic areas were Jemparing, Nipaulo, Olung, Sepingan around the Dayak settlements and Lawe-lawe, Tanjung Jumlai, Salakloang, Tunan around the UPT of Petung. (2) Higher microfilaremia rates were found in schools in Krayan (26,0% or 52/200 children) and Kayungo (14,8% or 16/108 children). In the transmigrant settlement, although the concentration methods of examinations were adopted, lower microfilaremia rates were recorded such in schools in the villages of Girimukti (6,9% or 34/490 children) and Petung (3,5% or 33/950 children).Conclusions: Day-time blood survey at school was proved to be a simple method to discover endemic areas of the nonperiodic form of B. malayi in East Kalimantan.Key words: B.ma/ayi - nonperiodic form - daytime examinations - school children

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