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Search results for , issue "Vol 37, No 04 (2005)" : 16 Documents clear
The influence of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg ingestion shortly after meal and 2 hours after meal on pharmacokinetic profiles of iron in serum sample in women with Hb 2 12 g/dL Erna Kristin, Erna Kristin
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Iron absorption is determined by iron status, heme- and nonheme-iron contents and amounts of various dietary factors that influence iron absorption. Few studies have examined the influence of food to iron absorption but only limited information is available about the net effect of these factors.Objectives: Objective of this study was to know the influence of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg ingestion shortly after and 2 hours after meal on pharmacokinetic profiles of iron in serum sample in 12 women with Hb >_ 12 g/dLMethods: The study was carried out in a cross over design in which each of participants underwent 2pharmacokinetic studies. One tablet of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg was taken by each subject shortly after and 2 hours after standard meal at the first and second study. Series of serum samples were taken at0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after iron administration. The concentrations of ferric iron in serum were measured using Vitors Fe Slides System, while pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental method.Results: Pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the first and second study were compared using t test with the following results (meant SEM): C,,, 275.92 ± 28.97 & 284.58 ± 30.44 ug/dL, T.3.50 ± 0.29& 3.50 ± 0.38 hours, K. 0.3235 t 0.0011 & 0.3816 ± 0.0010 hours-, Ka, 0.1138 ± 1.5696 & 0.1152 ±1.3331 hours T,201 7.80 ± 1.45 & 7.03 ± 1.02 hours and AUCo-12 2493.43 ± 397.54 & 2331.15 ± 283.64 ug/dL.hours. No difference of all pharmacokinetic parameters were detected by intervention typeConclusions: It can be concluded that after ingestion of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg in women with Hb 12 ug/dL shortly after and 2 hours after meal did not show significant diferrences on pharmacokinetic profiles of iron in serum sampleKey words: iron absorption - pharmacokinetic - ferrous sulphate - absorption rate - Cmax
Factor Vill level given by continuous infusion compared to by bolus in children with hemophilia A undergoing circumcision (case series) Ridwan Sugiarto, Ridwan Sugiarto T
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: hemophilia is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder in children, and can create challenges in the treatment of complicated bleeding episode. Circumcision and other surgical procedures in persons with hemophilia require anticipatory management plan to prevent and treat bleeding prior to, during and following surgery. Prolonged bleeding can be managed by supplement therapy with Factor VIII, administered intravenously by either bolus (BI) or continuous infusion (CI) to achieve hemostatic plasma Factor VIII levels.Objectives: the aim of this study was to compare plasma activity level of factor VIII in relation to the method of intravenous administration.Methods: commencing 4 days post circumcision, five sequential measurements of plasma Factor VIII levels were done at 6 hourly intervals in 4 boys with hemophilia A who received intravenous Factor Vill, either by 81 or Cl.Result: four patients given continuous infusion showed lower level of Factor VIII compared to bolus therapy. Conclusion: bolus therapy has more increased level of Factor VIII compared to continuous infusion. Bleeding was not found in both therapies (Cl or BI). Key words: AHF - continuous infusion - bolus - plasma level
Drug use study for acute respiratory infection in children under 10 years of age Iwan Dwiprahasto, Iwan Dwiprahasto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the commonest illness in children and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. It comprises approximately 50 % of all illness in children under five years. Even though usually viral in origin and of a self-limiting nature, various study indicate that antibiotic prescribing for ARI is inappropriately high.Objective: This study was aimed to assess general practitioners (GPs) prescribing pattern for acute respiratory infection in children seen in private practices.Method: This study is carried out in a cross sectional study design. Participants were GPs and pharmacies in Yogyakarta Special Province. Data on patient and measure of respiratory rate were obtained from GPs office and data on prescribing were searched at all pharmacies in the province. Result: All pharmacies and 92.27% of GPs participated in the study. The average number of drug item prescribed for children with ARI was 3.74. The most widely used drugs for ARI were antibiotics followed by paracetamol, ibuprofen, chlorpheniramine maleate, phenobarbital, vitamin-C, dextromethorphan, glyceryl guaiacolate, dexamethasone, prednisone, vitamin-B6, ephedrine HCI, vitamin BI, and vitamin B2. Medication error was commonly found in the study. More than 60% children with ARI received drugs in either overdose (27.51%) or under dose (41.12%). Wrong preparation were detected in 24.07% prescriptions. It was also found that more than one fifth of children with ARI received drugs in wrong frequency of administration. Risk predictor for prescribing antibiotics were fever, abnormal respiratory rate, and duration of common cold symptom of more than 2 days.Conclusion: ARI in children was often treated unnecessarily. Medication error was also commonly found in the treatment of children with ARI visiting GPs. Physicians must be encouraged to improve their prescribing practices by always catching up with current best research evidence. Key words: acute respiratory infection - inappropriate prescribing - medication error - general practitioners - emergence of resistance
The effect of moderate Intensity of low impact aerobic dance to the body flexibility in untrained elderly women Santosa Budiharjo, Santosa Budiharjo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: The body flexibility of elderly people tends to decrease. One of the causes is the increased dehydration of the tissues that leads to adhesion formation.Objective: To investigate the effect of moderate intensity of low impact dance on body flexibility in untrained elderly women.Methods: Pretest and posttest control design. A total amount of thirty, healthy women, untrained, 60 - 70 years old was divided into three groups. The first group was treated by exercise three times a week, the second group two times a week and the third group was the control group. The exercise used was D series of fitness dance for elderly created by PERWOSI Yogyakarta which is a low impact aerobic dance with moderate intensity (70 - 79 % Maximal heart rate), 40 - 54 minutes/day. Three groups are treated for eight weeks.Results: The result showed that the first group revealed a significant increase in body flexibility (p<0,05) in the fourth week. The second group also revealed statistically significant increase in body flexibility (p<0,05) in the eighth week. The changes of body flexibility of the first group was higher and significant different compared to the second group.Conclusion: The low impact aerobic dance with moderate intensity, 40 - 54 minutes/day, performed three times a week in untrained elderly women increase the body flexibility earlier and higher than that of twice a week. Key words: moderate intensity low impact aerobic dance - exercise frequency - body flexibility-elderly women
Risk factor of hipernatremia in underfive with diarrhea Candra Segeran, Candra Segeran
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) solution is known as a leading therapy for diarrhea. For more than 35 year WHO and UNICEF have a single formulation of glucose-based ORS solution to prevent or treat dehydration from diarrhea. The recommended solution which provides a solution containing 90 mmol/L of sodium, 111 mmol/L of glucose with a total osmolarity 311 mOsm/I, has proven effective in wordwide use. It has been contributed substantially to the dramatic global reduction in mortality from diarrhea disease during the period. This solution is more hyperosmolar than plasma, so it can increase the risk of hypernatremia in children, especially if they do not add well as the standard of making the ORS salution. The objective: This study aims to determine whether improper mix of ORS is a risk factor for hypernatremia in children with diarrheaMethods: A case-control study was performed in this study and chi-square and logistic regression were generated in the data analysis. The sample comprised hospitalized children with acute watery diarrhea admitted at Sardjito Hospital between January 181 2002 - July 3181 2005Result: Mortality caused by hypernatremia is found in 13 children (29%) and 77% from the group have natrium level more than 155 mEq/L. Two from 12 children (12%) with Na level more than 155 mEq/L survived.Conclusion: Oral rehydration solution, formula milk, salt-glucose solutionj and dehydration state are the strong risk factors for hypernatremia.Key words: hypernatremia - risk factor - diarrhea - children 
Secular changes in body size and menarche age of Javanese adolescent in Yogyakarta Neni Trilusiana, Neni Trilusiana
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Secular changes observed in human development are very sensitive bioindicators of social stresses, social and economic changes, as well as pollution and transformation of the natural environment. Environmental factors, such as nutritional habits, lifestyle and infectious diseases appear to be the main causes of differences in growth and maturation between ethnic and social groups. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the secular changes in body size and menarche age of Javanese adolescent in Yogyakarta.Methods:The sample consisted of 562 Yogyakarta adolescent (300 girls and 262 boys), ranging from 11 to 18 years of age, measured in August - September 2005. For comparison, data on body size and menarche age of Yogyakarta adolescent examined in 1982 by Aswin et al were used. Measurements of stature and height, and menarche age were obtained for two samples of the Yogyakarta adolescent. Means and standard deviation were calculated for each measurement and for menarche age. Results: The results for stature, weight and menarche age of adolescent measured in 2005 wee greater compared with other Javanese Yogyakarta samples adolescent 23.years ago. Significant positive trends instature, weight and menarche age were apparent between the two samples: 7.37 cm (5.1                        %),  9.21   kg(26.1   %) and 16.6 months (10.6 %), respectively.Conclusions: In summary, the results show a positive secular trend in body dimensions (height and weight) and menarche age, and this can be related to improvement in living conditions in Yogyakarta, especially during the last 23 years. Key words: secular change - anthropometric - menarche age - adolescent 
Anthropometric characteristics of children 7 to 12 years old in high altitude and low altitude, a study of growth adaptation in Samigaluh and Galur Districs, Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Province Janatin Hastuti, Janatin Hastuti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Age of 7-12 years is an important periode for childrens growth and development. Some factors affect growth process i.e. internal, external and enviromental factors. Some studies show that high altitude has effects on anthropometric characteristics of children which are reflected on the difference of growth patterns.Objective: The aims of this research were to know the differences of anthropometric characteristics between children living in high altitude and low altitude, and to know the effect of different altitude environtment on the anthropometric characteristics of children.Methods: Investigation was done on 565 children of 7-12 years old, boys and girls, which consisted of 255 children living in Samigaluh (high altitude) and 310 children living in Galur (low altitude). These two districts are located in Kulon Progo Regency in Yogyakarta Province. The anthropometric characteristics of the subjects were the measurements of weight, stature, biacromiale breadth, chest breadth, chest depth, bicristal breadth, upper arm circumference, chest circumference, sum of 4 skinfold thickness (triceps, infrascapular, suprailiac and calf skinfold) and sitting height. Many indices were calculated, i.e. Livi index, trunk height index, acromial index, chest index, bicristal index, acromiocristalis index, chest circumference index and skelic index. Statistical analysis of three ways anova and t-test were performed on the data. Mann-Witney test was conducted to reveal the difference of distribution among the indices category.Results: The results chest breadth, chest depth and sum of 4 skinfold thickness differed significantly between boys and girls of 7-12 years old in each district but there were no differences between children of Samigaluh and Galur. There were significant differences in the measurements of chest depth and chest index between 7-12 years old boys and girls of Samigaluh and Galur.Conclusions: The anthropometric characteristics of children living in different altitude differed in the measurements of chest depth and chest index. Key words: anthropometric characteristics - high altitude - low altitude - growth  
Resistensi Mycobacterium tuberculosis terhadap beberapa obat anti tuberculosis pilihan utama dan pilihan kedua di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi FK UGM Tahun 2000 - 2004 Ning Rintiswati, Ning Rintiswati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Usaha penanggulangan tuberkulosis sering terhmbat oleh penyebaran strain Mycobacterium tuberculosa yang resisten multi obat. Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah dengan penyampaian informasi mengenal data resistensi kuman secara berkala.Tujuan penelitian: Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan mengetahui pola resistensi Mycobacterium tuberculosa terhadap beberapa obat antituberkulosis, dalam rangka pemantauan strain bakteri resisten obat, terutama di Yogyakarta.Bahan dan care: Penelitian dilaksanakan sejak Januari 2000 sampai Desember 2004 dengan menggunakan 99 isolat Mycobacterium tuberculosa di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran UGM. Resistensi isolat-isolat tersebut terhadap obat pilihan pertama dan pilihan kedua dievaluasi. Suspensi bakteri dengan kepadatan setara dengan standar Mac Farland 1 (108 cfu/ml) ditanam pada medium Lowenstein Jensen yang mengandung masing-masing obat antituberkulosis (OAT) pilihan pertama yaitu: lsoniazid/INH (1,Oug/ ml), Sreptomisin (2,Oug/mI), Rifampisin (1,Oug/m1), Ethambutol (2,Oug/m1), dan obat pilihan kedua, yaitu: Kanamisin (lug/mi), Siprofloksasin (1ug/m1), Ofloksasin (5ug/mI). Sebagai kontrol suspensi bakteri ditanam di medium yang sama tanpa obat.Hasil: Pengamatan terhadap resistensi Mycobacterium tuberculosa menunjukkan bahwa sejumlah isolat telah resisten terhadap obat pilihan pertama yang diujikan, dengan kisaran 24,24% sampai 43,43%. Resistensi terendah adalah terhadap INH (24,24%) dan tertinggi Rifampisin (43,43%), sedangkan terhadap Streptomisin terdapat resistensi sebesar 33,33% dan terhadap Ethambutol 26,26%. Resistensi terhadap OAT pilihan kedua berkisar antara 14,29% sampai 49,50%. Resistensi tertinggi terhadap Kanamisin dan terendah terhadap Ofloksasin.Simpulan: Terhadap obat pilihan pertama, 74,75% dari isolat uji telah resisten terhadap satu OAT atau Iebih, 15,15% telah resisten terhadap semua OAT, dan hanya 25,25% isolat masih peka terhadap obat yang diujikan. Sementara itu 4.04% isolat merupakan strain resisten multi-obat (MDR-TB) karena resistan terhadap INH dan Rifampisin.
The influence of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg ingestion shortly after meal and 2 hours after meal on pharmacokinetic profiles of iron in serum sample in women with Hb 2 12 g/dL Erna Kristin, Erna Kristin
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Iron absorption is determined by iron status, heme- and nonheme-iron contents and amounts of various dietary factors that influence iron absorption. Few studies have examined the influence of food to iron absorption but only limited information is available about the net effect of these factors.Objectives: Objective of this study was to know the influence of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg ingestion shortly after and 2 hours after meal on pharmacokinetic profiles of iron in serum sample in 12 women with Hb >_ 12 g/dLMethods: The study was carried out in a cross over design in which each of participants underwent 2pharmacokinetic studies. One tablet of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg was taken by each subject shortly after and 2 hours after standard meal at the first and second study. Series of serum samples were taken at0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after iron administration. The concentrations of ferric iron in serum were measured using Vitors Fe Slides System, while pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental method.Results: Pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the first and second study were compared using t test with the following results (meant SEM): C,,, 275.92 ± 28.97 & 284.58 ± 30.44 ug/dL, T.3.50 ± 0.29& 3.50 ± 0.38 hours, K. 0.3235 t 0.0011 & 0.3816 ± 0.0010 hours-', Ka, 0.1138 ± 1.5696 & 0.1152 ±1.3331 hours' T,201 7.80 ± 1.45 & 7.03 ± 1.02 hours and AUCo-12 2493.43 ± 397.54 & 2331.15 ± 283.64 ug/dL.hours. No difference of all pharmacokinetic parameters were detected by intervention typeConclusions: It can be concluded that after ingestion of Ferrous Sulphate @ 300 mg in women with Hb 12 ug/dL shortly after and 2 hours after meal did not show significant diferrences on pharmacokinetic profiles of iron in serum sampleKey words: iron absorption - pharmacokinetic - ferrous sulphate - absorption rate - Cmax
Factor Vill level given by continuous infusion compared to by bolus in children with hemophilia A undergoing circumcision (case series) Ridwan Sugiarto, Ridwan Sugiarto T
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 37, No 04 (2005)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: hemophilia is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder in children, and can create challenges in the treatment of complicated bleeding episode. Circumcision and other surgical procedures in persons with hemophilia require anticipatory management plan to prevent and treat bleeding prior to, during and following surgery. Prolonged bleeding can be managed by supplement therapy with Factor VIII, administered intravenously by either bolus (BI) or continuous infusion (CI) to achieve hemostatic plasma Factor VIII levels.Objectives: the aim of this study was to compare plasma activity level of factor VIII in relation to the method of intravenous administration.Methods: commencing 4 days post circumcision, five sequential measurements of plasma Factor VIII levels were done at 6 hourly intervals in 4 boys with hemophilia A who received intravenous Factor Vill, either by 81 or Cl.Result: four patients given continuous infusion showed lower level of Factor VIII compared to bolus therapy. Conclusion: bolus therapy has more increased level of Factor VIII compared to continuous infusion. Bleeding was not found in both therapies (Cl or BI). Key words: AHF - continuous infusion - bolus - plasma level

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