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Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 35, No 3 (2003)" : 16 Documents clear
Somatotypes of Javanese soccer and volleyball players in Yogyakarta Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati, Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background:There is considerable evidence indicating that athletes succeeding in certains sport have distinctive body types. Different body type patterns appear between sports and within sport, according to the demands of the sport and the competitive level.Objective: To study the somatotypes and to determine the specific morphological characteristics of soccer players and volleyball players compared to undergraduate male (non-athletes) in Yogyakarta. Method: 103 soccer and 73 volleyball players, and 48 non-athletes, aged 17 to 30 were recruited in the study. Sitting height, biacromial and bicristal breadth, stature, body weight, bicondylar breadths of humerus and femur, calf and upper arm circumferences, skinfolds at triceps, subscapular, calf, and supraspinal were obtained from each subject. Heath-Carter somatotypes were determined on the subjects. A one-way ANOVA, which used LSD (least significant differences) was employed to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences among 3 group means.Results: The results showed that the mean somatotype of soccer players were balanced mesomorph (2.6 - 4.9 - 2.9), volleyball players were mesomorph ectomorph (2.4 - 3.5 - 3.7), and non-athletes male were ecto-mesomorph (2.5 - 5.2 - 3.8. The soccer players were significantly shorter, lighter, and more mesomorphic than the volleyball players. The volleyball players as a group tend to be taller and heavier than the soccer and the non-athletes.Conclusion: The findings indicated that the Yogyakarta soccer and volleyball players have similar somatotype distributions.Key words: somatotype - soccer players - volleyball players - Javanese - athletes
Improving the use of antibiotics in primary health centres through a problem-based pharmacotherapy training approach Iwan Dwiprahasto, Iwan Dwiprahasto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in the treatment of common diseases such as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhoea has been the major health problems in primary health centres (PHCs). Beside increasing the risk of adverse event, excessive use of antibiotics has also led to bacterial resistance worldwide.Objective: To improve the quality of prescribing of Primary Health Centers (PHCs) physicians and paramedics particularly in the treatment of ARI and diarrhoea.Design: Prospective intervention study with control group involving 113 PHCs physicians in both arms. Thirteen districts were randomly selected for study area, in which intervention was carried out in 8 districts while 5 other districts as control group. A systematic problem-based approach of 3 days training were carried out in the intervention group using 3 sets of modules, followed by self monitoring & regular visit & feedback by a Training Team. Evaluation on prescribing was carried out 3 times, i.e at the 6th , 12th, &18th month after intervention.Results: More than 17 thousands and 8600 prescriptions for ARI and diarrhoea were collected during the study. There was a significant reduction in the use of antibiotics for ARI in the intervention group from 92.3 before the study, to 67.4, 52.8 and 39.5%, 6, 12, & 18 month after the study (p0.05). There has been significant antibiotics prescribing shift toward more rational choice in the intervention group 18 months after the study.Conclusions: A systematic problem-based pharmacotherapy training followed by self monitoring & regular visit & feedback significantly improved antibiotic prescribing for ARI and diarrhoea.Key words: antibiotics - prescribing - problem-based pharmacotherapy training - acute respiratory infection - diarrhoea
Phototoxicity inhibition effect of vitamin c and glutathione against several photosensitizers Rosmelia, Rosmelia
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Ultraviolet B radiation on the skin, in the presence of photosensitizers such as quinolones, sulfacetamide, and non-steroid antiinflammatory.could induce phototoxicity due to cell membrane photo-oxidation. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and glutathione, have been reported capable to neutralize free radicals and prevent oxidative reactions. Scientific report about the role of such antioxidants in the prevention of phototoxicity due to photosensitizers on above, is still limited.Objectives: To compare phototoxicity inhibition effect between vitamin C and glutathione and phototoxicity potency of several photosensitizersMaterials and Methods: A simple experimental design is used to compare phototoxicity potency of 0.08 mg/ml ofloxacin, 0.004 mg/ml furosemide, and 0.02 mg/ml ketoprofen, and effects of 0.2 mg/ml vitamin C, and 0.12 mg/ml glutathione on phototoxicity reactions of erythrocytes exposed to 1.6 J/cm2 UVB. Phototoxicity reaction was measured by hemoglobin released by targeted erythrocytes using spectrophotometer.Results: Hemoglobin released by photosensitizers were ofloxacin 6.760±.1.669, furosemide 6.532±1.271, ketoprofen 6.710 ±1.826 g/dI respectively. There was no significant difference of haennoglobine released among them (p>0.051. Addition of vitamin C could reduce phototoxicity of photosensitizer very significantly (p
Immature teratoma of the urinary bladder Indriwati, Indriwati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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A three year old female with immature teratoma of the urinary bladder was reported. The cell differentiation theory should be considered as an important alternative theory in the histogenesis of extragonadal immature teratoma. Extragonadal immature teratoma can be differentiated from extrarenal Wilms tumor by a proper histopatological examination particularly in view of the presence of neuroepithelial tissue.Key words : bladder immature teratoma - extrarenal Wilms tumor -cell dedifferentiation theory
Computer tomography scanning of Homo Erectus crania Ngandong 7 from Java: Internal structure, paleopathology and post-mortem history Antoine Balzeau, Antoine Balzeau
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Computer Tomography scanning has recently been a tool for diagnosis of normal anatomy and pathology in medical sciences. The CT method has also been applied in ancient human skeletal remains and yield good results for researching the morphology, pathology, and postfossilization bone alteration. Paleoanthropological evidences exhibit that biological remains sometimes are fossilised, thus enabling the pursuit of scientific inquiries in regard to anatomy and biology of ancient humans.Aim of study: to know the morphology and anatomy of the crania including the internal structures that is not feasible in external bone study, such air pneumatisation, the shape of frontal sinuses, and thickness of the external table, diploe, or the internal table. This study also aims to know the mineralization distribution as a result of fossilization.Material and Method: The material in this study was a fossil crania of Ngandong 7 that belongs to the latest representation of the Homo erectus from Ngandong, East Java, Indonesia. Ng 7 is from the Late Pleistocene period dated about 27,000 to 100,000 years ago. The CT scan was conducted in the QuinzeVingts hospital, Paris, in January 2001. The method used is by applying a medical CT-based data in order to extract the maximum information concerning mineralization, internal cranial features, osseous distribution and disease. An adapted acquisition and analysis protocols are developed from the CT scan.Results: Mineralization of Ng 7 occurred during fossilization, causing the diploe to be thickened than normally in antemortem and prefosilization periods. Because of post-mortem transformation of the individual structures, many slices of CT scans were necessary. The internal structures showed ovoid shape of frontal sinuses, and well developed pneumatisation of the mastoid region. Cracks were detected as a result of postfosilization compressions. Lesions appeared on CT scan just posterior to the bregma in the form of eroded external table. This caused diffuse boundary between external table, diploe, and internal table due to homogenous mineralizationConclusion: It is concluded that the Ngandong 7 Homo erectus shares internal morphological similarities with other Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils and presents lesions that might have caused by pathology during the life of the individual. The post-mortem history of this fossil appears to be composed of at least two distinct stages with osseous loss and fluvial transport, followed by taphonomic and diagenetic processes.Key words: Ngandong, Homo erectus, computer tomography, paleopathology, post-mortem history
Hubungan antara bay! beret lahlr rendah den gangguan perkembangan bicara di Poliklinik Tumbuh Kembang Anak RS. Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta Desi Kamadewi, Desi Kamadewi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Latar Belakang: Perkembangan merupakan periode penting dalam kehidupan seorang anak, khususnya pada masa anak berusia di bawah lima tahun. Beberapa faktor dapat menjadi risiko terjadinya gangguan perkembangan, di antaranya bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR). Seiring dengan makin pesatnya kemajuan di bidang perawatan neonatal, maka angka harapan hidup BBLR meningkat secara bermakna. Di sisi lain kondisi ini menimbulkan kekhawatiran karena BBLR mempunyai risiko tinggi mengalami gangguan perkembangan, di antaranya gangguan perkembangan bicara.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara bayi berat lahir rendah dan gangguan perkembangan bicara, mengetahui apakah BBLR memiliki risiko yang lebih tinggi untuk terjadinya gangguan perkembangan bicara dibandingkan BBLC, serta mengetahui hubungan antara jenis kelamin dan terjadinya gangguan perkembangan bicara pada BBLR.Desain Penelitian: Kohort retrospektif.Bahan dan Cara: Subyek penelitian adalah anak-anak berusia kurang atau sama dengan 6 tahun yang memiliki riwayat berat lahir rendah dan telah dilakukan Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) di Poliklinik Tumbuh Kembang Anak RS Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta selama tahun 2000-2002. Data lengkap diperoleh dari rekam medik di bagian catatan medik RS.Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta.Hasil: Tiga ratus bayi diikutsertakan dalam penelitian (150 BBLR sebagaikelompok yang diteliti dan 150 BBLC sebagai kontrol). Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara BBLR dan kelompok kontrol dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara nilai RR 1,07 (IK 95% 0,94-1,22), demikian pula antar jenis kelamin dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara tidak berbeda bermakna pada kelompok BBLR ( RR 1,07; IK 95% 0,90-1,27).Simpulan: Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara BBLR dan BBLC dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara. Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara jenis kelamin laki-laki dan perempuan dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara pada BBLR.
The Influence of Blood Sample Volume to the Growth of Microorganism in Blood Culture Osman Sianipar, Osman Sianipar
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: One of the important things in infectious diseases management is bacterial detection. Bacterial finding is influenced by many factors and the most important thing is blood sample volume inoculated into culture bottles. Sometimes difficulty occurs whenever blood sample volume taken is not sufficient as recommended, especially in children.Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of blood sample volume on microorganism growth in blood culture.Methods: A prospective observational study was taken to investigate the influence of blood sample volume on microorganism growth in blood culture from clinical specimen. The inclusion criteria were patients with infection, sepsis, invasive procedures and possible immunocompromized conditions. Blood sample volume was measured by the difference between the final volume and volume of medium, and expressed as sample/medium ratio. The Chi-Square and Fishers exact tests were used to examine the proportion between inappropriate and appropriate sample/medium ratio.Results: There were 113 (30.4%) out of 372 culture bottles showed bacterial growth with 118 isolates. The gram-negative bacilli isolates were mostly found (67.8%). The proportion of bacterial growth in inappropriate recommended ratio was significantly higher comparing to the appropriate one. The different methods in detecting the bacterial growth did not influence the detection rate. The day-to-daY proportion of bacterial growth rate did not differ significantly.Conclusion: The sample/medium ratio seems do not influence the bacterial growth rate.Key words: blood sample volume - sample medium ratio - bacterial growth - blood culture
Individuation in decapitation with C7-T1 vertebral scanning Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Mutilation to eliminate the identity of murder victim is often conducted in crimes, for instance by cutting the head from the body. In order to determine whether the head belongs to the same individual with the body, research on the vertebral anatomy of the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae is very important to be conducted.Objective: to observe the morphological congruence between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae.Material and Method: Thirty skeletons housed at the Laboratory of Anatomy, Embryology and Anthropology Gadjah Mada University Faculty of Medicine, Yogyakarta. The methodology is by scanning the C7 and T1 with three-dimensional scanner Umax Astra 2000, which scanned the bones into two dimensional on scanning paper. The scanned C7 is superimposed to T1, in the same individual and also between individual. Result: High degree of congruence between C7-T1 occurred at lamina, the structure that connects the pedicle and spinous process. This congruence extends into the posterio-inferior lateral border at the interior articular facets. Superimposition of C7-T1 inter-individual showed no accordance on the spinous process, lamina, inter-vertebral foramen, transverse process, and corpus vertebrae. Thus there was no two individuals had the same size and contour of C7-T1.Conclusion: This research is important in determining individuation on decapitation homicide where the body is dispersed from the head. This study also shows the contribution of anatomy in forensic sciences.Key words: decapitation, individuation, congruence, vertebrae, scanning
Hubungan antara bay! beret lahlr rendah den gangguan perkembangan bicara di Poliklinik Tumbuh Kembang Anak RS. Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta Desi Kamadewi, Desi Kamadewi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Perkembangan merupakan periode penting dalam kehidupan seorang anak, khususnya pada masa anak berusia di bawah lima tahun. Beberapa faktor dapat menjadi risiko terjadinya gangguan perkembangan, di antaranya bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR). Seiring dengan makin pesatnya kemajuan di bidang perawatan neonatal, maka angka harapan hidup BBLR meningkat secara bermakna. Di sisi lain kondisi ini menimbulkan kekhawatiran karena BBLR mempunyai risiko tinggi mengalami gangguan perkembangan, di antaranya gangguan perkembangan bicara.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara bayi berat lahir rendah dan gangguan perkembangan bicara, mengetahui apakah BBLR memiliki risiko yang lebih tinggi untuk terjadinya gangguan perkembangan bicara dibandingkan BBLC, serta mengetahui hubungan antara jenis kelamin dan terjadinya gangguan perkembangan bicara pada BBLR.Desain Penelitian: Kohort retrospektif.Bahan dan Cara: Subyek penelitian adalah anak-anak berusia kurang atau sama dengan 6 tahun yang memiliki riwayat berat lahir rendah dan telah dilakukan Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) di Poliklinik Tumbuh Kembang Anak RS Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta selama tahun 2000-2002. Data lengkap diperoleh dari rekam medik di bagian catatan medik RS.Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta.Hasil: Tiga ratus bayi diikutsertakan dalam penelitian (150 BBLR sebagaikelompok yang diteliti dan 150 BBLC sebagai kontrol). Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara BBLR dan kelompok kontrol dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara nilai RR 1,07 (IK 95% 0,94-1,22), demikian pula antar jenis kelamin dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara tidak berbeda bermakna pada kelompok BBLR ( RR 1,07; IK 95% 0,90-1,27).Simpulan: Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara BBLR dan BBLC dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara. Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara jenis kelamin laki-laki dan perempuan dalam hal gangguan perkembangan bicara pada BBLR.
The Influence of Blood Sample Volume to the Growth of Microorganism in Blood Culture Osman Sianipar, Osman Sianipar
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 35, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: One of the important things in infectious diseases management is bacterial detection. Bacterial finding is influenced by many factors and the most important thing is blood sample volume inoculated into culture bottles. Sometimes difficulty occurs whenever blood sample volume taken is not sufficient as recommended, especially in children.Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of blood sample volume on microorganism growth in blood culture.Methods: A prospective observational study was taken to investigate the influence of blood sample volume on microorganism growth in blood culture from clinical specimen. The inclusion criteria were patients with infection, sepsis, invasive procedures and possible immunocompromized conditions. Blood sample volume was measured by the difference between the final volume and volume of medium, and expressed as sample/medium ratio. The Chi-Square and Fisher's exact tests were used to examine the proportion between inappropriate and appropriate sample/medium ratio.Results: There were 113 (30.4%) out of 372 culture bottles showed bacterial growth with 118 isolates. The gram-negative bacilli isolates were mostly found (67.8%). The proportion of bacterial growth in inappropriate recommended ratio was significantly higher comparing to the appropriate one. The different methods in detecting the bacterial growth did not influence the detection rate. The day-to-daY proportion of bacterial growth rate did not differ significantly.Conclusion: The sample/medium ratio seems do not influence the bacterial growth rate.Key words: blood sample volume - sample medium ratio - bacterial growth - blood culture

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