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Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 40, No 04 (2008)" : 16 Documents clear
The effectiveness of rectal and oral paracetamol in decreasing fever in children Sasmito Nugroho, Gama AF Isnaeni Djauhar Ismail
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: The common treatment to reduce fever is administration of paracetamol orally. However, oral route is sometimes not possible due to some problems, such as vomiting, irritability, unconsciousness, and convulsion and therefore, paracetamol should be administered rectally.Objectives: To know the effectiveness of rectal compared to oral administration of paracetamol in febrile children.Methods: This study was a parallel randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, comparing the effectiveness of rectal paracetamol to oral paracetamol. The study subjects were children with fever. Consecutive sampling was used to collect samples, and block randomization was used for random allocation. The study was conducted from November 1, 2006 to April 30, 2008. The body temperature was measured just before taking the drug (to), and was monitored after 30 minutes (t1), 60 minutes (t2), 90 minutes (t3), 120 minutes (t4), 150 minutes (t5), and 180 minutes (t6). Inferential statistic tests used were chi square, t-test and Mann Whitney U test.Results: A total of 176 subjects eligible for the study were randomly assigned to receive either paracetamol 12.5 mg/kgBW rectally (88 subjects) or paracetamol 12.5 mg/kgBW orally (88 subjects). There were 6 subjects who were drop-out and 1 subject failed from rectal group, and 6 subjects were drop-out and 2 subjects failed from oral group. Paracetamol average dose for each group was 12.5 mg/kgBW. The proportion of the decrease in body temperature to 38°C in the first 30 minutes was significantly higher ??? in oral group. The change in body temperature from initial body temperature between oral and rectal routes after 30 minutes was significantly different (to-t1: p=0.003), but later the decrease was notstatistically different (to-t2: p = 0.471, to-t3: p = 0.488, to-t4: p =0.824, to-t5: p = 0.790, to-t6: p = 0.493): the differences between two periods of measurement were not significant (t1-t2: p=0.073, t2t3: p=0.791, t3-t4: p=0,171, t4-t5: p=0.199, t5-t6: p=0.426), except from to-t1 (p=0.005).Conclusion: Rectal paracetamol 12.5 mg/kgBW had a higher effectiveness compared with oral paracetamol to reduce fever in children.Key words: fever - rectal paracetamol - oral paracetamol - effectiveness
The effect of chronic ethanol administration on total number of pyramidal cells in CA 1 and CA3 of hippocampus and spatial working memory in adolescent rats (Rattus norvegicus) Mustofa, Muh. Ihwan Nurwanto Soejono Aswin
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Adolescent brain may be more susceptible to damage by ethanol. Chronic ethanol administration may cause morphological changes in the hippocampus, followed by deficit in the hippocampal function, including the impairment of memory.Objective: The aim of this study were to investigate the changes in the total number of pyramidal cells in CA 1 and CA3 of hippocampus, and the relationship between these changes with spatial working memory of rats after chronic ethanol administration at adolescent age.Methods: Twenty five adolescent (30 days of agel male rats (Rattus norvegicusl were classified randomly into 5 groups, that is, namely control without treatment (C1 I, control with treatment (C21, treatment 1(11 I, treatment 2 (T2), and treatment 3 (T31 groups. Each group consisted of 5 rats. C2 group was given physiological saline, while 11, T2, and T3 groups were given ethanol at various doses of 1, 2, and 3 gl kgBW/day, repectively, for 30 days by intraperitoneal injection. After chronic ethanol administration, the spatial working memory of 5 groups were tested using 8 arms radial maze for 12 days. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrified and the brains were taken out for histological examination, by paraffin method and Cresyl violet staining.Result: Chronic ethanol administration on adolescent rats caused a decrease in spatial working memory (especially in group T31 (p < 0.051. The total number of pyramidal cells in CA 1 of group T3 was fewer than those of control groups (p < 0.05), but the total numbers of pyramidal cells in CA3 of treatment groups were not different with those of control groups (p > 0.051. Analysis with product moment correlation test showed that there was a positive correlation between the total number of pyramidal cells in CA 1 of hippocampus with spatial working memory of the rats after chronic ethanol administration at adolescent age (p < 0.051.Conclusion: Chronic ethanol administration on adolescent rats caused a decrease in the spatial working memory and the number of pyramidal cells in CA 1 of hippocampus. There was a positive correlation between the number of pyramidal cells in CA 1 and spatial working memory of the rats after chronic ethanol administration at adolescent age.Key words: ethanol - pyramidal cells - spatial working memory - adolescent
Human papillomavirus (HPV) as the causal factor of tympanal cholesteatoma in malignant-type chronic suppurative otitis media Rianto, Bambang Udji Djoko
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Tympanal cholesteatoma is an uncoordinated, uncontrolled hyperproliferative epidermic epithelial cells keratinized with aggressive, erosive and destructive development to the mucous membrane and the bone of external auditory canal and tympanic cavity. This process is invasive and may migrate to the surrounding tissue. Ethiopathogenesis of tympanic cholesteatoma is unknown. Histological examination shows that there are hyperproliferative development, papillomatous, koilocyte clusters and destruction of the bone. These abnormalities are characteristics of papillomavirus.Objective: To know the whether HPV-18 is the risk factor in the occurrence of tympanic cholesteatoma ini malignant-type chronic suupurative otitis media.Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 31 tympanal cholesteatoma specimens from malignanttype chronic suppurative otitis media as the case group, and 31 mucosal tympanic cavity specimens from benign-type chronic suppurative otitis media as the control group. For detecting Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination was used to detect DNA HPV-18, that performed in Parasitology laboratorium Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University.Results: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination showed that there were 21 (67.7%) DNA HPV-18 positive specimens in the case group, while in the control group there were 5 (16.1 %) DNA HPV-18 positive specimens. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0001; Odds ratio: 1 0.92; 95 % confidence interval = 2.83-45.29). Immunohistochemistry examination was used to identify host immune response to HPV, by observing the interleukin-1 IIl-1) and interferon g IIFN g) expressions. Both Il-1 and IFN g cytokines were highly expressed in tympanic cholesteatoma samples, compared to both in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05, Odds ratio 14.29; 95% confidence interval: 3.64-60.5 and p< 0.05, Odds ratio:10.2; 95% confidence interval: 2.74-40.35, respectively). Conclusion: It can be concluded that HPV-18 DNA was iidentified, and was one of the multiple risk factors in the occurence of tympanic cholesteatoma in malignant-type chronic suppurative otitis media..Key words: tympanal cholesteatoma - human papillomavirus - malignant-type chronic suppurative otitis media
Age-Related Variation On Somatotypes Of Javanese People In Y Ogyakarta Province Kumi Ashizawa, Nani Trilusiana Rahmawati Janatin Astuti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Body form has been related to a variety of behavioral, occupational, health, and physical performance variables, and somatotype is an effective technique for the study of anthropometric variations, which possess constantly recognizable characteristics and are the functional end products of the whole genetic and the developmental complex.Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe age-related variations of somatotype in a cross sectional sample of healthy adult and elderly subjects from Yogyakarta Province Indonesia, and to promote the use of technique for the study of somatotype variations in aged populations.Methods: The study groups, consisted of 426 healthy Javanese people (185 males and 241 females) of age 18 - 90 years. The men and women samples were further divided into four groups: 18 - 20 years, 21 - 40 years, 41 - 60 years, and 61 - 90 years. All subjects were born and resident in Yogyakarta Province. Heath-Carter somatotypes were determined for all subjects.Result: The height and weight are significantly greater in males than in females. There was the relationship between age and somatotype component. The mean somatotype of the overall Javanese sample (18-90 years) is 3.0 - 3.2 - 2.9 or center type (SO: 1.2 - 1.3 - 1.3) in males and 4.4 - 3.3 - 2.2 or mesoendomorphic type (SO: 1.2 - 1.5 - 1.3) in females.Conclusion: In general, endomorphy and ectomorphy showed a week and even negative correlation with age group, while mesomorphy show a low but positive correlation. Significant sex differences in somatotype appeared only in endomorphy where females were higher than males. Javanese males somatotypes were less endomorphic and ectomorphic, but more ectomorphic than Javanese females.Key words: somatotype component - body size - variation - Javanese people
On-admission serum soluble CD40 ligand level predicts subsequent myocardial damage in acute myocardial infarction Putrika Prastuti Ratna Gharini, Budi Yuli Setianto Anggoro Budi Hartopo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: Platelet activation plays an important role in plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Activated platelets release soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40LI. It has coagulation and inflammation properties. Enhanced sCD40L activity has been found in acute myocardial infarction, especially in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The impact of this enhancement on the degree of myocardial damage remains uncertain, although evidence suggests association between sCD40L level and high burden coronary thrombus.Objective: The aim of this study was to find out whether serum sCD40L level on-admission is predictive of subsequent myocardial damage following acute myocardial infarction.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. We consecutively enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to ICCU Dr. Sardjito Hospital with onset < 24 hours. Blood collection for analysis of sCD40L was withdrawn on-admission before revascularization and heparinization. Serial measurement of creatine kinase (CK-MBllevel in first 24 hours of admission was conducted, the highest level was considered a peak level that reflected myocardial damage. Troponin I was measured in single sample during 72 hours of admission. The association between serum sCD40L and peak CK-MB level was analyzed with Pearson correlation test. Statistical significancy was determined by p value < 0.05.Result: We enrolled 54 consecutive subjects, among them 37 subjects was STEM!. There was a significantly positive correlation between on-admission sCD40L and peak CK-MB level (r = 0.320 ; p value = 0.0201. Nonetheless, sCD40L did not correlate with troponin I level. In STEM I, this correlation was stronger (r = 0.424; p value = 0.0101 and even more stronger in patients with STEMI who underwent revascularization therapy (r = 0.515 ; p value = 0.0291.Conclusion: On-admission serum sCD40L level is predictive of subsequent myocardial damage following acute myocardial infarctionKey words: soluble CD40 ligand - platelet activation - acute myocardial infarction - peak CK-MB myocardial damage
Effect of homocysteine and antioxidants on peroxidation lipid of essential hypertension in Central Java Indonesia Rizka H Asdie, Mohammad Hakimi, Sunarti Ria Maudisa
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: The increase in the homocysteine level is related to the heightening of blood pressure and hypertension risk. Hyperhomocysteinemia encourages the production of free radical which can oxidi2e lipid. Lipid peroxidation can be prevented by several antioxidant such as vitamin C and E.Objective: This study is aimed at finding out the nature of the interaction effect between homocysteine and antioxidant vitamins on malondialdehyde level in essential hypertension.Method: This study was a case-control nested to NSurveiliance of Non-Communicable DiseasesN in Purworejo, Central Java. The subjects were men, essential hypertension and 20-60 years old that have normal value of urine creatinine, blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol. They have been take antihypertension drugs. The blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, urine creatinine, vitamin C and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by spectrophotometer. Whereas the total plasma homocysteine and vitamin E were determined by HPLC.Result: The homocysteine level in the cases was higher than that of the control and was significantly different (P = 0,027). There were not significantly different of the vitamin C, vitamin E, and MDA between the cases and the control (P=0.538, P=0.390, and P=0.536) respectively. The MDA was positively correlated with homocysteine (P=O.OOOI and negatively correlated with vitamin E (P=0.029), but it was not negatively significant correlated with vitamin C (P=0.0671. The correlation had r= 0.417; R2=0.174 and F=7.713.Conclusion: The high homocysteine level is one of hypertension risk factors and its effect through oxidative stress. The effect can be prevented by antioxidant vitamins, specially vitamin E.Key words: homocysteine - antioxidants - peroxidation lipid - essential hypertension - avanese
Diabetes mellitus type 1 in congenital rubella syndrome: a case report E.S. Herini, Carina Lisa Madarina Julia
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Corina Lisa, Madarina Julia, E.S. Herini . Diabetes Mellitus Type 7 in Congenital Rubella SyndromeDiabetes mellitus type 1 has been reported as a very rare delayed manifestation of congenital rubella syndrome. We reported a confirmed case of congenital rubella syndrome that developed diabetes mellitus at the age of seven years. The girl had been complaining of diabetes symptoms since six months before admission, but had been misdiagnosed. The patient finally came with symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis, a life threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus type 1 as a delayed manifestation of congenital rubella syndrome has to be kept in mind to prevent missing the diagnosis.Key words: rubella infection - congenital rubella syndrome - diabetes mellitus type 1ABSTRAKCorina Lisa, Madarina Julia, E.S. Herini - Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 7 pada Sindroma Rubella KongenitalDiabetes melitus adalah salah satu manifestasi lambat sindrom rubella kongenital yang jarang, tetapi perlu diwaspadai. Kami melaporkan satu kasus sindrom rubela kongenital yang mengalami diabetes melitus tipe 1 pad a usia 7 tahun. Meskipun gejala diabetes telah dikeluhkan sejak enam bulan sebelum masuk rumah sakit, penyakit diabetes tetap tidak terdiagnosis. Penderita akhirnya datang dengan gejala dan tanda ketosidosis diabetikum, suatu komplikasi diabetes mellitus yang mengancam jiwa. Manifestasi lambat sindrom rubella yang berupa diabetes mellitus tipe I harus diwaspadai untuk mencegah tidak terdiagnosanya penyakit tersebut.
Correlation of interleukin-6 and monocyte count to troponin I in acute coronary syndrome Usi Sukorini, Teguh Triyono Joni Parinding
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) becomes an important disease, because of its increased prevalence and mortality rates. Makers of systemic inflammation, including interleukin-6 and monocyte count, have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events. However, the association between these inflammatory markers with cardiac injury is still a controversy.Objective: To evaluate the relationship between IL-6 and monocyte count as inflammation markers and troponin I as cardiac injury.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects were patients suspected of ACS admitted to the emergency department of Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta. Diagnoses were performed based on WHO criteria. Troponin I and interleukin-6 levels were measured from sera using sandwich ELISA method (Roche). Monocyte counts were determined by automatic hematology analyzer (Sysmex). Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearmans correlation test were used to assess the difference and correlation between parameters.Results: Sixty one (61) subjects were included in the study. Age of the subjects were 51-60 years, and diagnosed as ST elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI). Significant differences of IL-6 and troponin I levels were determined among unstable angina pectoris (UAP), non-ST elevation myocardial infarct (NSTEMI), and ST elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) subjects. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.54; p = 0.001) between troponin I and Interleukin-6, but not with monocyte count.Conclusion: Interleukin-6, but not monocyte count, was correlated with troponin I in acute coronary syndromes.Key words: acute coronary syndrome - interleukin-6 - monocyte count - troponin I
Correlation of interleukin-6 and monocyte count to troponin I in acute coronary syndrome Usi Sukorini, Teguh Triyono Joni Parinding
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) becomes an important disease, because of its increased prevalence and mortality rates. Makers of systemic inflammation, including interleukin-6 and monocyte count, have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events. However, the association between these inflammatory markers with cardiac injury is still a controversy.Objective: To evaluate the relationship between IL-6 and monocyte count as inflammation markers and troponin I as cardiac injury.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects were patients suspected of ACS admitted to the emergency department of Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta. Diagnoses were performed based on WHO criteria. Troponin I and interleukin-6 levels were measured from sera using sandwich ELISA method (Roche). Monocyte counts were determined by automatic hematology analyzer (Sysmex). Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's correlation test were used to assess the difference and correlation between parameters.Results: Sixty one (61) subjects were included in the study. Age of the subjects were 51-60 years, and diagnosed as ST elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI). Significant differences of IL-6 and troponin I levels were determined among unstable angina pectoris (UAP), non-ST elevation myocardial infarct (NSTEMI), and ST elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) subjects. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.54; p = 0.001) between troponin I and Interleukin-6, but not with monocyte count.Conclusion: Interleukin-6, but not monocyte count, was correlated with troponin I in acute coronary syndromes.Key words: acute coronary syndrome - interleukin-6 - monocyte count - troponin I
The effectiveness of rectal and oral paracetamol in decreasing fever in children Sasmito Nugroho, Gama AF Isnaeni Djauhar Ismail
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 40, No 04 (2008)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Background: The common treatment to reduce fever is administration of paracetamol orally. However, oral route is sometimes not possible due to some problems, such as vomiting, irritability, unconsciousness, and convulsion and therefore, paracetamol should be administered rectally.Objectives: To know the effectiveness of rectal compared to oral administration of paracetamol in febrile children.Methods: This study was a parallel randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, comparing the effectiveness of rectal paracetamol to oral paracetamol. The study subjects were children with fever. Consecutive sampling was used to collect samples, and block randomization was used for random allocation. The study was conducted from November 1, 2006 to April 30, 2008. The body temperature was measured just before taking the drug (to), and was monitored after 30 minutes (t1), 60 minutes (t2), 90 minutes (t3), 120 minutes (t4), 150 minutes (t5), and 180 minutes (t6). Inferential statistic tests used were chi square, t-test and Mann Whitney U test.Results: A total of 176 subjects eligible for the study were randomly assigned to receive either paracetamol 12.5 mg/kgBW rectally (88 subjects) or paracetamol 12.5 mg/kgBW orally (88 subjects). There were 6 subjects who were drop-out and 1 subject failed from rectal group, and 6 subjects were drop-out and 2 subjects failed from oral group. Paracetamol average dose for each group was 12.5 mg/kgBW. The proportion of the decrease in body temperature to 38°C in the first 30 minutes was significantly higher ??? in oral group. The change in body temperature from initial body temperature between oral and rectal routes after 30 minutes was significantly different (to-t1: p=0.003), but later the decrease was notstatistically different (to-t2: p = 0.471, to-t3: p = 0.488, to-t4: p =0.824, to-t5: p = 0.790, to-t6: p = 0.493): the differences between two periods of measurement were not significant (t1-t2: p=0.073, t2t3: p=0.791, t3-t4: p=0,171, t4-t5: p=0.199, t5-t6: p=0.426), except from to-t1 (p=0.005).Conclusion: Rectal paracetamol 12.5 mg/kgBW had a higher effectiveness compared with oral paracetamol to reduce fever in children.Key words: fever - rectal paracetamol - oral paracetamol - effectiveness

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