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Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 41, No 03 (2009)" : 16 Documents clear
EarlyWarning System (EWS) for Dengue in Indonesia and Thailand Dana A. Focks, Mohammad Juffrie, Dana A. Focks
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Dengue virus infection is an acute febrile disease caused by 4 sero-type viruses. The transmission via mosquito vector Ae. Aegypti. The morbidity of dengue virus infection is quite high and the mortality below 5%. The most dangerous form is dengue shock syndrome, the mortality is very high. The effort to reduce morbidity and mortality is improvement of the clinical management and control of vector. Today, most dengue control efforts are based on suppression of Aedes aegypti (L.) and not eradication. EWS would provide significant utility where mitigation methods were available. EWSs were possible for three reasons, an extensive time series on the disease incidence the available, dengue being a vector-borne disease, is significantly influenced by weather, in many sub-regions of SE Asia, weather anomalies are significantly influenced by and lag behind several months, sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Methods: Analytic cross sectional study was conducted. The dependant variable in this analysis, Epi.yr. is dichotomous and indicates whether an epidemic occurred during a particular year. The two independent (predictor) variables are sea surface temperature anomalies as reported by the Japanese Meteorological Association (JMA) and previous cases. The monthly number of cases were dengue and DHF in Yogyakarta, Indonesia and the metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand. Results: Yogyakarta, many years were very near the epidemic cutoff of 278 cases, yet only one year, 1992 with 237 cases, was incorrectly labeled. The false positive in 1992, had a probability of 0.64 of epidemic and 0.36 of no epidemic. Bangkok, the best three-month prediction gave 6 false indication in 35 years, 5 false negatives, 1 false positive. For two month prediction, 3 errors in 35 years were made, 2 false negatives, 1 false positive. Conclusion: The results presented in this study is very use full for predicting the incidence of dengue virus infection using weather data. This method would only require a simple calculator, or preferably a PC using the derived equation. Key words: dengue -incidence -early warning -weather - probability
Risk factors of neonatal mortality of referred babies with birthweight of 1000- < 2500 grams Ekawaty Lutfia Haksari, Dian Murni Wardhani, Setya Wandita
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Almost 16% from all of the total births in the developing countries are low birthweight babies. Low birthweight babies are an important contribution in neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and contribute to almost 70% of the total neonatal deaths. Proportion of the low birthweight babies in the developing countries is 90% of the total low birthweight babies around the world, which is 20 million annually. Mortality of babies weighing 1000-&lt; 2500 grams in Dr. Sardjito Hospital reached 51.4%, and that of referred babies was 74.6%. Objectives: This research was aimed to find out and measure the risk factors that contribute to the mortality of referred low birthweight babies in the neonatal period. Methods: A hospital-based research with case-control study design was done to discover the risk factors that related to the neonatal mortality of the referred babies with birthweight of 1000- &lt; 2500 grams. Data were collected from babies medical records treated in the Maternal-Perinatal Installation of Dr. Sardjito Hospital in 2005 to 2007. Target population of this research was the mentioned above who died at the age of 0-28 days. Variable analysis to find out the correlation between the risk factors and the mortality used odds.ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI), and the significance level with Chi-square test. To measure the risk factors that contributed on the mortality multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Result: This study involved 190 babies (95 cases and 95 control) weighing between 1000 and &lt; 2500 grams, who were referred to Dr. Sardjito Hospital. Several subjects were excluded, 23 babies because of going home on selfrequest, 24 because of incomplete status, 76 because of severe congenital anomaly, and 34 were extremely low birthweight babies. Sepsis (OR: 5.054, 95%CI2.433-11.198), HMO(OR:4.461, 95%CI1.595-10.497), hypoglycemia (OR: 3.358, 95%CI1.679-6.715), and hypothermia (OR: 2.221, 95%CI1.082-4.560) were the risk factors of mortality. Conclusion: Sepsis, HMO, hypoglycemia, and hypothermia increased the mortality risk of babies weighing 1000-&lt; 2500 grams referred to Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta. Key words: low birthweight baby -risk factor -referral -neonatal death
The effect of vitamin C on fibroblast proliferation and VEGFexpression in fibroblast culture Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Munira, Sunardi Radiono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: One of the factors that determine the success of efficient woul)d healing is wound healing rate, that can be achieved by increasingcell proliferation, angiogenesisor neovascularisation,and extracellular matrix production. Dermalfibroblast is a cell that plays an important role in wound healing. Fibroblast proliferation and neovascularisation are critical elements in granular tissue formation. Local hypoxia causes fibroblasts to express HIF-1a that will induce fibroblast VEGFexpression. The nature of vitamin C makes it easily oxidized. The addition of vitamin Con fibroblast culture medium is expected to produce local hypoxia condition that will induce fibroblast expression of HIF-1a, so that the expression of fibroblast VEGFwill be increased. Vitamin C may modulate the growth of various types of cells. The effect of vitamin Con normal fibroblast proliferation and fibroblast VEGFexpression is still unknown. Objective: This study was aimed to know whether vitamin Ccan increase normal human fibroblast proliferation and expression of VEGF. Method: A simple experimental study was conducted by using preputial skin fibroblast culture from 10-year-old donor, subculture passage 3. Fibroblast culture was divided into 6 groups, each group received vitamin C treatment with the dose of 50pg/mL, 100pg/mL, 150pg/mL, 200pg/mL, and 300pg/mL, and one group without treatment acting as control. Measurement of fibroblast proliferation was conducted by spectrophotometer using MTT, and fibroblast expression of VEGFwas measured using ELISA. The average of difference in fibroblast proliferation and VEGFexpression was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Result: There was a significant increase in fibroblast proliferation rate in the groups receiving vitamin C with the dose of 200 mg/mL (p = 0.016) and 300 mg/mL (p = 0.005), whereas in the group with the dose of 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL and 150 mg/mL there was no significant difference compared to the control (p = 0.933, p = 0.961, P = 0.301, respectively). Average fibroblast VEGFexpression between various concentrations of vitamin C compared to the control showed no significant difference (p &gt; 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin Ccould be considered to be used as an agent to accelerate wounds healing. Keywords: vitamin C, skin fibroblast culture, fibroblast proliferation, fibroblast VEGFexpression
Serum iron level shortly after iron supplementation shortly after and 2 hours after meal in women with iron deficiency anemia Sri Kadarsih Soejono,,Lukman Hakim, ErnaKristin, Muhammad Hakimi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Incidence of anemia in women in developing countries is still high, that is, around 43%. This incidence rate is far more higher that that in industrial countries, which is ranged between 10-12 %. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is still high, particularly in developing countries. The cause of the high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is not known, since it involves various factors. Two of the probable etiologic factors is variability in dosage administration, and the effect of co-administered food. Studies on the pharmacokinetic of iron after single dose iron tablet administration in women with anemia and pharmacokinetic of iron coadministered with food in healthy women have been done, but study on repeated dose has never been conducted. Objective: To understand serum iron level after ingestion of repeated dose of iron shortly after and 2 hours after meal for 12 weeks in women with iron deficiency anemia. Method: The research design was a fase II clinical trial. Subjects were 24 women with iron deficiency anemia, classified into two groups, who were treated as follows: the first group was consisted of 12 women with iron deficiency anemia, treated with twice-a-day ferrous sulphate tablet @ 300 mg orally, given shortly after meal for 12 weeks; the second group was consisted of 12 women with iron deficiency anemia, treated with twice-a-day ferrous sulphate tablet @ 300 mg orally, given 2 hours after meal for 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken in week 2,4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after treatment. Serum (ferric) iron level was measured with Vitros Fe Slides method. Result: Minimum, maximum, and average steady-state iron levels (Css min, Css max, Css average) of treatment 1 were 108,78:t 13.79 ug/dL, 121 .44:t 15.79 ug/dL, and 115.11 :t 13.13 ug/dL (mean:t SEM), respectively; while minimum, maximum, and average steady-state iron levels (Css min, Css max, Css average) of treatment 2 were 115.15 :t 46.27 ug/dL, 141.36:t 61.36 ug/dL, and 124.92:t 53.43 ug/dL (mean:t SEM), respectively. No statistical significant difference were found within treatment in minimum steady-state level between week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 after treatment. There was also no significant difference in minimum steady-state level between treatment group in week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. , Conclusion: There were no differences inserum iron level after ingestion of repeated dose of iron shortly after and 2 hours after meal for 12 weeks in women with iron deficiency anemia. Key Words: iron supplementation-serum iron-iron deficiency anemia-steady-state iron level
The effect of topically extravirgin olive oil on the UVB-induced immunosuppression AriefBudiyanto, Irianiwati, Vohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: UVBradiation may act as an immunosuppressive agent through Langernans cells (LCs)depletion correlated with cyclobuthane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), as the most mutagenic photoproducts. Other studies showed that olive oil can prevent various human cancers, which are defect of immune-surveillance. The effect of olive oil in the UVBinduced LCs depletion is still unclear. Objective: To discover the topical effect of extravirgin-olive-oil in the LCs depletion. Methods: A simple experimental study was performed on foreskins collected from 8 circumcised boys. Each of them was cut into 3 pieces of 0.5 cm2, grouped randomly to: (Olive oil+ UVB)group, (placebo + UVB)group, and unirradiated group. They were cultured in DMEM for 24 hours, irradiated with 100mJs/cm2 UVB, and olive oil or placebo were then applied immediately after irradiation. All specimens were fixed in buffered-formalin, paraffin blocked, and cut to be 2 slides, and each of them was stained with anti-CD 1a or anti-CPD antibody. The pixels of AEC signats were digitally counted based on Photoshops selected color histogram.The pixel means of various groups were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc analysis by Mann Whitney test. Results: Olive oil treated groups showed a very significant (P
The effectiveness of rivanol tampon" compared with burowi tampon in acute diffuse otitis externa (ADOE)patients Bambang Udji Djoko Rianto, I Wayan Marthana Kedel, Edhie Samodra
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Acute diffuse otitis externa (ADOE) is one of the common diseases in ENT Department, Dr. Sardjito Hospital, with the frequency of 9-1 2%. The most common microorganism found is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection usually occurrs after taking a bath, washing hair, and scratching the external ear canal. Treatment of acute diffuse otitis externa which consists of topical preparations, Le. antibiotics and antiinflammation tampon or ear drop, is relatively expensive. A rationale, high recovery rate, cheap, and easily found preparation is needed. Burowi solution is one of the recommended treatment, but it is less popular. Objective: The goal of this study was to know the effectiveness of Rivanol" tampon compared with Burowi tampon in acute diffuse otitis externa. Methods: A randomized single-blind controlled trial (RCT)was performed at the outpatient clinicof ENTDepartment of DrSardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. Sixty-five subjects who werediagnosed as ADOEwho met inclusion criteria were randomly allocated into two groups, that is, Rivanol"group and Burowi group. The ear canal was cleaned, and then Rivanol"tampon or Burowi tampon was applied. Evaluation was performed on day 3 and 5. Primary outcome was the recovery rate, and secondary outcomes were adverse reaction and marginal costeffectiveness. Results: Of 65 subjects, 33 were alloc8ted into Rivanol"group and 32 were. allocated into Burowi group. The recovery rate in Rivanol"group was 75.4%, while in Burowigroups was 49.3%. The difference in recovery rate between the two groups was statistically significant (p: 0.018; RR4.350; 95% CI1.225-15.442). Adverse reaction in Rivanol"group was dampness and soggy feeling in the ear canal (1.5%), while in the Burowigroup the adverse events were pain and burnt sensation inthe ear canal (3.1%), but they could be tolerated and disappeared on day 5. Analysis on marginal cost-effectiveness showed that the cost to cure one acute diffuse otitis externa patient with Rivanol"tamponwas Rp 1,000. Conclusion: Rivanol"tampon was more clinicallyeffective and more cost-effective than Burowitampon for acute diffuse otitis externa treatment. Key words: acute diffuse otitis externa, Rivanol(!),Burowi,.clinical and cost effectiveness
Autoimmune urticaria in Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Moh. Hoesin Palembang Thaha, M. Athuf
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: About 30% patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)have circulating histamine-releasing autoantibodies against the a-subunit of high affinity IgEreceptor (FceRla),or IgE.This subgroup of patients has a disorder commonly referred as autoimmune urticaria. Objectives: This study was conducted to reveal the autoimmune urticariacases in Indonesian patients Methods: The autologous serum skin test (ASST)and histamine release assay (HRA)were conducted on 79 patients with CIU (53 females and 26 males). Patients with predominant physical urticaria and urticarial vasculitis were excluded from the study. Results: Seventeen patients had both positive autologous serum skin test and histamine release assay confirmative of autoimmune urticaria. Conclusion:CombinedpositiveASSTand HRAwere seen in 21.5% of CIUpatients, indicatingautoimmune urticaria. Key words: chronic idiopathic urticaria - anti-FceRla histamine-releasing autoantibodies -autoimmune urticaria - autologous serum skin test, histamine release assay.
Optimal temperature for normal human skin fibroblast proliferation and glucose uptake, an in vitro study Sunardi Radiono, Yohanes Widodo, DeviArtami Susetiati, LailyNoorQomariah
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Devi Artami Susetiati, Laily Noor Qomariah, Sunardi Radiono,Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo -Optimal temperature for normal human skin fibroblast proliferation and glucose uptake; In vitro study Background: Wrinkles is caused by a decrease in collagen synthesis and an increase in collagen degradation. Collagen synthesis depends on fibroblast proliferation. Collagen synthesis needsglucose, so that collagen synthesis may be expressed by the increase in glucose uptake. Skin rejuvenation with heating may increase the collagen synthesis. The effect of short-term heating and optimal temperature on fibroblast proliferation and glucose uptake has not yet been defined. Objective: This study was aimed to determine the optimal temperature of short-term heating for normal human skin fibroblasts proliferation and glucose uptake. Methods: A simple experimental study was conducted on 3rd passage subculture of normal human skin fibroblasts culture, isolated from 2 patients. Normal human skin fibroblasts with complete DMEM were classified into 5 groups, and then heated for a minute with thermocycler-machine at 36°C, 46°C, 56°C, 66°C, and 72 °C. Those cells were incubated for 7 days in complete DMEM and subsequently fibroblasts proliferation was measured by MTT -assay. Glucose uptake was measured by glucometer Medisafe- Terumo. The differences in glucose uptake and fibroblasts proliferation were analyzed with one-way Anova. Result: Optimal temperature for fibroblasts proliferation was 46°C, and 66°C for collagen synthesis. Conclusion: Skin rejuvenation based on heating could be performed at two different temperatures, each cycle consisted of 66°C on first heating, and seven days later, at 46°C on second heating.
The effect of vitamin C on fibroblast proliferation and VEGFexpression in fibroblast culture Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Munira, Sunardi Radiono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: One of the factors that determine the success of efficient woul')d healing is wound healing rate, that can be achieved by increasingcell proliferation, angiogenesisor neovascularisation,and extracellular matrix production. Dermalfibroblast is a cell that plays an important role in wound healing. Fibroblast proliferation and neovascularisation are critical elements in granular tissue formation. Local hypoxia causes fibroblasts to express HIF-1a that will induce fibroblast VEGFexpression. The nature of vitamin C makes it easily oxidized. The addition of vitamin Con fibroblast culture medium is expected to produce local hypoxia condition that will induce fibroblast expression of HIF-1a, so that the expression of fibroblast VEGFwill be increased. Vitamin C may modulate the growth of various types of cells. The effect of vitamin Con normal fibroblast proliferation and fibroblast VEGFexpression is still unknown. Objective: This study was aimed to know whether vitamin Ccan increase normal human fibroblast proliferation and expression of VEGF. Method: A simple experimental study was conducted by using preputial skin fibroblast culture from 10-year-old donor, subculture passage 3. Fibroblast culture was divided into 6 groups, each group received vitamin C treatment with the dose of 50pg/mL, 100pg/mL, 150pg/mL, 200pg/mL, and 300pg/mL, and one group without treatment acting as control. Measurement of fibroblast proliferation was conducted by spectrophotometer using MTT, and fibroblast expression of VEGFwas measured using ELISA. The average of difference in fibroblast proliferation and VEGFexpression was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Result: There was a significant increase in fibroblast proliferation rate in the groups receiving vitamin C with the dose of 200 mg/mL (p = 0.016) and 300 mg/mL (p = 0.005), whereas in the group with the dose of 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL and 150 mg/mL there was no significant difference compared to the control (p = 0.933, p = 0.961, P = 0.301, respectively). Average fibroblast VEGFexpression between various concentrations of vitamin C compared to the control showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin Ccould be considered to be used as an agent to accelerate wounds healing. Keywords: vitamin C, skin fibroblast culture, fibroblast proliferation, fibroblast VEGFexpression
Serum iron level shortly after iron supplementation shortly after and 2 hours after meal in women with iron deficiency anemia Sri Kadarsih Soejono,,Lukman Hakim, ErnaKristin, Muhammad Hakimi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 41, No 03 (2009)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: Incidence of anemia in women in developing countries is still high, that is, around 43%. This incidence rate is far more hig'her that that in industrial countries, which is ranged between 10-12 %. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is still high, particularly in developing countries. The cause of the high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is not known, since it involves various factors. Two of the probable etiologic factors is variability in dosage administration, and the effect of co-administered food. Studies on the pharmacokinetic 'of iron after single dose iron tablet administration in women with anemia and pharmacokinetic of iron coadministered with food in healthy women have been done, but study on repeated dose has never been conducted. Objective: To understand serum iron level after ingestion of repeated dose of iron shortly after and 2 hours after meal for 12 weeks in women with iron deficiency anemia. Method: The research design was a fase II clinical trial. Subjects were 24 women with iron deficiency anemia, classified into two groups, who were treated as follows: the first group was consisted of 12 women with iron deficiency anemia, treated with twice-a-day ferrous sulphate tablet @ 300 mg orally, given shortly after meal for 12 weeks; the second group was consisted of 12 women with iron deficiency anemia, treated with twice-a-day ferrous sulphate tablet @ 300 mg orally, given 2 hours after meal for 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken in week 2,4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after treatment. Serum (ferric) iron level was measured with Vitros Fe Slides method. Result: Minimum, maximum, and average steady-state iron levels (Css min, Css max, Css average) of treatment 1 were 108,78:t 13.79 ug/dL, 121 .44:t 15.79 ug/dL, and 115.11 :t 13.13 ug/dL (mean:t SEM), respectively; while minimum, maximum, and average steady-state iron levels (Css min, Css max, Css average) of treatment 2 were 115.15 :t 46.27 ug/dL, 141.36:t 61.36 ug/dL, and 124.92:t 53.43 ug/dL (mean:t SEM), respectively. No statistical significant difference were found within treatment in minimum steady-state level between week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 after treatment. There was also no significant difference in minimum steady-state level between treatment group in week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. , Conclusion: There were no differences inserum iron level after ingestion of repeated dose of iron shortly after and 2 hours after meal for 12 weeks in women with iron deficiency anemia. Key Words: iron supplementation-serum iron-iron deficiency anemia-steady-state iron level

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