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Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 35, No 2 (2003)" : 16 Documents clear
The effect of bee propolis against Plasmodium berghel Infection in Swiss mice Mahardika AW, Mahardika AW
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Malaria is one of the most important parasitic disease and still as one of the worlds public health problems among another tropical diseases.. One of the difficulty on controlling malaria is the resistance of malaria parasite to antimalaria drugs, therefore it is needed further researches to find alternative drugs of antimalaria. Propolis, a beehive product widely used in this folk medicine, has attracted the attention of researchers to elucidate its biological properties. Its anti-microbial properties are not confined to bacteria. Both in vitro and in vivo tests have shown propolis to be excellent in inhibiting the growth of many protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamb/ia.Objective: This study was undertaken to know the propolis effect on Plasmodium berghei infection in Swiss miceMethods: Swiss mice were divided into 8 groups of 20 mice. Four groups were given 3.9 mg propolis orally every 2 days for two weeks before infection while the other four groups were not. Infection with P. berghei 1x107 was given intraperitoneally. Each four groups were treated after infection as follows : propolis , combination of propolis and chloroquine, chloroquine and none as negative control. Treatment with chloroquine injection was given within 3 days started at day-1 after infection with dose of 1.56, 1.56, and 0.8 mg. Treatment with propolis was given within 3 days also at dose of 3.9 mg/day. The effect of propolis was evaluated according to the percentage parasitemia counted every day started at day-1 after infection and the pathologic effect on the liver, spleen kidney and brain.Result: Propolis could not overcome the infection but inhibit the growth of Plasmodium in the erytrocytes and prolong life span of the mice. Pathologic affect propolis on the liver is mild inflammation while on the spleen, kidney and brain seems to inhibit organ damage.Conclusion: Those result showed the effect of propolis as an Immunomodulator.Key words: malaria - propolis - parasitemia - pathologic effect - immunomodulator.
In vitro antiplasmodial activity of 1,10- phenanthroline derivatives and its quantitative structure-activity relationship Mustofa, Mustofa
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Previous study showed that 1,10-phenanthroline skeleton were active in vitro on both Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive strains. Based on the skeleton, a series of 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized. However the antiplasmodial activity of those molecules has not been reported.Objective: To know the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of thirteen 1,10-phenantroline derivatives and its quantitative structure-activity relationship.Methods: The in vitro antiplasmodial activity was tested on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, FcB1Columbia (chloroquine-resistant strain) and a Nigerian (chloroquine-sensitive strain) using a radioactive micromethod. The parasite growth was estimated by [3H1-hipoxanthine incorporation after 24 and 48 hours incubation with each molecule tested. The control parasite free from any molecules was referred to as 100% growth. For this radioactive method IC5o value showing concentration inhibiting 50% of the parasite was determined graphically in concentration versus percent inhibition curves. The quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives were investigated using atomic net charges as predictors of their activity. Data of predictors were obtained using semi-empirical Austin Model 1 (AM1) calculation method. The possible linear relationships of in vitro antiplasmodial activity with atomic net charge parameters of those compounds were studied. The best model QSAR was evaluated by multiple linear regression method.Results: The results showed that the IC5o values of 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives range from 0.02 to 11.05 uM for the FcB1 strain and from 0.14 to 19.84 pM for the Nigerian strain. The molecure (4), 2,10- methy1-3-12-chloroethyl)-4-chloropirydo [2,3-i] quinolineium iodide exhibited the best in vitro antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 value ranging 0.02 to 0.16 1.1M. The best model QSAR was expressed by log IC5o = -3.4398 - 14.9050 qN1 - 8.5589 qC10 - 14.7565 qC7 + 5.0457 qC11 (n = 13; r = 0.96275; r2 = 0.92689; SE = 0.61578 and F (4,8) = 25.3556).Conclusion: The molecule (4) yield the best in vitro antiplasmodial activity on both P. falciparum strains. In addition, there is correlation between antiplasmodial activity and atomic net charges of atoms on the 1,10-phenanthroline skeleton.Key words : 1,10-phenanthroline, antiplasmodial activity, quantitative structure-activity relationships
The description of concentration, viability, motility and normal sperm form in patients with varicocele. Dicky M. Rizal, Dicky M. Rizal
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Varicocele was one of the causal factor s of infertility which related with the abnormality of sperm.Objective: The aim of this study was to know the description of concentration, viability, motility and normal sperm form in patient with varicocele, and different level of that result between three grades of varicocele.Method: This study was a retrospective-analytic study on the medical record data of patients with varicocele at Fermata Hati Infertility Clinic during January 2001-July 2002. The concentration, motility, viability and sperm normal form were evaluated and analized.Results: The results showed that 103 patients with varicocele were found, consisted of 87.4% patients with left varicocele, 1.9% right varicocele, and 10.7%. bilateral. The incidence of decreased concentration 38.8%, decreased motility 63.7% sibjects and viability 51.6%. There were decreased mean ratio of motility Ix = 41.12% for (a) category and x=16.37% for (b) category), and viability (x =73.5% life). Analysis by one way ANOVA showed that no significant differences of mean between each variable of three grades of varicocele (p>0.05).Conclusion: Abnormality in the parameters of sperm analysis was found in varicocele cases, but the grade of varicocele was not related to the concentration, motility, viability and normal sperm form.Keywords : varicocele-sperm motility-sperm viability-sperm form-infertility.
Fever in children: palpation, the understanding of mother and further • action Purwoko, Purwoko
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Fever is the most common event lead the mother to bring her children to seek for health service. Assessment of fever by palpation is commonly done to recognize fever in children. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity of palpation and understanding of fever in children by mothers.Methods: This study was descriptive analytic design, done to mothers visited outpatient clinic Department of Child Health Dr. Sardjito Hospital from Januari until April 2001. Sample for study determined by systematic random sampling. Data were obtained by interview with the mothers using questionnaires and temperature measurements to children using thermometer. Data were analysed using Chi-square (c2), and logistic regression.Results: Most of (91%) all mothers (511) assessed fever in children by palpation and 23,1% used thermometer. Palpation by mothers had showed that 84.6% of mothers palpated fever rightly and 77.2% of mothers palpated non fever rightly. Most of (95.7%) mothers felt worried when their children got fever, with the reasons afraid of seizure (26.2%), or when they suffered from severe illness (64.0%). Mothers who understood about the definition of fever (> 37.50C) were more worried (OR: 3.80 (95% CI: 1.36-10.61%1} than they didnt. The first practice to manage fever in the family was giving antipyretic (72.0%). Antipyretics administration was based on consideration of antipyretic benefit (OR: 2.31 (95% CI: 1.51-3.54%)), and the availability of antipyretic in household (OR: 2.14 (95% CI: 1.423.23%1}, but wasnt on mothers worrying (OR: .394 (95% CI: .12-1.35)).Conclusions: Palpation assess fever by mothers.The higher the understanding of mothers on fever the sooner they seek for help. Mothers understanding on the benefit of antipyretics and the availability of antipyretics at home make the mothers giving antipyretics sooner.Key words: fever-accuracy of fever-mothers knowledge-mothers attitude-antypyretics administration
Sperm motility in chronic bacterial prostatitis Dicky Moch Rizal, Dicky Moch Rizal
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Male infertility is 40% couples problem in conceiving a child. One of the causes of male infertility that has not studied yet is chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). CBP can decrease sperm motility that affects potency of sperm in fertilizing the oocyte. Another effect of CBP is leucospermia as the unique phenomenon in male accessory gland infection (MAGI).Objectives: To describe and to obtain the relation between sperm motility in CBP and the other prostate dysfunction that is not included to CBP (non CBP).Methods: This study was analytic descriptive non experimental study. The-subjects were person having suffered from prostate dysfunction, including CBP and non CBP, in Infertility Clinic Permata Hati of DR. Sardjito hospital. Data were taken from expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) analyses and seminal fluid analyses from May 2001 until June 2002 (56 data), Variable that observed from seminal fluid analyses were sperm motility and leucocyte count per milliliter. Determination of the CBP case was based on leucocyte count per high power field (HPF) and the other characteristics (i.e : clumping leucocytes and lipid laden macrophage) of EPS analyses. Data was analyzed by descriptive frequency to show the distribution of sperm motility and leucospermia. Beside to notice the relation between prostate dysfunction and sperm motility, Chi-Square test was used to notice the relation between prostate dysfunction and leucospermia as well.Results: As much as 76.7% patients with CBP had sperm motility disruption in progressive linear and linear movement. Fifty percents patients with prostate dysfunction had sperm motility disruption in progressive linear and linear movement. Mean of sperm motility With progressive linear movement in CBP and prostate dysfunction non CBP were 18.65% and 22.58%. Mean of sperm motility with linear movement in CBP and prostate dysfunction non CBP were 38.79% and 46.83%. From the Chi-Square test we obtained the significant difference between sperm motility with progressive linear and linear movement of the sperm and prostate dysfunction. -Conclusions: Over a half of patients (76.7%) with CBP suffered from decreased sperm motility. CBP affected sperm motility.Key words: male infertility, sperm motility, chronic bacterial prostatitis, semen analysis, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS)
Cytotoxic effects of methanol extract isolated from Erythrina fusca Lour on cancer cell-lines Sismindari, Sismindari
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Erythrina is a medicinal plant which is frequently used to treat cancer in Africa. People in Java, however, use Erythrina fusca (cangkring) to treat varicella and measles. Previous works demonstrated that the methanol extract of this plants leaves induced DNA topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage. This activity has been used widely as a target to find anticancer medicine. In order to be scientifically proofed the activity, therefore, it is necessary to analyze directly on the cancer cell-lines. Objectives: To identify the cytotoxicity effect of methanol extract of E. fusca leaves against cancer cell-lines.Methods: Cytotoxicity analysis of methanol extract isolated from E. fusca leaves was carried out against myeloma and HeLa S-3 cancer cell-lines, and to normal mononuclear cell. The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50 which was based on the percentage of the cell death following the 24 hours incubation with the extract.Results: It was demonstrated that this methanol extract was cytotoxic to myeloma and HeLa S-3 cell-lines with the IC50 of 0.005 mg/ml and IC50 of 0.08 mg/ml respectively. The percentage of the cell death on treated normal mononuclear cell with the extract, however, was very much low 110%). This was similar to that on the DMSO treated cells.Conclusion: The methanol extract isolated from E. fusca leaves was demonstrated had a selective cytotoxicity effect, as indicated by the level of the IC50 which was higher to myeloma compared to HeLa S3 cell-line, and had much less cytotoxic on normal mononuclear cells.Key words: Erythrina fusca, cytotoxicity, cancer cell-lines, mononuclear cell
The effectiveness of piper betel solution and combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in root canal irrigation for endodontic treatment: A scanning electron microscope study. Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Root canal irrigation is a step needed in endodontic treatment, after extirpation of dental nerves, to clean the debris in the root canal in infected tooth pulp. The cleaned root canal was then filled with synthetic nerves and thus allowed the tooth crown to be preserved and function normally in the oral cavity.Objective: This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of piper betel solution with the combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide as irrigation material in dental root canal treatment. Material and Method: The material of study consisted of 6 upper incisors that were sectioned longitudinally into 12 parts. This study used in vitro method, by applying standard root canal treatment: preparation, extirpation, and irrigation of the root canal of incisor teeth. After irrigation (one group of teeth used piper betel solution; and the other group used combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide), the tooth was longitudinally cut becoming mesial and distal parts. These parts were examined under scanning electron microscope with 500 magnification, and photographed using electron micrograph on the apical, middle, and coronal sections. The amount of debris was calculated (pm2) in each of those sections.Results: Irrigation using piper betel solution showed less amount of debris (n = 12, mean = 565 pm2) in the root canal, compared to combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide (n = 12, mean =703,um2). However, the t test statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two.Conclusion: Because of the toxicity of combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, no significant difference in irrigation material for root canal treatment, and the cleaner effect of piper betel solution, I suggest piper betel solution to be used widely as irrigant in endodontic treatment.Key words: root canal, piper betel, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, incisor teeth
Clto open heart as operative treatment of foreign body In the left ventricle removal M. Rosadi Seswandhana, M. Rosadi Seswandhana
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Foreign body in the left ventricle is rare and it is associated most commonly with significant trauma. The diagnosis of a foreign body in the left ventricle can be difficult. One must distinguish between foreign matter in the cardiac chamber or free-floating in the mediastinum. Our case was male, 38 years old. He presented not only with typical complaints of chest pain and dyspnea, but also with the complaint of a "foreign body" in the right of his chest after a work accident. Physical examination and serial chest X-rays on the earlier survey showed right hemothorax and foreign body appearance on the back wall of the heart. Insertion of chest tube with water sealed drainage was done as a primary treatment. On the echocardiography and fluoroscopy examination, we found foreign body appearance in the left ventricle. To prevent myocarditis, either sterile or non-sterile, with potential for other significant complications, removal of an intraventricle foreign body is always indicated. Cito open heart with heart-lung machine was performed to extract the foreign body. There was no complication after 7 month evaluation.Key words: Foreign body removal - In the left ventricle - Work accident - Cito open heart
Sperm motility in chronic bacterial prostatitis Dicky Moch Rizal, Dicky Moch Rizal
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Male infertility is 40% couples' problem in conceiving a child. One of the causes of male infertility that has not studied yet is chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). CBP can decrease sperm motility that affects potency of sperm in fertilizing the oocyte. Another effect of CBP is leucospermia as the unique phenomenon in male accessory gland infection (MAGI).Objectives: To describe and to obtain the relation between sperm motility in CBP and the other prostate dysfunction that is not included to CBP (non CBP).Methods: This study was analytic descriptive non experimental study. The-subjects were person having suffered from prostate dysfunction, including CBP and non CBP, in Infertility Clinic Permata Hati of DR. Sardjito hospital. Data were taken from expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) analyses and seminal fluid analyses from May 2001 until June 2002 (56 data), Variable that observed from seminal fluid analyses were sperm motility and leucocyte count per milliliter. Determination of the CBP case was based on leucocyte count per high power field (HPF) and the other characteristics (i.e : clumping leucocytes and lipid laden macrophage) of EPS analyses. Data was analyzed by descriptive frequency to show the distribution of sperm motility and leucospermia. Beside to notice the relation between prostate dysfunction and sperm motility, Chi-Square test was used to notice the relation between prostate dysfunction and leucospermia as well.Results: As much as 76.7% patients with CBP had sperm motility disruption in progressive linear and linear movement. Fifty percents patients with prostate dysfunction had sperm motility disruption in progressive linear and linear movement. Mean of sperm motility With progressive linear movement in CBP and prostate dysfunction non CBP were 18.65% and 22.58%. Mean of sperm motility with linear movement in CBP and prostate dysfunction non CBP were 38.79% and 46.83%. From the Chi-Square test we obtained the significant difference between sperm motility with progressive linear and linear movement of the sperm and prostate dysfunction. -Conclusions: Over a half of patients (76.7%) with CBP suffered from decreased sperm motility. CBP affected sperm motility.Key words: male infertility, sperm motility, chronic bacterial prostatitis, semen analysis, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS)
The effect of bee propolis against Plasmodium berghel Infection in Swiss mice Mahardika AW, Mahardika AW
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Malaria is one of the most important parasitic disease and still as one of the world's public health problems among another tropical diseases.. One of the difficulty on controlling malaria is the resistance of malaria parasite to antimalaria drugs, therefore it is needed further researches to find alternative drugs of antimalaria. Propolis, a beehive product widely used in this folk medicine, has attracted the attention of researchers to elucidate its biological properties. Its anti-microbial properties are not confined to bacteria. Both in vitro and in vivo tests have shown propolis to be excellent in inhibiting the growth of many protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamb/ia.Objective: This study was undertaken to know the propolis effect on Plasmodium berghei infection in Swiss miceMethods: Swiss mice were divided into 8 groups of 20 mice. Four groups were given 3.9 mg propolis orally every 2 days for two weeks before infection while the other four groups were not. Infection with P. berghei 1x107 was given intraperitoneally. Each four groups were treated after infection as follows : propolis , combination of propolis and chloroquine, chloroquine and none as negative control. Treatment with chloroquine injection was given within 3 days started at day-1 after infection with dose of 1.56, 1.56, and 0.8 mg. Treatment with propolis was given within 3 days also at dose of 3.9 mg/day. The effect of propolis was evaluated according to the percentage parasitemia counted every day started at day-1 after infection and the pathologic effect on the liver, spleen kidney and brain.Result: Propolis could not overcome the infection but inhibit the growth of Plasmodium in the erytrocytes and prolong life span of the mice. Pathologic affect propolis on the liver is mild inflammation while on the spleen, kidney and brain seems to inhibit organ damage.Conclusion: Those result showed the effect of propolis as an Immunomodulator.Key words: malaria - propolis - parasitemia - pathologic effect - immunomodulator.

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