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Articles 18 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 40, No 03 (2008)" : 18 Documents clear
The effect of mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl) leaf etanolic extract on splenic NK 1.1 cells activity Sofia Mubarika Haryana , Sismindari, Muhammad Ghufron Marsetyawan Soesatyo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background : Mahkota dewa (Pheleria macrocarpa (Scheff, Boerl) is an herbal medicine which has been used since many years as traditional medicine in Indonesia against infections.Objective: The study was aimed to know the effect of mahkota dewa extract on cellular immune response, in particular NK1.1 cell activities.Methods: Forty C57BL/6 mice used in this study were divided into 8 groups. In this study, different doses of etanolic extract of mahkota dewa leaf were used i.e. 1.05 mg, 2.1 mg, and 4.2 mg/20g BW. Groups I, II, and III were treated with 1 mg, 2.1 mg, and 4.2 mg/20 g BW of the extract daily for 30 days. In group IV, V, and VI the extract was given simultaneously during 30 days, then the mice were infected with 104 cfu of Listeria monocytogenes (A TCC-191151 for stimulating their immune responses. Whereas group VII was untreated control group, and group VIII received only Listeria monocytogenes. All mice were then sacrificed 48 hours after the last treatment. Splenocyte NK1.1 cells were collected then cultured with YAC-1 (ATCC:TIB 1601 target cells for killing activity assay, expressing NKG2D, CD122 and IFNy assay. Results: The results showed that an oral administration of the extract significantly increased the killing activity of splenic NK 1.1 cell against the target, Y AC-1 cell. Moreover, the extract promoted the secretion of IFN-y from NK1.1 cells, and also induced expression of both surface molecule NKG2D and CD 122. The strongest effect stimulation was on the dosis of 2.1 mg/20 g BW.Conclusion: The extract had effect to augment splenic NK1.1 cell activities, as indicated by increasing their killing activity, expression of surface molecules and IFN-y production.Key words: pha/eria macrocarpa - splenic NK1.1 cell activity - YAC-1 cell - IFNy - NKG2D and CD122 surface molecules
Low-dose short-course metformin decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in the non-obese prediabetic individuals Djoko Hardiman, Djoko Hardiman
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: The establishment of macrovascular (cardiovascular) event is initiated in the period of prediabetic. Metformin plays role in the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as vascular protection. The mechanism of the cardiovascular event risk increased in the pre-diabetic individual has not been clearly established.Objective: The study was to determine if insulin resistance control by low-dose short-course metformin administration in the non-obese prediabetic individual might decrease the risk of atherosclerosis.Methods: It was a prospective experimental double blind study with pretest-posttest control group design. It was conducted on the first degree relatives of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus patients who met the criteria of non-obese prediabetic individuals. Subjects were randomly classified into treatment group (designed for metformin administration), and the control group (designed for placebo administration). The prediction of atherosclerosis risk was based on the hsCRP, PAI-1, VCAM-1, and fibrinogen levels.Result: The results showed that the margin between pre- and post-metformin administration term were 1.89 vs. 0.06 mg/L (p=0.001), 1.42 vs. 0.84 IU/mL (p=0.0151. 180.85 vs. 03.81 mg/L (p=0.061) and 80.15 vs. 31.42 mg/dL (p=0.001) for hsCRP, PAI-1, VCAM-1, and Fibrinogen levels in the treatment and control group, respectively.Conclusion: The study concluded that the low-dose short-course metformin administration might decrease the atherosclerosis risk significantly in the non-obese prediabetic individuals.Key words: metformin - non-obese prediabetics - hsCRP - PAI-T- Fibrinogen - VCAM-T
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Indonesian women Ova Emilia, Ova Emilia Ova Emilia
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Data from epidemiologic surveys showed that the burden of illness caused by premenstrual syndrome could not be underestimated. It has been estimated that the frequency of premenstrual symptoms was quite high (80-90%1, and in some women, the symptoms were so severe that they might interfere with daily activities. Most epidemiological studies of PMS were conducted in Western women, though a few small sample-size studies of Chinese and Japanese women indicated that they were affected by PMS. Objective: To find out the characteristic features of premenstrual symptoms in Indonesian women.Methods: Four hundred and sixty women aged between 20 and 49 yrs. with regular menstrual cycles, who were seen at a Women Health Clinic, were assessed regarding their premenstrual symptoms using the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSSTI. They were able to provide informed consent. The study was conducted in July 2007 until January 2008.Results: As many as 95% of these women were found to have at least premenstrual symptoms. The rates of prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD in this study were 3.9% and 1.1 %, respectively, which were lower than those in Western or Chinese and Japanese women. Only 5 women with moderate to severe PMS and PMDD were treated and 10.5% women seek herbal medicine to reduce premenstrual symptoms.Conclusion: Severe to moderate premenstrual symptoms and PMDD were suffered by 5% women and mostly affected 20-29 year old women. Medical treatment was rarely sought, but herbal medicine was often used to relieve premenstrual symptoms.Key words: PMS - PMDD - Indonesian women
Prevalence and risk factors of hand dermatoses among pandan handicrafters Fajar Waskito, Erni Setiyawati Devi Artami S, Sri AwaliaFebriana,
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Pandan handicraft is one of the industrial sectors which has a significant role in employing people in Kulonprogo, Yogyakarta. Development in this industry makes higher material exposure to the hands during the production procedures, that makes it essential to study the risk of suffering from hand dermatoses among the handicrafters.Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hand dermatoses among pandan handicrafters. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted on 80 subjects who was taken randomly from Pandan handicrafter population in Tanjungharjo village, Kulonprogo, Yogyakarta. Prevalence data were analyzed descriptively. Risk factors were analyzed using estimation of prevalence ratio (pr), 95% Confident Interval (el), and chi-square test.Results: Out of 74 subjects fulfilled the criteria, 58 (78.4%) were suffered from hand dermatoses. Callus was the most common disease occurred in 49 (66.2%) subjects, followed by irritant contact dermatitis (lCD) in 18 (24.3%) subjects. History of atopy was proven as risk factor for ICD (p = 0.025, pr = 2.872; 95%el = 0.913-9.032). Types and duration of work were not proven as risk factors, as well as no gloves protection during work.Conclusion: Callus was the most common hand dermatosis occurred among pandan handicrafters, followed by ICD. History of atopy was identified as a risk factor for ICD.Key words : pandan - handicrafter - hand dermatosis - occupational-atopy
Hantavirus infection in clinically suspected dengue fever patients Hera Nirwati, Praseno
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Hantavirus has been found in many parts of the world, including newly isolated virus in Indonesia. Although infection with the virus can result in specific signs and symptoms known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), clinical presentation of the disease may be similar to those of dengue or other viruses infection. Diagnosis of both dengue and hantavirus infection should be established by laboratory test for the detection of specific antibodies.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of hantavirus infection in patients suspected to have dengue fever.Methods: Sera were prepared from venous blood of patients. Specific IgG and IgM anti hantavirus in sera from clinically suspected dengue fever patients were examined by an indirect immunoflourescence antibody technique.Results: Eight percent of sera samples were positive for both specific IgG and IgM anti hantavirus, whereas 1 2 percent of samples were positive for IgG only.Conclusion: It is concluded that the recent infection with hantavirus have been found in 8 percent of clinically suspected dengue fever patients, whereas 12 percent of the patients were infected with the virus some time in the past.Key words: hantavirus - immunofluorescence antibody technique - dengue fever - specific IgG and IgM anti hantavirus
The use of bacteriophage therapy for curing the Escherichia coli 0157 infection in mice Metha Restu, Rio Rendy, Hera Nirwati, Susi Iravati, Mova Aria, Ida Ayu Putu
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Diarrhea is still a problem in public health, especially in developing country such as Indonesia. Escherichia coli 0157:H7 {Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)} is one of the important strains as the etiology of bloody diarrhea with sistemic complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis. The increase in the discovery of E. coli 0157:H7 resistance to antibiotic is a worldwide problem that must be solved. Bacteriophage application can be a promising alternative therapy. In addition, bacteriophage can also be used as diagnostic tool for bacterial identification and as biocontrol agent in bacterial water pollution.ObJective: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify a specific bacteriophage using a specific strain of E. coli 0157 and use this bacteriophage to cure the E. coli 0157 infection in mice.Methods: E. coli was isolated and identified from faecal samples of diarrheal patients from many Primary Health Centers in Yogyakarta, using McConkey Agar and biochemical media. E. coli 0157 was determined using sorbitol McConkey Agar and agglutination test. Toxins of these strains were detected using hemolysis assay method. Bacteriophage was isolated using one of E. coli 0157 strain (E. coli K-151) from river water of Kali Mambu. The therapeutic effect of this bacteriophage was studied using eighteen threemonth-old male mice of Swiss strain. They were classified randomly into three groups (6 groups). Mice in group A and B were infected with 0.5 ml of 108 CFU of E. coli suspension orally. Only mice in group A were treated with bacteriophage 1.10"pfu/mL, while those in group B were not treated, and group C was used as control.Results: Three strains of E. coli 0157 (K-151, K-840 and K-854) were isolated among 70 E. coli isolates. Bacteriophage K-151 was isolated from the river water. Average cure duration in the group who was given phage K-151 therapy was 34.17 hours, and average cure duration in the group that was not given phage K-151 therapy was 72.7 hours. The mortality rate of group A was 0%, while in group B was 17%. Conclusion: Bacteriophage is effective as alternative therapy against E. coli infection in mice.Keywords: E. coli 0157 - bacteriophage - hemolysis assay - diarrhea
The effect of fitness dance for elderly on stature/arm span ratio of non-trained old women in Y ogyakarta M. Mansyur Romi, Santosa Budiharjo Djoko Prakosa
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Aging process causes changes of the body composition, body posture, and physical performance. In elderly people, the decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength, and flexibility of body segments reduce the maximum height at the upright standing position.Objectives: This study was aimed to find out the effects of fitness dance for elderly (FDE) on stature/arm span ratio of non-trained old women in Yogyakarta.Methods: Pretest and posttest control design was used. The samples consisted of 30 non-trained healthy old women of Yogyakarta, aged 60-70 years. They were classified into three groups, each consisted of 10 women, namely: Group I (GI) was given FDE 3 days a week. Group II (Gill was given FDE 2 days a week, and non-treatment control group (CG). FDE is a low impact aerobic exercise, created by Association of Indonesian Sports Women, Yogyakarta Branch. The FDE in this research wasthe D series (low impact aerobic). The treatment was performed for 8 weeks, 40-54 minutes in each session. The intensity of exercise was maintained at 70-79% of maximal heart rate by controlling the musical beat. Before and after treatment (in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th week), the subjects were measured using the stature and arm length anthropometry. This study was conducted in April-June 2003 at Kotagede, Yogyakarta.Results: The one way variance analysis among groups revealed that the ratio of stature/arm span was significantly improved (p
The different expressions of urokinasetype plasminogen activator, urokinasetype plasminogen activator receptor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Several scores of cell pleomorphism, number of mitosis and keratiniza Totok Utoro, Irianiwati, Ahmad Ghozali
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system plays important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. The real function of PAI-1 is to protect extracellular matrix from degradation. But, there are still arguments about the function of PAI-1. In colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and liver cancer, high expressions of uPA and PAI-1 are related to poor prognosis of the patients. In squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, the role of uPA system in its relation with histological grading (consists of several scores of cell pleomorphism, number of mitosis and keratinization index) are still unclear.Aim: To find out the different expressions of uPA, uPAR, PAI-, and ratio of uPA!PAI-1 among several scores of cell pleomorphism, number of mitosis and keratinization index of cervical cancerMethods: Thirty five paraffin blocks of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were grouped histologically based on the score of cell pleomorfism, number of mitosis, and keratinization index. The specimens were stained immunohistochemically with MoAb against uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 with chromogen DAB and counterstain Meyer Hematoxyllin. The expression of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, and ratio of uPA/PAI-1 were counted based on the number of positive expression tumor cells!100 tumor cells in five microscopic fields. The different expression of each variable will be analyzed with One Way Anova analysis.Result: There were statistically insignificant differences between the expressions of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, and ratio of uPA/PAI- based on the score of cell pleomorfism (p = 0.463, 0.731, 0.541, 0.460, respectively), keratinization index (p = 0.207, 0.062, 0.231, 0.576, respectively), and nlimber of mitosis (p = 0.359, 0.125, 0.428, 0.340, respectively) of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.Conclusion: The result suggested that the expressions of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, and ratio of uPA/PAI-1 did not have important roles in cells pleomorfism, number of mitosis, and keratinization index of cervical cancer.Key words: uPA - uPAR - PAI- - ratio of uPA!PAI-1 - cell pleomorphism - number of mitosis - keratinization index - cervical cancer
Retinal sensitivity changes after retinal surgery between new onset and long-term rhegmatogenous retinal detachment Retno Ekantini, Rose Angela Nurini Agni
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Rhegmatous retinal detachment is an emergency case which will had to blindness if it is not managed properly. It could managed mostly by surgery. Many factors influence the success of the management.Objective: To know the difference of central retinal sensitivity changes after retinal surgery in new onset and long-term rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD)Methods: A prospective cohort study. Eyes with RRD which showed anatomically successful surgery were included in this study. RRD developed more than 24 days prior to surgery was considered as long-term RRD. Sample size was calculated based on the assumption that clinically significant central retinal sensitivity change was 5 decibels. Central retinal sensitivity was examined with Goldmann manual kinetic perimetry before and 3 months after surgery.Results: There were 35 eyes included in this study, consisted of 19 new onset RRDs and 16 long-term RRDs. The macula were involved in all of the subjects. The extent of retinal detachment ranged between 4 clock hours and 12 clock hours. PVR was found in 4 eyes. Two eyes (5.7%) underwent scleral buckling (SB), one eye (2.9%) underwent SB and posterior vitrectomy using silicone oil, and 32 eyes (91.4%) underwent SB and posterior vitrectomy using gas. Retinotomy was performed in 2 eyes and internal limiting membrane (lLM) peeling in 1 eye. Three months after the surgery, the mean change of central retinal sensitivity for both groups was 8.60 :I: 6.02 dB (range: -3 dB to + 23 dB), the new RRD was 6.9 :I: 5.57 dB, and the long-term RRD (p= 0.067) was 10.63 :I: 6.07 dB.Conclusion: The difference of central retinal sensitivity changes between new onset and long-term RRD was not significant clinically and statistically. However, both groups showed improvement of central retinal sensitivity.Keywords: retinal sensitivity - new onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - long-term rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter
Retinal sensitivity changes after retinal surgery between new onset and long-term rhegmatogenous retinal detachment Retno Ekantini, Rose Angela Nurini Agni
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 03 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Rhegmatous retinal detachment is an emergency case which will had to blindness if it is not managed properly. It could managed mostly by surgery. Many factors influence the success of the management.Objective: To know the difference of central retinal sensitivity changes after retinal surgery in new onset and long-term rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD)Methods: A prospective cohort study. Eyes with RRD which showed anatomically successful surgery were included in this study. RRD developed more than 24 days prior to surgery was considered as long-term RRD. Sample size was calculated based on the assumption that clinically significant central retinal sensitivity change was 5 decibels. Central retinal sensitivity was examined with Goldmann manual kinetic perimetry before and 3 months after surgery.Results: There were 35 eyes included in this study, consisted of 19 new onset RRDs and 16 long-term RRDs. The macula were involved in all of the subjects. The extent of retinal detachment ranged between 4 clock hours and 12 clock hours. PVR was found in 4 eyes. Two eyes (5.7%) underwent scleral buckling (SB), one eye (2.9%) underwent SB and posterior vitrectomy using silicone oil, and 32 eyes (91.4%) underwent SB and posterior vitrectomy using gas. Retinotomy was performed in 2 eyes and internal limiting membrane (lLM) peeling in 1 eye. Three months after the surgery, the mean change of central retinal sensitivity for both groups was 8.60 :I: 6.02 dB (range: -3 dB to + 23 dB), the new RRD was 6.9 :I: 5.57 dB, and the long-term RRD (p= 0.067) was 10.63 :I: 6.07 dB.Conclusion: The difference of central retinal sensitivity changes between new onset and long-term RRD was not significant clinically and statistically. However, both groups showed improvement of central retinal sensitivity.Keywords: retinal sensitivity - new onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - long-term rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter

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